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This is a study on the long-lasting consequences of a disastrous earthquake that hit the city of Messina, Sicily, in 1908. The quake killed about 86,000 people, and destroyed one of the most important portal cities of the Mediterranean. The book investigates both the forces that shaped that event and made it possible - firstly, urban speculation processes at the end of the nineteenth century - and the role of that occurrence in creating a complex event that, on the one hand, accelerated trends and tendencies that were already in motion; and, on the other, produced an entirely new social space based on social separation and the raise of a widespread marginal class. Such a class developed within urban borders and spaces that, over the decades, grew according to the same logic and directions that followed the reconstruction. Especially the shacks, still a visible presence in the city, represent the lieu of reproduction both of a class and the whole of the social relations stemming from the disaster. It shows how key-concepts in contemporary scientific analysis, such as "shock economy" and "economy of disaster," can be aptly backdated. Above all, this study broadens the normal analyses of disasters by showing the stratification of institutional techniques and economic forces that, over the decades, intervened and (re-)shaped the site of a disaster and its social structure.
Peril was everywhere in ancient Rome, but the Great Fire of 64 CE was unlike anything the city had ever experienced. No building, no neighborhood, no person was safe from conflagration. When the fire finally subsided-after burning for nine days straight-vast swaths of Rome were in ruins. The greatest city of the ancient world had endured its greatest blow. In The Great Fire of Rome, Joseph J. Walsh tells the true story of this deadly episode in Rome's history. He explains why Rome was such a vulnerable tinderbox, outlines the difficulties of life in that exciting and dangerous city, and recounts the fire's aftermath and legacy-a legacy that includes the transformation of much of ancient Rome into a modern city. Situating the fire within the context of other perils that residents of Rome faced, including frequent flooding, pollution, crime, and dangerously shoddy construction, he highlights the firefighting technology of the period and examines the ways in which the city's architecture and planning contributed to the severity of the blaze. Introducing readers to the grim realities of life in that overwhelming and overwhelmed city while chronicling its later glories, The Great Fire of Rome is grounded in the latest scholarship on fire analysis and forensics. Walsh's multifaceted analysis, balanced insights, and concise, accessible prose make this book a versatile teaching tool. Readers interested in ancient (and modern) Rome, urban life, and civic disasters, among other things, will be fascinated by this book.
This book presents the results of seismic data analysis and interpretation based on nearly one million seismic events. This seismicity was induced by the caving process in four copper mines, each located on a different continent. The book not only serves as an interpretation guide, it also illustrates the benefits of evaluating data from different mines: How to establish which seismic data base is faulty and why The formation of a universal seismic response to the caving process Indisputable evidence that hydro-fracturing improves underground safety This book invites discussion on more general aspects of research, such as: Basic research, applied research and implementation Predicting mine-induced seismic events Quantitative versus qualitative seismology Research versus pseudo-research What is genuine research? [In the Parlabora Mine] Stefan has demonstrated that [the] use of the seismic system was a very practical means of monitoring the progression of the cave up to and beyond break through into the open pit above. The seismic system was vital in drawing up the undercutting and seismic protocols and determining the maximum potential seismic hazard level. Peter Townsend Retired Mine Manager and Consultant I consider Stefan the pioneer of using microseismic data to provide understanding of the mechanism and progress of cave mining. Science has advanced considerably since the use of less than reliable extensometers to monitor the cave back position and Stefan was leading this advance. (...)This book provides a lot of useful insight[s] in how we can best understand the data that we (...) gather and how to change this data into useful information. Neil Hepworth C. Eng, MIMMM, Geomin Consultorio - Brazil. Consultant Mining and Geotechnics Stefan mine seismology trilogy is (...) a comprehensive tutoring on how to analyse and interpret mine induced seismicity. This coaching is based on multiple practical examples (...) presented from the problem to be solved [with] input data tests followed by analysis and interpretation. This last is presented with many details that explain the whole process. Mahdi Bayuargo, ST, MAScPT. Duaem Gada Bayuagus Managing Director
This book presents a comprehensive approach to address the need to improve the design of tailings dams, their management and the regulation of tailings management facilities to reduce, and eventually eliminate, the risk of such facilities failing. The scope of the challenge is well documented in the report by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and GRID Arendal entitled "Mine Tailings Storage: Safety Is No Accident," which was released in October 2017. The report recommends that "Regulators, industry and communities should adopt a shared, zero-failure objective to tailings storage facilities..." and identifies several areas where further improvements are required. In this context, the application of cutting-edge risk-assessment methodologies and risk-management practices can contribute to a significant reduction and eventual elimination of dam failures through Risk Informed Decision Making. As such, the book focuses on identifying and describing the risk-assessment approaches and risk-management practices that need to be implemented in order to develop a way forward to achieve socially acceptable levels of tailings dam risk.
