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Bioinformatics is growing by leaps and bounds; theories/algorithms/statistical techniques are constantly evolving. Nevertheless, a core body of algorithmic ideas have emerged and researchers are beginning to adopt a "problem solving" approach to bioinformatics, wherein they use solutions to well-abstracted problems as building blocks to solve larger scope problems.
"Problem Solving Handbook for Computational Biology" and Bioinformatics is an edited volume contributed by world renowned leaders in this field. This comprehensive handbook with problem solving emphasis, covers all relevant areas of computational biology and bioinformatics. Web resources and related themes are highlighted at every opportunity in this central easy-to-read reference.
Designed for advanced-level students, researchers and professors in computer science and bioengineering as a reference or secondary text, this handbook is also suitable for professionals working in this industry.
The aim of this book is to return to the biomimicry and medicinal potential that inspired many of the early supramolecular chemists and to set it in the context of current advances in the field.
Following an overview of supramolecular chemistry, the first section considers the efforts made to synthesize artificial systems that mimic biological entities. The second section addresses the application of supramolecular principles to molecular diagnostics with a particular emphasis on the receptor-relayreporter motif. Many of the examples chosen have clinical importance. The third section takes the clinical diagnostic theme further and demonstrates the therapeutic applications of supramolecular chemistry through photodynamic therapy, drug delivery, and the potential for synthetic peptides to form antibiotic tubes. The short epilogue considers the potential for supramolecular solutions to be found for further challenges in biomimetic and therapeutic chemistry.
The feld of regenerative medicine is in its infancy state. Enthusiasm for the potential of organ regeneration lies with the potential pluripotency of stem cells to differentiate into various tissue types. This volume of Methods in Molecular Biology will focus on the use of stem cells for myocardial repair and regeneration. The emphasis of this issue will be to provide basic scientists, translational investigators, and cardiologists a means to evaluate the effcacy and safety of stem cells in a standardized fashion for myocardial regeneration. Many different cell types have been considered for myocardial repair. Adult card- myocytes are unable to survive even when transplanted into normal myocardium. The use of fetal or neonatal cardiomyocytes is not a feasible source of cells due to ethical concerns and donor availability. Therefore, the use of pluripotent stem cells has become the focus of a cell source for myocardial repair and regeneration. A variety of stem cell types have been suggested to participate in myocardial repair. This has led the investigators to search for the "optimal cell type for myocardial repair". Reliable isolation of the cell source with the ability to expand the cell population is a prerequisite. In the frst section of this book, methods for isolation of commonly used stem cells being investigated for myocardial regeneration are presented. Once a stem cell source has been selected, the stem cell needs to be tested in an app- priate animal model before being translated into clinical practice.
This book provides the first resource dedicated to critically examining gender and sex in study designs, methods, and analysis in health research. In order to produce ethical, accurate, and effective research findings it is vital to integrate both sex (biological characteristics) and gender (socially constructed factors) into any health study. This book draws attention to some of the methodological complexities in this enterprise and offers ways to thoughtfully address these by drawing on empirical examples across a range of topics and disciplines.
With medical advances, questions of medical ethics have become more urgent and are now considered of great social and political significance. An innovatively designed, activity-based workbook, this text was prepared using papers and case studies collected from several countries in the European Union. The problems they examine include the relationship between medical research and medical practice, elementary regulations of medical research, the complexity of informed consent, and the role of the sponsor or scientific community. These three books introduce key areas in current medical ethics to readers with no previous knowledge in the field. Structured around a variety of guided activities and real-life cases, the authors and cases represent a wide range of European backgrounds and professional disciplines, including medicine, bioethics, law, sociology, theology and philosophy. The general editor is Donna Dickenson, John Ferguson Professor at the University of Birmingham and Director of the Centre for the Study of Global Ethics. She is also the author of Death, Dying and Bereavement (Sage, 2000).
This book will review work from a number of researchers who have produced open source software addressing the need for data management, integration, analysis, and visualization to aid cancer research. With the advent of high-throughput technologies in biomedicine, the need for data management and appropriate data analysis tools in genomics has increased dramatically, joining clinical trials data as a major driver of informatics at cancer research centers.
