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The three writers examined in Richard Arnold's Trinity of Discord, Isaac Watts, Charles Wesley, and William Cowper, are known as famous poets, but are also the greatest and most popularly compiled and used hymn-writers of all time. While masters of their kind, they were so remarkably different, considering they were working in the same (and quite new) genre. Moreover, when considered in their poetic-historical contexts, it is noteworthy that Watts can be seen as an archetypal Neoclassicist (not unlike Pope and Johnson), Wesley as a transitional pre-Romantic (not unlike Gray and Collins), and Cowper a thoroughgoing Romantic (not unlike Wordsworth and Coleridge, but with a much sharper psychological edge). Most noteworthy is that Watts, Wesley, and Cowper come before their later counterparts and their respective movements: their importance to mainstream or canonical literary history cannot be overestimated. In terms of the hymn's development in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, these three stand as beacons in the genre, if not individual species of a multiform genre itself. In their time and context, these three were, while paradoxically out of tune with the status quo, and radically different from each other, forging a new and everlasting genre, one born out of a veritable trinity of discord.
The contributions of this volume present the latest results of world-wide academic research in the field of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and in related areas. The articles cover a multitude of topics, including exegetical and literary problems, history, iconography, history of religion, archaeology as well as lexicography and central theological questions concerning the Hebrew Bible. Dieser Band bietet neueste Ergebnisse von Forscherinnen und Forschern aus Europa, Amerika, Afrika und Asien auf dem Gebiet des Alten Testaments/der Hebraischen Bibel in Verbindung mit angrenzenden Wissenschaftsgebieten. Die Artikel behandeln exegetisch-literarische, historische, religionsgeschichtliche, ikonographische, archaologische und lexikographische sowie zentrale theologische Fragen.
Using the method of critical intertextual research, this book analyses the phenomena of hypertextuality and ethopoeia in the New Testament writings against the background of the Second Temple literature, the historical Jesus, and the historical Paul. The work demonstrates that all twenty post-Pauline writings including the Gospels, like some of Paul's letters, are only loosely related to history. On the other hand, the New Testament writings constitute a logically consistent network of intertextual-rhetorical relationships which have to be properly investigated and interpreted. Only analyses of this kind enable us to understand the internal logic of the New Testament as a whole and the true meaning of its individual works.
In the wake of 9/11, and with ongoing wars and tensions in the Middle East, questioning contemporary connections between and among religion, identity, and global governance is an exercise that is both important and timely. This volume, edited by Patrick James, addresses essential themes in international relations today, asking how we can establish when religious identity is a relevant factor in explaining or understanding politics, when and how religion can be applied to advance positive, peace-oriented agendas in global governance, and how governments can reconsider their foreign and domestic policies in light of religious resurgence around the world. Exploring topics such as Pope John Paul II's Just War, the role of religious NGOs in relation to states, and religious extremism among Muslims in India, the contributors highlight the central role that religion can play in foreign policy. Taken together, these essays contend that global governance cannot and will not improve unless it can find a way to coexist with the powerful force of religion.
As the leading book in its field, Religion and Ethnicity in Canada has been embraced by scholars, teachers, students, and policy makers as a breakthrough study of Canadian religio-ethnic diversity and its impact on multiculturalism. A team of established scholars looks at the relationships between religious and ethnic identity in Canada's six largest minority religious communities: Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jews, Muslims and practitioners of Chinese religion. The chapters also highlight the ethnic diversity extant within these traditions in order to offer a more nuanced appreciation of the variety of lived experiences of members of these communities.
Together, the contributors develop consistent themes throughout the volume, among them the changing nature of religious practice and ideas, current demographics, racism, and the role of women. Chapters related to the public policy issues of healthcare, education and multiculturalism show how new ethnic and religious diversity are challenging and changing Canadian institutions and society. Comprehensive and insightful, Religion and Ethnicity in Canada makes a unique contribution to the study of world religions in Canada.
Post 9/11, sales of translations of the Qur'an have greatly increased. Students and general readers alike are increasingly interested in the sacred writings of Islam. But the Qur'an can often make difficult reading. It lacks continuous narrative, and different types of material dealing with different topics are often found in the same chapter. Also, readers often attempt to read the book from start to finish and without any knowledge of the life and experiences of both Muhammad and the community of Islam. Introductions to the Qur'an attempt to make interpretation of these complex scriptures easier by discussing context, history and different interpretations, and presenting selective textual examples. Bennett's new introduction takes a fresh approach to studying the Qur'an. By reordering parts of the Qur'an, placing its chapters and verses into a continuous narrative, the author creates a framework that untangles and elucidates its seemingly unconnected content. Through this new approach the reader will come to understand various aspects of the Qur'an's interpretation, from Muhammad's life, to Muslim conduct and prayer, to legal considerations.