Landslides represent one of the most destructive natural catastrophes. They can reach extremely long distances and velocities, and are capable of wiping out human communities and settlements. Yet landslides have a creative facet as they contribute to the modification of the landscape. They are the consequence of the gravity pull jointly with the tectonic disturbance of our living planet.
Landslides are most often studied within a geotechnical and geomorphological perspective. Engineering calculations are traditionally applied to the stability of terrains. In this book, landslides are viewed as a physical phenomenon. A physical understanding of landslides is a basis for modeling and mitigation and for understanding their flow behavior and dynamics. We still know relatively little about many aspects of landslide physics. It is only recently that the field of landslide dynamics is approaching a more mature stage. This is testified by the release of modelling tools for the simulation of landslides and debris flows. In this book the emphasis is placed on the problems at the frontier of landslide research. Each chapter is self-consistent, with questions and arguments introduced from the beginning.
This book presents review papers and research articles focusing on the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China, discussing cross-disciplinary and multiple thematic aspects of modern seismological, geophysical, geological and stochastic methodology and technology. Resulting from international and regional earthquake research and disaster mitigation collaborations, and written by international authors from multiple institutions and disciplines, it describes methods and techniques in earthquake science based on investigations of the Wenchuan earthquake. It also includes extensive reference lists to aid further research. The book helps both senior researchers and graduate students in earthquake science to broaden their horizons in data analysis, numerical modeling and structural retrieval for the tectonic, geological, geophysical and mechanical interpretation of the 2008 M8 Wenchuan earthquake to support a global and regional cooperation for preparedness, and the mitigation and management of seismic risk.
In a book as illuminating as it is captivating, Thomas E. Drabek presents an in-depth analysis of the emotional impacts of disaster events and the many ripple effects that follow. Through the technique of storytelling, a series of nine fictional stories where characters experience actual disasters of different types throughout the United States illustrate the vulnerabilities and resilience to enhance the readers understanding of disaster consequences. Designed for classroom use, each story is followed by an "Analysis" section wherein discussion and research paper topics are recommended. These highlight links to published research findings. A "References" section details citations for all works included. Brief commentary in a "Notes" section adds further connections to other disasters and relevant research studies. The Sociology of Disaster is an important innovation in disaster education and will become an invaluable resource within universities and colleges that offer degrees in emergency management at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
The 50th anniversary of the Disaster Research Center of the University of Delaware provoked a discussion of the field's background, its accomplishments, and its future directions. Participants representing many disciplines brought new methods to bear on perennial problems relevant to effective disaster management and policy formation. However, new concerns were raised, stemming from the fact that we live today in a globally unfolding environmental crisis every bit as pressing and worrisome as that of the 1960s when the Disaster Research center was founded. This volume brings together ideas of participants from that workshop as well as other contributors. Topics include: the history and evolution of disaster research, innovations in disaster management, disaster policy, and ethical considerations of disaster research. Readers interested in science and technology, public policy, community action, and the evolution of the social sciences will find much of interest in this collection.
The African Red Sea Littoral, currently divided between Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Djibouti, is one of the poorest regions in the world. But the pastoralist communities indigenous to this region were not always poor-historically, they had access to a variety of resources that allowed them to prosper in the harsh, arid environment. This access was mediated by a robust moral economy of pastoralism that acted as a social safety net. Steven Serels charts the erosion of this moral economy, a slow-moving process that began during the Little Ice Age mega-drought of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and continued through the devastating famines of the twentieth century. By examining mass sedentarization after the Second World War as merely the latest manifestation of an inter-generational environmental and economic crisis, this book offers an innovative lens for understanding poverty in northeastern Africa.
