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The aims of the book are to evaluate the antecedents which influence loyalty to Tesco & Tesco Clubcard, contending that customer loyalty is influenced by factors of both a social and marketing nature. Using quantitative & qualitative research the book concluded that: customer loyalty towards Tesco & Tesco Clubcard was not 'social' in nature, it was premised on the antecedents of happiness/satisfaction, trust & commitment with grocery shopping viewed as a practical activity; the characteristics of a Tesco customer most likely to be loyal was someone who drove past other supermarkets to patronise a Tesco store, had a family member employed or previously employed by Tesco, preferred Tesco as a grocery retailer & would not switch their current loyalty from Tesco, aged between 58 and 63; Tesco customers exhibited spurious loyalty to Tesco and Tesco Clubcard, loyal because of convenience & incentives. By convenience we mean in terms of store location, accessibility & the lack of effort required from respondents to access offers. This underlines the peculiarities of Tesco as a grocery retailer in Dundee & its dominant position in the market.
Im vorliegenden Buch wird das Empfehlungsmarketing f r die Generation 55plus am Beispiel von medizinischen Fachgesch ften konzipiert. Zun chst wird die Auswahl der Zielgruppe Generation 55plus f r das Empfehlungsmarketing unter Ber cksichtigung des demografischen Wandels begr ndet. Danach werden die Grundlagen des Empfehlungsmarketing beschrieben. Im Anschluss daran werden Einflussfaktoren auf die Empfehlungsabgabe und auf das Befolgen von Empfehlungen der Generation 55plus definiert. Als n chstes wird der Managementprozess des Empfehlungsmarketing f r medizinische Fachgesch fte konzipiert. Au erdem wird ein berblick ber die Empfehlungsmarketinginstrumente verschafft und Indikatoren zu deren Erfolgsmessung beschrieben. Auf der Basis dieser Informationen werden Empfehlungsmarketinginstrumente f r medizinische Fachgesch fte ausgew hlt. Im Rahmen dieses Buches wird der Einsatz von direkten Offline- und Online- Marketinginstrumenten konzipiert.
In recent years, Korea has achieved considerable economic growth accompanied by potential business opportunities for international companies. The European Union has been negotiating a free trade agreement (FTA) aiming at increased trade and business relations. Hence, the Korean business system and its foundations in societal characteristics need to be taken into account by European political and economic actors. This study identifies those characteristics and explores their linkages as perceived by European companies. In addition, their assessment of the FTA's impact on characteristics of the Korean business system and on their business activities are explored. This research is based on the socio-economic approach of business systems theories. Hence, this study should provide insights into interrelations between particular characteristics of the Korean business system and help international market managers, CEOs and anyone else interested in the Korean market to identify potential challenges and business opportunities.
Textiles and clothing industries play significant role during the embryonic stages of development, but free trade in textiles was limited through protective measures, such as the Multi Fibre Arrangement (MFA). From the 1990's, as trade restrictions were eliminated, small players in the world market such as Australia and Bangladesh were faced with a number of policy questions. This book provides an analytical overview of the impact of globalisation, microeconomic reform and firm-level responses for the textiles and clothing industries in the two economies. Dynamic comparative advantage and product life cycle hypothesis has been analysed with estimation of revealed comparative advantage (Balassa, 1965) for selected developed and developing economies. Subsectoral performance has been evaluated with productivity measured using both parametric and non-parametric techniques. Tornqvist's (1936) non parametric superlative index with underlying flexible form translog function, as popularised by Diewert (1976, 1978), has been used to index output, input and TFP growth. Stochastic frontier functions are used to examine firm level efficiencies and the factors causing efficiency variations.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), first implemented on January 1, 1994, is a comprehensive trade agreement that will ultimately result in the elimination of nearly all trade tariffs among the United States (U.S.), Canada and Mexico by the year 2008. This paper will address NAFTA's effects on IT use in Mexico. Mexico is a relevant case for examining these changes because it can give further insight into trade liberalization influences on IT adoption and growth. As the world continues to become more interconnected, and IT plays a larger role in both developed and developing countries, the way liberalization affects IT and interacts with other movements within aneconomic system will become exceedingly important to understand. IT helps increase production efficiencies, can decrease unit cost, and facilitates international trade.
This work focuses on analysis of factors that influence microfinance loan repayment, loan rationing mechanism and also of the impact of the microfinance on the livelihood of borrowers, using survey data. The major concern of the book is on loan repayment and rationing mechanism. The book is an important contribution in terms of gaining a thorough understanding of issues like loan default problems, rationing mechanisms and the overall working of group-lending schemes in Ethiopia with specific reference to the case of Oromia Credit and Savings Sh. Co. Microfinance practitioners, financial intermediaries, policy makers etc would find it helpful in terms of designing a better lending strategy in the provision of microfinance credit to the poor.
Business leaders are concerned about the impacts of increasing levels of product portfolio complexity since many sense that complexity related costs such as order management, procurement, and inventory threaten to undermine operational efficiencies and consume profits. Even so, managers do not fully understand the extent and breadth of the impacts of product portfolio complexity. A more complete understanding of the operational effects of product portfolio complexity is lacking partially because researchers have not yet offered a robust theoretical perspective or studied it in a focused controlled way; until now. Herein, measures of product portfolio complexity are developed and related to sales volume and supply chain costs. Revealed are nonlinearities which imply optimal portfolio configurations and an approach to quantifying the most profitable configurations. This book is of interest to the corporate manager or consultant seeking a greater understanding of the topic and wanting to maximize organizational performance. It will also be of interest to the academic who wishes to understand the theoretical underpinnings of product portfolio complexity.