The gathering of this data requires careful encoding of metadata, usually through the use of controlled vocabularies or ontologies, as well as the linking of data from model organisms, done at both a physiological level (e.g., anatomy) and at a molecular level (e.g., orthology). This data will then find use within computational and statistical models, which require data pipelines and analysis systems, as well as algorithms, visualization methods, and computational modeling systems. We will introduce open source tools available for these aspects of the problem.
The editors plan to divide the book into five sections, beginning with a section containing high level overviews of the field and key issues. This will include an introductory review of informatics in cancer research, followed by five overviews addressing issues in authentication and authorization, data management, data pipelines and annotations, algorithms and models, and the NCI caBIG initiative. This will be followed by sections dedicated to data systems, data pipelines, algorithms for analysis and visualization, and modeling systems. Each of these areas has seen publication of open source tools, ranging from the widely known R/Bioconductor package to little known but powerful systems such as SImmune for biochemical modeling. The area of laboratory information management systems has seen development of a number of unpublished but powerful systems, which we would also include. Three groups have agreed to provide chapters in this area (USC/Norris CAFE extensible clinical trials system, St Jude Unified LIMS, Fox Chase/British Columbia flow cytometry LIMS).
While there has been a great deal of development of informatics tools that can be applied to problems in cancer research, there has not been adequate dissemination of details on these tools to the community. As such, there remains low adoption of all but a few tools. This book aims to increase overall adoption of tools by providing cancer center leaders and researchers with a single volume detailing both issues that must be addressed and tools that are ready for use.
Introduction to Research and Medical Literature for Health Professionals, Fourth Edition is included in the 2015 edition of the essential collection of Doody's Core Titles. Introduction to Research and Medical Literature for Health Professionals, Fourth Edition is an essential resource to help students, faculty, and practitioners understand the research process, interpret data, comprehend results, and incorporate findings into practice. From choosing a research project and developing the research process design, to systematically gathering information, analyzing, interpreting data, differentiating among conflicting results, and finally understanding the overall evaluation, Introduction to Research and Medical Literature for Health Professionals, Fourth Edition will help students and practitioners develop research skills to acquire and contribute knowledge that benefits their patients. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION NEW Chapter: Statistics in Health Care NEW Chapter: Systematic Reviews Heavily revised chapter on the regulatory protection of human subjects, providing readers with a comprehensive look at the workings of the institutional review board Completely rewritten chapter on qualitative research Learning Objectives at the beginning of each chapter, presenting the chapter's desired outcomes to the reader Instructor Resources: Instructor's Manual, Slides in PowerPoint format, Test Bank Each new print copy includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access that unlocks a comprehensive and interactive eBook, student practice activities and assessments, a full suite of instructor resources, and learning analytics reporting tools.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Every year, about 33,700 people in the United States will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and over 32,000 patients will die from the disease. The median survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is about 6-months. This dismal picture of pancreatic cancer is mainly due to the lack of early diagnosis and effective treatment for patients with advanced disease. To increase the survival rate of pancreatic cancer patients, better tumor markers for diagnosis and new molecular targets for drug development are desperately needed. A lot of effort has been made in searching for pancreatic cancer-causing genes or genes associated with progression of malignant behavior in pancreatic cancer. As a result, alterations in the expression of several cancer-related genes have been identified in pancreatic tumors. The identification and characterization of these cancer-related genes have significantly increased our understanding of pancreatic cancer development, but unfortunately the treatment of pancreatic cancer has not advanced as much in the past 20 years.
