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London developed as a port and a city because of the Thames estuary, which offers an excellent navigable routeway from the North Sea westwards far into central England. The Romans realised that it was the most convenient place to bridge the estuary, and constructed a series of bridges, which apparently went out of use during the 4th century AD. The Thames was not bridged again until c.1000 AD when the first of a series of timber bridges was erected, initially to prevent Viking raiders sailing upstream. The great stone bridge lined with houses was constructed c1176-1209. Twice in 1281-2 and 1437, parts of the stone bridge were broken by a combination of ice and neglect. It was demolished in 1831-2 after the construction of a new bridge upstream. This volume is based on the 1984 investigation of the Southwark medieval bridge abutment and combines the archaeological, architectural, historical and pictorial evidence for London's greatest bridge. The scene of battles and pageants, London Bridge was also where the 'keep left' on the road rule began in 1722.
Told here for the first time, the riveting story of the most
remarkable strike in American history
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on the Finite-State-Methods and Natural Language Processing, FSMNLP 2009. The workshop was held at the University of Pretoria, South Africa on July 2009. In total 21 papers were submitted and of those papers 13 were accepted as regular papers and a further 6 as extended abstracts. The papers are devoted to computational morphology, natural language processing, finite-state methods, automata, and related formal language theory.
A riveting account of one of the most remarkable episodes in
This is the story of one of America's most divisive trials and executions. Ferdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were two Italian-born anarchists tried and executed for robbery in 1927 despite widespread doubt about their guilt and whether they received a fair trial. This book tells the story and includes the official FBI files.
Six multi-period archaeological sites investigated in advance of gravel extraction in the London Borough of Havering between 1963 and 1997 form the basis of a landscape history of the Rainham and Upminster area. Residual Mesolithic finds from the study area include an adze. The first significant activity locally was an Early Neolithic ring ditch, which remained in use for about a millennium. During the Bronze Age the area was transformed by extensive woodland clearance and the creation of rectilinear fields and scattered farmsteads. The Iron Age saw more intensive landscape utilisation and settlement. About the time of the Roman invasion two farmsteads were fortified. A waterhole from one of these farmsteads revealed a large pottery assemblage dating to c. AD 60-70, showing a low level of Romanisation and few imported wares. A number of farmsteads were continuously occupied throughout the Roman period until after c. AD 370. The presence of Early Saxon activity at some sites suggests either continuity of occupation or only a short period of abandonment. These scattered Saxon farmsteads were probably abandoned during the Late Saxon period, when the rural settlement pattern generally changed to nucleated villages. Significant medieval remains include a farmstead and a manorial enclosure.
In these, his memoirs, we see Harry's adolescent revolt against his all-powerful father and his flight to Canada after knocking him down in a row. Then there is the account of his adventures in the Lincolnshire Regiment before the outbreak of the First World War, his time in the trenches with the rats and the corpses and only his belief in the Almighty and in his Destiny to keep him going. He tells how he lost a fortune during the Depression, and then made another that he was to fritter away in luxury cruises in the last years of his life. The Second World War gives him a new 'raison d'etre' - first in the Home Guard and then in the 'Little Ships.'
He paints a vivid picture of a forgotten way of life, a life of ease, of loss, of heartbreak, and of adventure; though, strangely enough, he never speaks of his personal feelings - it wasn't the done thing.
He was fiercely proud and patriotic and adored all royalty and aristocracy, delighting in any occasion that permitted him to approach them. But his greatest pride was that of being, first and foremost, 'a Lincolnshire man.'
This collection of snappy, humorous, earthy stories all have a sting in the tail. They portray aspects of life in France unsuspected by most casual visitors. Food and sex are rarely talked of with such delicate earthiness. Medicine, herbal remedies, crime, social niceties, witchcraft and religion are the reflecting mirrors that illuminate Fanny, Louis, Francine and Justin: the larger-than-life characters who invite you to share their France with you.
In 1857-1858, rebels in northern India recruited tens of thousands of civilian volunteers in a mutiny that threatened to engulf the entire subcontinent. This study explores a fundamental question never explicitly investigated in histories of the mutiny: How could a vastly outnumbered British army, with dangerously extended lines of supply and reinforcement, defeat so large a force on its home ground? Watson addresses the problem by focusing on the Lucknow campaign, which was pivotal to the success of the British, and abandons the usual narrative approach to the subject in favor of an analysis of the leadership, armies, and other crucial elements in the campaign. After reviewing the religious, economic, and political unrest that set the stage for the mutiny, Watson provides a brief history of the campaign. In his comparative analysis of the armies and leadership of the combatants, a panorama of contrasts emerges. The British had the advantages of experienced and well-organized leadership, a better trained and organized army, superior weapons, and a cohesive sense of purpose. The rebel forces, on the other hand, consisted of decentralized armies whose effectiveness was compromised by the influx of untrained volunteers and whose leaders were mainly revolutionaries and military amateurs with few common goals. In his analytical comparisons of infantry, cavalry, artillery, and other factors affecting fighting ability, Watson applies John Keegan's "categories of battle" to develop equations that spell out the character of battle not only for the Lucknow campaign but for the entire conflict. Adding a new dimension to our understanding of the mutiny, this book is relevant to historical study ofIndia, the British Empire, and the British army, and will also appeal to military history buffs.
Religious belief was central to the lives - and deaths - of all medieval Londoners. Religion was fully integrated into the social and political order, providing the population with an understanding of their place in the world and inspiring artists, architects and craftspeople. Belief motivated progressive acts such as early forms of social provision and medical care but was also used to justify wars of conquest and the brutal repression of diversity. Archaeology sheds light on many aspects of belief: from organised religion, both Christianity and Judaism, to superstition or witchcraft; places of worship from the smallest parish churches to the great Cathedral of St Paul; tiny objects of personal devotion to entire monastic landscapes. Monasteries include communities cut off from the world, hospitals providing for London's poor or the headquarters of military religious orders behind the Crusades. Cemetery excavations reveal how Londoners responded to mortality both individually and together in the face of catastrophes such as the Black Death, while the events of the Reformation dramatically transformed both institutions and beliefs. This fully illustrated book provides an introduction to the evidence of belief from the Museum of London's archaeological excavations in the capital, with a particular focus on the programme of work, supported by English Heritage, on the sites of many of London's monasteries.
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