Western interpretations of poverty proverbs in the Old Testament Book of Proverbs have tended to see a status quo acceptance in the ancient texts, thus neglecting existential challenges of the poverty issue. In contrast, Lechion Peter Kimilike argues that African proverbial material on poverty may - when used comparatively to interpret the corresponding Old Testament poverty proverbs - create a more dynamic analysis. The author's new and thought-provoking interpretation suggests "an African transformational hermeneutic" that balances between the questions and methodology of the "global [i.e., western] guild" and the concerns of the African interpretative context.
The topic of this book is to scholars what Uranus was to Scientists before 1781. The ignorance of astrologers about the existence of Uranus before 1781 does not negate the factuality of its being. This is similar in the case of the Servant of God in John. His predicates are there, although the title is missing. Scholars and epochs have witnessed researches and contributions in the Gospel of John. Many see aspects of the Servant of God in John. But just as Uranus could not be seen but its existence was proven because of its effects on the orbits of the other planets, so the Servant of God of the Fourth Gospel could not be seen as a title but its effects on the other christological titles of the gospel indicate its reality in the gospel. The author's approach is purely exegetico-theological.
The Covenant Motif in Jeremiah's Book of Comfort: Textual and Intertextual Studies of Jeremiah 30-33 examines Jeremiah's promise of a new covenant that God will interiorize his law into people's hearts. This in-depth syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic study of selected texts in Jeremiah 30-33 comprises the foundation for a superb biblical theology of the new covenant. God's pledge that this covenant is « not like the one I made with your fathers is explored in relation to the Abrahamic, Mosaic, and Davidic covenants. Tiberius Rata makes a theologically and hermeneutically balanced incursion into Old Testament texts used in the New Testament and provides a springboard for further discussion on difficult yet important issues such as the Lord's Supper and the future of Israel.
This study of the word « people in the biblical context touches one of the central issues of biblical literature. The author addresses the semantic and literary-critical problems involved in interpreting the Hebrew word within the complex texts of 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings. While the word is often rendered by the English word « people and its cognates in the modern languages, it is also shown that the idea of « people, together with its semantic range in the modern usage, is not identical to the ancient Hebrew. Concerted effort is thus made to identify the basic factors and patterns that explain its meaning in various Hebrew contexts. The study explains how expresses both Israel's identity as a secular polity as well as its identity as a religious entity. The discussion is carried out in the light of a number of chosen texts, and these are analyzed both synchronically and diachronically.
The Apostle Paul sought to exert his influence and authority over the congregations he founded long after they had been established. Such ongoing oversight by Christianity's prototypical "evangelist" has not been adequately understood. In a brief 1987 article, W. Paul Bowers challenged John Knox's assertion that Paul's "pastoral and administrative work irked him and that he wanted to be free of it." This book confirms and significantly develops Bowers's little-known thesis, examining a wide range of passages in the apostle's undisputed letters and highlighting crucial implications of Paul's broadly conceived vocation for understanding his mission and moral reflection.
Issues of religion and sexuality elicit passionate debate, as witnessed in the well-researched, provocative essays contained in this volume. Cutting-edge scholars representing radically different traditions and positions wrestle with controversial and even taboo subjects in modern American culture. Oral sex, polygamy, homosexuality, and clergy celibacy and boundaries are addressed as editor C. K. Robertson facilitates a lively conversation that will be of interest to students of religion and popular culture or anyone wishing to explore what is on- and off-limits in today's increasingly pluralistic, yet strongly spiritual, society.