Over the past decade, tremendous advances have been made in the field of cancer drug discovery, particularly, in the area of molecular and genetic models and technologies. Many of those advanced models and technologies have been applied to the drug discovery processes for pancreatic cancer. In this book, a team of experts will describe the latest development in the application of these models and technologies in pancreatic cancer. The authors include basic researchers as well as clinicians who work in the front-line of the war against pancreatic cancer and have the first-hand experience on these cutting-edge tools and techniques. The book can be divided into two general areas: 1) model systems and 2) genomics and proteomics tools. In recent years there have been a lot of advances in the model systems for pancreatic cancer, including the further characterization of normal and cancerous pancreatic cell lines, the establishment of transgenic mouse models that recapitulate the initiation and progression of human pancreatic cancer, the development of a new xenograft model system for the evaluation of novel agents, and the establishment of a zebrafish pancreatic cancer model. The first four chapters of the book will be devoted to these models. The advances in genomics and proteomics research have made a major impact in cancer drug discovery. A number of these omics-based tools and techniques have been applied in the pancreatic cancer drug discovery. Chapters 5-9 of the book will discuss techniques for genome-wide examination of gene expression, copy number, methylation, function and regulation. Chapters 10-11 will discuss in situ techniques for studying chromosomal and gene copy number abnormalities as well protein expression changes in cancer samples. Chapters 12-14 will focus on techniques for global examination of protein expression levels in biospecimens obtained from pancreatic cancer patients. Cancer drug discovery has become more and more target-centric. "
This text is designed for those who may become consultants in pediatric anesthesia. It is based on a curriculum developed since 1992 to illustrate the breadth and depth of the practice of pediatric anesthesia and the program is an integral part of the didactic series in the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at Boston Children's Hospital. This second edition has the same purpose as the first - to accompany the reader's journey in attaining proficiency, expertise and finally, mastery in pediatric anesthesiology. The format of the book is designed to encourage the readers' free flow of ideas and the written examinations, seen at the beginning of the text as a baseline in pediatric medicine, are primarily knowledge-based, reflecting factual medical information necessary for the subspecialty practice of pediatric anesthesiology. With this basic guidance, the reader can bring him or herself "into the operating room" and manage the patient in an expert fashion.
Affecting over a hundred million individuals worldwide, retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, especially animal models, are essential to furthering our understanding of the etiology, pathology, and progression of these endemic diseases. In Animal Models for Retinal Diseases, recognized experts in the field highlight valuable techniques as well as animal models for the prominent retinal diseases in order to aid in the evaluation, development, and improvement of therapeutic strategies. Beginning with an overview of the morphology of the retina, visual behavior, and genetics and genomics approaches for retinal research, the book continues by covering animal models for the research of specific human retinal diseases, e.g., retinal degeneration, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retinal ischemia, and retinal inflammation. As a volume in the successful Neuromethods series, the chapters provide authoritative reviews of the most commonly used approaches in the field. Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular investigators, ophthalmologists, and neuroscientists currently delving into this fascinating field of study.
This volume gathers the leading research on antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins. Following a rigorous overview, the volume delves into focused sections on all aspects of ADCs and ITs from clinical development through to targeted therapeutic applications and the latest technologies.
As a society, we have learned to value diversity. But can some
strategies to achieve diversity mask deeper problems, ones that
might require a different approach and different solutions? With
"Inclusion," Steven Epstein argues that in the field of medical
research, the answer is an emphatic yes.
This book introduces the reader to important aspects of the nano-hydrogels. It covers the development of hydrogels and their biology, chemistry and properties. Focus is also given to innovative characterization techniques and advances in structural design, with special emphasis on molecular structure, dynamic behavior and structural modifications of hydrogels. This book serves as a consolidated reference work for the diverse aspects of hydrogels, creating a valuable resource for students and researchers in academia and industry.
'Lab USA is to comics what C-Span is to network television. If you are looking to escape into an entertaining fantasy world, this is not the comic for you. If you harbor suspicions that the powerful are committing human rights atrocities and are getting away with murder, then this collection reveals the when and where. A docucomic that reveals bad science, in the language of great art.' - Sue Coe, author of Dead Meat 'The release of Lab USA is a moment in the annals of true horror. Kevin Pyle has broken a communications barrier by making a concise and accurate visual narrative of how brutality and racism have been dressed in the respectable silk of scientific research. These illuminated documents vividly display the powerlessness of US citizens and the intellectualized arrogance of doctors.' - Bob Helms, editor of Guinea Pig Zero'Pyle's vivid documentation offers a chilling indictment of a long and despicable history of bogus science inflicted for the most part on poor and working-class people.' - Publishers WeeklyElectromagnetic mind-control, open-air biological testing in New York City subways, and clandestine dosing of citizens with psychotropic drugs are all part of America's little known, yet well-footnoted history of medical abuse. Lab USA chronicles and illuminates these and many more events through the medium of comics.Employing declassified documents, court testimony, and interviews, Lab USA contrasts objective facts with powerful images to reveal the role of language and authority in the implementation of these dark deeds.