This book discusses various statistical models and their implications for developing landslide susceptibility and risk zonation maps. It also presents a range of statistical techniques, i.e. bivariate and multivariate statistical models and machine learning models, as well as multi-criteria evaluation, pseudo-quantitative and probabilistic approaches. As such, it provides methods and techniques for RS & GIS-based models in spatial distribution for all those engaged in the preparation and development of projects, research, training courses and postgraduate studies. Further, the book offers a valuable resource for students using RS & GIS techniques in their studies.
As the United States continues to adapt to a more digital, mobile, and interconnected world, health care and public health professionals have sought to better prepare for and respond to long-standing and emerging threats to the nation's health security. Health security is the collective effort to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the health consequences of natural, man-made, and technological disasters. Although substantial progress has been made in the past 15 years toward improving health care and public health systems and capacities for health security threats, many complex challenges persist, and often the nation's preparedness efforts are not sufficient. On March 8aEURO"9, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Disasters and Emergencies hosted a two-day public workshop to acknowledge these persistent issues; to evaluate past, and perhaps inadequate, approaches to addressing them; and to discuss intentional and innovative new solutions. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
This book discusses existing and future global problems of physical, chemical, biological and societal origins faced by increasingly populated cities and mega-cities, and options to mitigate or eliminate them. In nine chapters, the book focuses on rehabilitation and redevelopment projects aimed at converting shantytowns/slums into well serviced neighborhoods via secure housing, clean piped water, adequate access to sanitation, and other amenities for good living conditions. Examples of rehabilitation (restore capacity, structures, efficiency) and redevelopment (redesign, rebuild, attract investment) are addressed in detail, as are the sources of major financing to support such projects and proposals. The final chapters also discuss problems faced by countries with contracting populations, and their viable solutions. The book will be of interest to academics, city planners, land-use planners, NGOs, and designers /architects specializing in urban development and redevelopment.
No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related
losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social
unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can
all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its
communities. Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal,
social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to
ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards,
deliberate attacks, and disasters. Beyond the unquantifiable costs
of injury and loss of life from disasters, statistics for 2011
alone indicate economic damages from natural disasters in the
United States exceeded $55 billion, with 14 events costing more
than a billion dollars in damages each.
This book looks at how legal frameworks can and do reduce risks arising out of disasters. The volume: analyses existing disaster laws and the challenges on the ground; brings together case studies from some of the most vulnerable regions; and proposes solutions to avert existing and possible future crises. The book offers appropriate legal frameworks for disaster management which could not only offer sustainable institutional reforms towards community resilience and preparedness but also reduce risk within the frameworks of justice, equity and accountability. It examines the intricacies of governance within which governments function and discusses how recent trends in infrastructure development and engineering technology could be balanced within the legal principles of ethics, transparency and integrity. The chapters in the volume suggest that legal frameworks ought to resonate with new challenges of resource management and climate change. Further, these frameworks could help secure citizens' trust, institutional accountability and effective implementation through an unceasing partnership which keeps the community better prepared and more resilient. This volume will be indispensable to scholars and researchers of disaster management, law, public policy, environment and development studies as well as policymakers and those in administrative, governmental, judicial and development sectors.
As a result of repeated experiences with devastating earthquakes, storms, floods, and wildfires, places like Tokyo, Mexico City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles are already identified with catastrophe in both scientific literature and popular culture. Similar prospects face less obvious urban candidates like Dhaka, Miami, London, Lima, Seoul, and Sydney. In this collaborative study of environmental risks in ten of the world's major cities, geographers, planners, and other experts examine the hazard experiences of case study cities and analyze their future risks. They conclude that the natural disaster potential of the biggest cities is expanding at a pace which far exceeds the rate of urbanization. In addition to tracing hazard trends and arguing in support of management reforms that can be implemented quickly, Crucibles of Hazard directs attention to long-term issues of safety and security that must be resolved to sustain urban areas. Opportunities for such innovative policymaking include: capitalizing on the role of hazards as agents of urban diversification; broadening the scope for employing hazard-based contingency planning models in other urban governance contexts; and mobilizing hazard myths and metaphors as unifying sources of inspiration for diverse and sometimes fractious metropolitan constituencies. This study was led by the International Geographical Union's Study Group on the Disaster Vulnerability of Mega-cities.
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