In his pathbreaking Israel in Egypt James K. Hoffmeier sought to refute the claims of scholars who doubt the historical accuracy of the biblical account of the Israelite sojourn in Egypt. Analyzing a wealth of textual, archaeological, and geographical evidence, he put forth a thorough defense of the biblical tradition. Hoffmeier now turns his attention to the Wilderness narratives of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. As director of the North Sinai Archaeological Project, Hoffmeier has led several excavations that have uncovered important new evidence supporting the Wilderness narratives, including a major New Kingdom fort at Tell el-Borg that was occupied during the Israelite exodus. Hoffmeier employs these archaeological findings to shed new light on the route of the exodus from Egypt. He also investigates the location of Mount Sinai, and offers a rebuttal to those who have sought to locate it in northern Arabia and not in the Sinai peninsula as traditionally thought. Hoffmeier addresses how and when the Israelites could have lived in Sinai, as well as whether it would have been possible for Moses to write down the law received at Mount Sinai. Building on the new evidence for the Israelite sojourn in Egypt, Hoffmeier explores the Egyptian influence on the Wilderness tradition. For example, he finds Egyptian elements in Israelite religious practices, including the use of the tabernacle, and points to a significant number of Egyptian personal names among the generation of the exodus. The origin of Israel is a subject of much debate and the wilderness tradition has been marginalized by those who challenge its credibility. In Ancient Israel in Sinai, Hoffmeier brings the Wilderness traditionto the forefront and makes a case for its authenticity based on solid evidence and intelligent analysis.
In analyzing the intertextuality between the Genesis and Johannine Prologues, Dr. Lioy maintains that both passages utilize polemical theology to refute distorted views of ultimate reality. Furthermore, he theorizes that the author of the Johannine Prologue deliberately reflected the structure and themes found in the Genesis Prologue to emphasize that the God-man, Jesus Christ, created all things and is a new (spiritual) beginning for all who believe in Him. Ultimate reality is found through faith in the Son.
Ancient peoples regarded names as indicative of character and destiny. The Jews were no exception. This is a critical study of ancient exegesis of the title 'Israel' and the meanings attributed to it among Jews down to Talmudic times, along with some early Christian materials. C. T. R. Hayward explores ancient etymologies of 'Israel', and the utilization of these very varied explanations of the name in sustained works of exegesis like Jubilees; the writings of Ben Sira, Philo, and Josephus; and selected Rabbinic texts including Aramaic Targumim. He also examines translational works like the Septuagint, to illuminate those writings' sense of what it meant to be a Jew.
A comprehensive analysis of the ritual dimensions of biblical mourning rites, this book also seeks to illuminate mourning's social dimensions through engagement with anthropological discussion of mourning, from Hertz and van Gennep to contemporaries such as Metcalf and Huntington and Bloch and Parry. The author identifies four types of biblical mourning, and argues that mourning the dead is paradigmatic. He investigates why mourning can occur among petitioners in a sanctuary setting even given mourning's death associations; why certain texts proscribe some mourning rites (laceration and shaving) but not others; and why the mixing of the rites of mourning and rejoicing, normally incompatible, occurs in the same ritual in several biblical texts.
The first two volumes of The Zohar, Pritzker edition, cover more than half of the Zohar's commentary on the Book of Genesis (through Genesis 32:3). This is the first translation ever made from a critical Aramaic text of the Zohar, which has been established by Professor Matt based on a wide range of original manuscripts. The extensive commentary, appearing at the bottom of each page, clarifies the kabbalistic symbolism and terminology, and cites sources and parallels from biblical, rabbinic, and kabbalistic texts. The translator's introduction is accompanied by a second introduction written by Arthur Green, discussing the origin and significance of the Zohar ever since it emerged mysteriously in mediaeval Spain toward the end of the 13th century. Written in a unique Aramaic, this masterpiece of Kabbalah exceeds the dimensions of a normal book; it is virtually a body of literature, comprising over 20 discrete sections. The bulk of the Zohar consists of a running commentary on the Torah, from Genesis through Deuteronomy. This translation begins and focuses here in what are projected to be ten volumes. Two subsequent volumes will cover other, shorter sections. The Zohar's commentary is composed in the form of a mystical novel. The hero is Rabbi Shim'on son of Yohai, a saintly disciple of Rabbi Akiva who lived in the 2nd century in the land of Israel. In the Zohar, Rabbi Shim'on and his companions wander through the hills of Galilee, discovering and sharing secrets of Torah. characters, and the mystical companions interpret their words, actions and personalities. On a deeper level, the text of the Bible is simply the starting point, a springboard for the imagination. For example, when God commands Abraham, Lekh lekha, go forth ... to the land that I will show you (Genesis 12:1), Rabbi El'azar ignores idiomatic usage and insists on reading the words more literally than they were intended, hyperliterally: Lekh lekha, go to yourself . Search deep within to discover your true self. about their dramatic mystical sessions with Rabbi Shim'on or their adventures on the road, for example, an encounter with a cantankerous old donkey driver who turns out to be a master of wisdom in disguise. stages of God's inner life, aspects of divine personality, both feminine and masculine. By penetrating the literal surface of the Torah, the mystical commentators transform the biblical narrative into a biography of God. The entire Torah is read as one continuous divine name, expressing divine being. Even a seemingly insignificant verse can reveal the inner dynamics of the sefirot - how God feels, responds and act, how She and He (the divine feminine and masculine) relate intimately with each other and with the world.