Single Subject Designs in Biomedicine draws upon the rich history of single case research within the educational and behavioral research settings and extends the application to the field of biomedicine. Biomedical illustrations are used to demonstrate the processes of designing, implementing, and evaluating a single subject design. Strengths and limitations of various methodologies are presented, along with specific clinical areas of application in which these applications would be appropriate. Statistical and visual techniques for data analysis are also discussed. The breadth and depth of information provided is suitable for medical students in research oriented courses, primary care practitioners and medical specialists seeking to apply methods of evidence practice to improve patient care, and medical researchers who are expanding their methodological expertise to include single subject designs. Increasing awareness of the utility in the single subject design could enhance treatment approach and evaluation both in biomedical research and medical care settings.
Mathematical and Statistical Estimation Approaches in Epidemiology compiles t- oretical and practical contributions of experts in the analysis of infectious disease epidemics in a single volume. Recent collections have focused in the analyses and simulation of deterministic and stochastic models whose aim is to identify and rank epidemiological and social mechanisms responsible for disease transmission. The contributions in this volume focus on the connections between models and disease data with emphasis on the application of mathematical and statistical approaches that quantify model and data uncertainty. The book is aimed at public health experts, applied mathematicians and sci- tists in the life and social sciences, particularly graduate or advanced undergraduate students, who are interested not only in building and connecting models to data but also in applying and developing methods that quantify uncertainty in the context of infectious diseases. Chowell and Brauer open this volume with an overview of the classical disease transmission models of Kermack-McKendrick including extensions that account for increased levels of epidemiological heterogeneity. Their theoretical tour is followed by the introduction of a simple methodology for the estimation of, the basic reproduction number,R . The use of this methodology 0 is illustrated, using regional data for 1918-1919 and 1968 in uenza pandemics.
THE MOST PRACTICAL, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE TO MODELLING AND ANALYZING TIME-TO-EVENT DATA--NOW IN A VALUABLE NEW EDITION
Since publication of the first edition nearly a decade ago, analyses using time-to-event methods have increase considerably in all areas of scientific inquiry mainly as a result of model-building methods available in modern statistical software packages. However, there has been minimal coverage in the available literature to9 guide researchers, practitioners, and students who wish to apply these methods to health-related areas of study. Applied Survival Analysis, Second Edition provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to regression modeling for time-to-event data in medical, epidemiological, biostatistical, and other health-related research.
This book places a unique emphasis on the practical and contemporary applications of regression modeling rather than the mathematical theory. It offers a clear and accessible presentation of modern modeling techniques supplemented with real-world examples and case studies. Key topics covered include: variable selection, identification of the scale of continuous covariates, the role of interactions in the model, assessment of fit and model assumptions, regression diagnostics, recurrent event models, frailty models, additive models, competing risk models, and missing data.
Features of the Second Edition include: Expanded coverage of interactions and the covariate-adjusted survival functionsThe use of the Worchester Heart Attack Study as the main modeling data set for illustrating discussed concepts and techniquesNew discussion of variable selection with multivariable fractional polynomialsFurther exploration of time-varying covariates, complex with examplesAdditional treatment of the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic parametric regression modelsIncreased emphasis on interpreting and using results as well as utilizing multiple imputation methods to analyze data with missing valuesNew examples and exercises at the end of each chapter
Analyses throughout the text are performed using Stata(R) Version 9, and an accompanying FTP site contains the data sets used in the book. Applied Survival Analysis, Second Edition is an ideal book for graduate-level courses in biostatistics, statistics, and epidemiologic methods. It also serves as a valuable reference for practitioners and researchers in any health-related field or for professionals in insurance and government.
