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The book is organized into two parts: the first part covers (i) the precious lessons obtained from recent actual tsunami disasters including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster, (ii) fundamental knowledge of tsunami for our survival, and (iii) concludes the lessons learnt and listing measures for tsunami disaster mitigation for saving human lives. The second part presents tsunami from academic perspective in two chapters: one describes tsunami occurrence mechanism and near-shore behavior; the other mentions numerical simulation and forecasting of tsunami.
Assessment of risk and uncertainty is crucial for natural hazard risk management, facilitating risk communication and informing strategies to successfully mitigate our society's vulnerability to natural disasters. Written by some of the world's leading experts, this book provides a state-of-the-art overview of risk and uncertainty assessment in natural hazards. It presents the core statistical concepts using clearly defined terminology applicable across all types of natural hazards and addresses the full range of sources of uncertainty, the role of expert judgement and the practice of uncertainty elicitation. The core of the book provides detailed coverage of all the main hazard types and concluding chapters address the wider societal context of risk management. This is an invaluable compendium for academic researchers and professionals working in the fields of natural hazards science, risk assessment and management and environmental science, and will be of interest to anyone involved in natural hazards policy.
This book contains the best contributions presented during the 6th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering and the 2nd National Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology - 6CNIS & 2CNISS, that took place on June 14-17, 2017 in Bucharest - Romania, at the Romanian Academy and Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest. The book offers an updated overview of seismic hazard and risk assessment activities, with an emphasis on recent developments in Romania, a very challenging case study because of its peculiar intermediate-depth seismicity and evolutive code-compliant building stock. Moreover, the book collects input of renowned scientists and professionals from Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom.The content of the book focuses on seismicity of Romania, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural analysis and seismic design regulations, innovative solutions for seismic protection of building structures, seismic risk evaluation, resilience-based assessment of structures and management of emergency situations. The sub-chapters consist of the best papers of 6CNIS & 2CNISS selected by the International Advisory and Scientific Committees. The book is targeted at researchers and experts in seismic hazard and risk, evaluation and rehabilitation of buildings and structures, insurers and re-insurers, and decision makers in the field of emergency situations and recovery activities.
This volume presents eighteen case studies of natural disasters from Australia, Europe, North America and developing countries. By comparing the impacts, it seeks to identify what moves people to adapt, which adaptive activities succeed and which fail, and the underlying reasons, and the factors that determine when adaptation is required and when simply bearing the impact may be the more appropriate response. Much has been written about the theory of adaptation and high-level, especially international, policy responses to climate change. This book aims to inform actual adaptation practice - what works, what does not, and why. It explores some of the lessons we can learn from past disasters and the adaptation that takes place after the event in preparation for the next. This volume will be especially useful for researchers and decision makers in policy and government concerned with climate change adaptation, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, environmental policy and planning.
It has been estimated that more than 30% of the global land surface is subject to a considerable frequency of vegetation fires (Chuvieco et al., 2008). Li et al. (2013, 2014) argues that fire is an important Earth system process and a primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale which depends on an array of attributes, including vegetation characteristics, climate, and human activities, and fire generates feedback by affecting biogeochemical cycles, vegetation composition and structure, landatmosphere water and heat exchanges, atmospheric chemistry and composition, and human health and property. Although wildland fires are characteristic of certain regions and seasons, vegetation fires occur with varying regularity and severity across almost every biome on Earth (Archibald et al., 2013). Earth's forests and vegetation provide a vast source of fuel, and fires consume huge quantities of biomass in all ecosystems ranging across all biomes, from tundra to savanna and from boreal to tropical forests, where many of our ecosystems are considered fire dependent (Belcher, 2013). It is both friend and foe to the human race, having strongly influenced our social development and success as a species, but also acts as a serious threat to human life (Belcher, 2013). The present book outlines different perspectives regarding wildland fires, mega fires, wildland-urban interfaces, and its ecosystem impacts. It also presents different case-studies from eight countries (Portugal, Spain, Greece, Israel, Algeria, Russia, Lithuania and Chile), including valuable contributions that reflect its title: "Wildland Fires - A Worldwide Reality".
Using observations of the 2011-Tohoku and some other tsunamis in rivers as a starting point for analytical and numerical exploration, this book suggests a basis for predicting tsunami impacts in a river after the wave has transitioned into the river's channel.
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