This book explores the cultic-military functions of the tabernacle in the biblical narrative from the exodus to the conquest. Previous studies in this area have focused almost exclusively on the 'cultic' functions of the tabernacle and have been confined to a limited range of texts (Exodus 25-31; 35-40). The originality of this book is that it discusses a much more extensive range of material. Insights drawn from this broader perspective highlight the tabernacle's role in the military domain. The Tabernacle in the Narrative History of Israel from the Exodus to the Conquest is a distinct addition to knowledge of a much-neglected area of Old Testament research.
Areligion or a culture like Judaism, at least three thousand years old, cannot be expected to be all of one piece, homogeneous, self-contained, consistent, a neatly constructed system of ideas. If Judaism were that, it would have died centuries ago and would be a subject of interest only to the historian and archaeologist. Judaism has been a living force precisely because it is a teeming, thundering, and clamoring phenomenon, full of contrary tendencies and inconsistencies. Although there are no words or phrases in Hebrew Scriptures for "human rights," "conscience," or "due process of law," the ideals and values which these concepts represent were inherent in the earliest Jewish texts.
This volume begins with four essays on the concept of man's being born "free and equal," in the image of God. The underpinning of this concept in Jewish law is explored in Section 2, entitled "The Rule of Law." Section 3, "The Democratic Ideal," traces the foundations of democracy in the Jewish teachings in the Bible and the Talmud, which in turn influenced the whole body of Western political thought. Relations between man and man, man and woman, employer and employee, slave and master are all spelled out. Section 4 presents essays analyzing man's freedom of conscience, and his God-given rights to dissent and protest. Section 5 deals with aspects of personal liberty, including the right of privacy. Section 6, entitled "The Earth is the Lord's," deals with the Jewish view of man's transient tenancy on God's earth, his obligations not to destroy anything that lives or grows, and to share the earth's bounty with the poor, the widowed, and the orphaned. Section 7 delivers an analysis of the "end of days" vision of Micah and man's continuing need to strive for peace and not for war. The volume concludes with three new essays, dealing with contemporary issues: "In God's Image: The Religious Imperative of Equality under Law"; "The Values of a Jewish and Democratic State: The Task of Reaching a Synthesis"; and "Religious Freedom and Religious Coercion in the State of Israel."
This enlarged edition is accessibly written for a general and scholarly audience and will be of particular interest to political scientists, historians, and constitutional scholars.
This book offers a catalogue of techniques of biblical interpretation in early rabbinic Judaism. It describes and illustrates how a central document of early talmudic Judaism, the Mishnah, integrates into its mostly legal discourse the words of Scripture. A fresh conceptual foundation is laid for the systematic study and description of rabbinic hermeneutics and its comparison with other hermeneutic traditions.
This study of water symbolism in the Gospel of John attempts to unravel its subtle reference to eschatology. Wai-yee Ng, after examining various approaches to the interpretation of symbols in John, offers a composite treatment of the subject by surveying the literary development of water throughout the gospel and by expounding its underlying eschatological framework. Exploring the historical significance of the symbol in John 4:1-42 uncovers a vertical aspect of eschatology assumed in the discourse. Ng also interprets the water symbol of John in the canonical context of biblical revelation.
Reading the Tapestry proposes a literary-rhetorical, temporal process of reading the fourth Gospel's resurrection narrative (John 20-21) from the perspective of the implied reader in the text, according to the strategies of the implied author. Informed by narrative criticism and reader response criticism, Larry Darnell George unpacks the narrative and rhetorical devices of the three episodes and twelve scenes and argues that the entire resurrection narrative represents a finely woven tapestry, a coherent unified narrative text on its own terms and as it now stands.
This is a collection of essays by members of the Society for Old Testament Study. It reviews new approaches and major developments in established approaches to Old Testament study over a wide range of topics. It reflects clearly the lively diversity which characterizes this area of scholarly study.
In this systematic and accessible analysis, Harold Coward carefully explores the scriptures - written and spoekn - of six major world faiths. He examines their interpretation, their role in devotion and education, and their relationships with each other.
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