Qualitative Data Collection Tools: Design, Development, and Applications is a new and unique supplementary text that will guide students and new researchers to design, develop, pilot, and employ qualitative tools in order to collect qualitative data. An often-omitted subject in general qualitative textbooks, qualitative tools form the backbone of the data collection process. Students and new researchers are frequently left to create their own qualitative tools from scratch, an unnecessary hurdle in the qualitative research design process. Author Felice D. Billups has used her experience as a qualitative researcher, and in teaching and advising students about qualitative research, to develop the templates in this book as a starting point for readers conducting original qualitative research. The author briefly describes each method of data collection and offers readers suggestions for using and adapting the qualitative instrument templates within the text. Templates of interview protocols, focus group moderator guides, content analysis tools, document analysis tools, reflective questionnaires, diary and journal logs, and observational rubrics give the reader either a cut-and-paste solution for their own research or a starting point to design their own personalized qualitative tools. The first three chapters illuminate the qualitative data collection process and the role each type of qualitative tool plays in that process. The next six chapters provide detailed guides and numerous templates for each qualitative data collection method, covering interviews, focus groups, conversation and discourse analysis, observations, document analysis, field notes, journaling, and other reflective practices. A final chapter pulls together the multifaceted nature of qualitative research design and connects each tool back to the methodology to ensure trustworthiness and rigor in the data collection and instrument development process. Exemplars populate the appendices, offering readers concrete inspiration for ways to use and adapt the tools provided. If you have ever puzzled over how to best to design qualitative tools in order to guide and structure your qualitative data collection, or if you are embarking on your first qualitative study, Qualitative Data Collection Tools will give you a practical starting point to help make your qualitative data collection process easier and more organized.
Inflammation is the very natural process of our body; it does its work immediately and smoothly along with lots of helpers. Inflammation is linked to immune system as acute inflammatory or pro-inflammatory phase through macrophage activation. This book is for researchers and scholars in the field of life sciences and medical sciences. The book contains all inflammatory sources around the world. It emphasizes on anti-inflammatory sources along with its active inflammatory constituents and other medicinal uses with authentic references. Anti-inflammation is a kind of activity with is found in nearly all of the natural sources used for major biological activities. So, the book helps them to correlate their activity of interest with anti-inflammatory source. The present work deals with illustrative representation of inflammation, causes of inflammation, inflammatory mediators, anti-inflammatory sources other uses and inflammation and lifestyle. It mainly provides the researchers the updated information from the ancient to the most recent ongoing research on inflammation. This book imparts pace to their idea of thinking, assist to make clear predictions before proceeding to research. The introduction includes natural sources of inflammation and its benefits; the sources are from plant, animal and marine. The book tells how these sources are useful for us to cure several diseases and opens new path for further research. Inflammation part of the book is well presented along with its phases, types and other diseases interrelated with inflammation. Inflammatory mediators, the foremost player of inflammation are defined in a very pleasant and convenient manner. The chapter includes both cell- derived and plasma - derived mediators illustratively with their synthesis and action. Natural source of anti-inflammation is the heart chapter of this book which contains all anti-inflammation sources from plants, marine and animals. This chapter also contains short description of most of the sources, its availability and uses. The authors have also added inflammatory models for assessment of biological activities of natural sources both in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation free lifestyle is described very nicely in the book. The contents are very specific and relevant to its topic; all the data provided is unique and useful. The anti-inflammatory table includes sources, plant parts used, active constituents and other uses. This data provides ample information regarding anti-inflammatory research and innovation. The highlights of this book shall be: -Describes almost all anti-inflammatory sources around the globe at one place in a more convenient tabulated form -Illustrative representation makes the book more attractive and interactive
This book will provide General Practitioners and all members of the primary care team with a practical guide to understanding the range of electronic tools available for clinical computer systems and electronic patient records. In particular it focuses on those that appear on most healthcare professionals' desktops. Drawing on practical and theoretical knowledge this book demonstrates how GPs and their teams can facilitate evidence-based practice lifelong learning and improved patient communication. Filled with practical tips and advice it can be used by individuals or as a teaching resource for small group work. It ties together clinical governance and health informatics and shows how existing systems in primary care can enable and deliver clinical governance help with patient-focused care and organisational learning and teamwork.
Explores the social inequality of clinical drug testing and its effects on scientific results Imagine that you volunteer for the clinical trial of an experimental drug. The only direct benefit of participating is that you will receive up to $5,175. You must spend twenty nights literally locked in a research facility. You will be told what to eat, when to eat, and when to sleep. You will share a bedroom with several strangers. Who are you, and why would you choose to take part in this kind of study? This book explores the hidden world of pharmaceutical testing on healthy volunteers. Drawing on two years of fieldwork in clinics across the country and 268 interviews with participants and staff, it illustrates how decisions to take part in such studies are often influenced by poverty and lack of employment opportunities. It shows that healthy participants are typically recruited from African American and Latino/a communities, and that they are often serial participants, who obtain a significant portion of their income from these trials. This book reveals not only how social inequality fundamentally shapes these drug trials, but it also depicts the important validity concerns inherent in this mode of testing new pharmaceuticals. These highly controlled studies bear little resemblance to real-world conditions, and everyone involved is incentivized to game the system, ultimately making new drugs appear safer than they really are. Adverse Events provides an unprecedented view of the intersection of racial inequalities with pharmaceutical testing, signaling the dangers of this research enterprise to both social justice and public health.
The ubiquitin system has two major functions in eukaryotic cells: it r- ulates protein degradation, which is essential for normal cellular fu- tion and for the removal of potentially harmful, damaged, or misfolded proteins, and it controls protein activity by regulating protein-protein interactions and subcellullar localization. The ubiquitin system is thus involved in processes as diverse as cell cycle progression, signal tra- duction, gene transcription, and DNA repair. Not surprisingly, defects in the ubiquitin system have been linked with numerous diseases such as cancer, in?ammation, central nervous system disorders, and metabolic dysfunction. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76-amino acid protein which is transferred to its target protein in an ATP-dependent manner. This post-translational modi?cation takes place in a hierarchical, three-step fashion involving an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, an E2 ubiquit- conjugating enzyme, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Substrate speci?city is predominantly controlled by members of a large family of E3 - zymes, which form complexes with the proteins that will be modi?ed. This ultimately leads to the covalent attachment of the C-terminus of ubiquitin to usually an?-amino group of a lysine residue in the targeted protein. Additional ubiquitin transfer to lysine-48 of ubiquitin itself will form a polyubiquitin chain, which usually targets the conjugate for degradation by the proteasome. By contrast, mono- or polyubiquityla- VI Preface tion involving lysine-63 is normally involved in the control of protein activity. Ubiquitylation can be reverted by deubiquitylating enzymes, of which approximately 95 exist in mammals.
Analytical chemists and materials scientists will find this a useful addition to their armory. The contributors have sought to highlight the present state of affairs in the validation and quality assurance of fluorescence measurements, as well as the need for future standards. Methods included range from steady-state fluorometry and microfluorometry, microscopy, and micro-array technology, to time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence depolarization imaging techniques.
This book is an updated reference for one of the most exciting field of biomedical researches- Stem Cell Research and its therapeutic applications. Stem cell research holds great promise for the treatment of many human diseases that currently lack effective therapies. The set of chapters in this book provide insights into both basic stem cell biology and clinical applications of stem cell-based cell replacement therapies for a variety of human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and li ver degeneration. It also covers novel technologies for the culture and differentiation of both human embryonic stem cells and adult tissue stem cells. This book summarizes our current state of knowledge in stem cell research and integrates basic stem cell biology with regenerative medicine in an overall context. It is an essential reference for students, postdoctoral fellows, academic and industrial scientists, and clinicians. v Acknowledgements The editors would like to thank Ms. Jill Brantley, Rose Chavarin, Alina Haas, and Emily Sun for their administrative assistance and proof-reading of this book. We would also like to thank all the authors for their contributions. vii The editors wish to dedicate this book to our mentors Ron Evans, Fred Gage, and, in memory of Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 1 Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Development In Vivo and Derivation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro for Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Dennis O. Clegg, David Buchholz, Sherry Hikita, Teisha Rowland, Qirui Hu, and Lincoln V.
Johannes Klumpers Biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering, cloning and biodiversity, raise many legal and ethical concerns, so it is important that people understand these issues and feel able to express their opinions. This is why the European Commission has been, for a number of years, supporting actions to improve communication among scientists in these diverse areas. The project 'Women in Biotechnology' (WONBIT), financed under the 6th Framework programme of the European Commission, is an excellent example of what can be done to target opinion-formers such as scientists, economists and lawyers in bottom-up activities, and to encourage a debate on gender issues triggered by developments in the life sciences. WONBIT gave rise to a successful international conference highlighting the importance of adopting good practices and ethical considerations in parallel with the rapid pace of progress in biotechnology - from a woman's point of view. In particular, the conference addressed women in decision-making positions in b- technology with specific reference to scientific excellence, social competencies and management qualities as well as issues relating to environment, society and the younger generation. But it did not stop there: a key part of the conference was dedicated to stimulating public debate among non-specialists, which has led to a number of recommen- tions to policy-makers on better communication in biotechnology, on taking better account of the gender aspects of research, and on involving more women in the decision-making process that surrounds developments in biotechnology.
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