The establishment of WEB2.0 and the launch of various online 3D platforms in the last few years show that virtual environments are getting increasingly popular these days. Businesses as well as research institutions have recognized this trend and a variety of projects have already been started in this field. However, in order to be able to participate successfully in virtual worlds, an understanding of the basic concepts, especially interaction, is crucial. Hence, this book provides the reader with a description of virtual interaction techniques and a variety of related concepts, such as avatars and computer animation. Explanations of theory are supplemented with an analysis of the concepts in Second Life, one of the currently largest virtual 3D worlds. Finally, the book presents a detailed description of a virtual theater performance, where the opportunities and restrictions of virtual worlds are explored and the reader gets an impression how the described interaction techniques can effectively be implemented and used.
The knowledge economy has brought a new set of dynamics to the twenty first century business and economy. It is undeniable that currently knowledge and innovation dominate the physical and financial assets. The gap between book value and market value is vast and continuously increasing in many firms. These trends have made it crucial to accurately measure and effectively manage intellectual capital. Although, the importance of intellectual capital is widely recognized, intellectual capital measurement and management processes are still not well structured in most companies. This is mainly due to the difficulty of measuring and managing intangible assets, as they are not clearly observable as tangible assets. However, today for many companies, it is favorable, even essential to create and extract value from their intellectual capital in order to obtain and maintain competitive advantage and generate profits in the long run. This book offers a comprehensive overlook on the measurement and management of intellectual capital and provides case studies on two pioneer companies in intellectual capital management, Skandia and Dow.
This book shows the way to micro businesses how to build or transform their business into a social media-enabled enterprise where consumers, employees and prospects connect, collaborate and champion their products or services. Every business can use this emerging media to increase their bottom line figures through sales and this book will show you how.PART ONE introduces the concept of micro business and explains how marketing in small firms in not a miniature of large businesses. PART TWO refreshes the conventional marketing practices in a step wise manner. PART THREE offers a detailed description of social media marketing and how it enables to strengthen the relationship building process. PART FOUR shows whether or not it is the right time for small business to embark on social media bandwagon. In simple words this book will show you how to harness the collective wisdom and the viral nature of your stakeholders and how to steal a lead from your competitors on the social media landscape.
To be successful, owners of women's beauty salon must look into the needs and wants of their customers. This is the reason why many researchers and academicians have continuously emphasized on the assessment of customer satisfaction level. Hence, the rationale behind undertaking this study is to assess the basic factors that affect customer satisfaction level in women's beauty salon. In an attempt to assess the problems that customers of women's beauty salon faces, concerned bodies will have an evidential ground to address the problem and hence take possible remedial actions. The beneficiaries from this paper are both existing business persons and prospective entrepreneurs who want to run successful women's beauty salon. Besides, business consulting firms who are engaged in identifying market gap and governmental organizations like Micro and Small Enterprises and beauty training centers are also beneficiaries from the findings of this study. Furthermore, this study is very significant for other researchers who want to conduct further investigation on similar issue.
Recent years have witnessed the tremendous growth of the Chinese economy, rising living standards, and an increasing number of internet users in the 'Middle Kingdom'. This combination makes China one of the most promising online markets for international companies. As China is Germany's most important Asian trading partner, many German companies are now attempting to market their products and services online to Chinese consumers. However, one obstacle to online marketing in this unique environment is the issue of culture. The focus of this study is to investigate possible cultural differences between Chinese and German consumers and to analyse their effect on perceptions of online marketing. The aim is to help German companies build a successful online presence in the Chinese market by determining the degree of standardization and adaptation required.
This book analyzes the problem of population ageing in terms of the cessation of professional activity (and especially premature labour market withdrawals) and non-medical care needs of persons who are dependent or have lost their autonomy, in order to provide the various public and private administrations active in these fields with some food for thought. One of my concerns is to examine the factors liable to explain early exits from the labour market by positing that labour demand may have an impact on decisions to stop work early. The chapter on Overeducation is devoted to testing a series of theoretical results encountered in the economic literature including the trade-off between education and experience in the labour market. I also present the long-term care insurance in Belgium and project the level of dependency in 2050. Based on the regional projections obtained, I estimate the budgetary cost of introducing dependency insurance in Wallonia identical to that of Flanders (beginning at the same time as the latter and undergoing the same changes).
The book offers a comparative analysis of ad hoc and institutional arbitration, contributing to the existing professional literature with the aim to assist the parties making a pertinent choice. The advantages and disadvantages of both procedures are presented in the different procedural phases, unveiling the risks and difficulties that one may encounter and offering recommendations to avoid pitfalls and dead-ends. As different constructions may be suitable for different situations, depending on the particularities of each dispute and business relationship in part, and also depending on the parties' priorities, this book does not offer a recipe to suit each and every case. The general opinion favoring institutional arbitration is mostly supported for reasons of ease and due to the high risks of improperly constructed ad hoc proceedings, but the advantages of ad hoc arbitration, if properly administered, are also recognized, admitting the potential primacy of this alternative for certain cases. This book will hopefully make a useful contribution to make a suitable choice when opting for ad hoc or institutional arbitration.
Harry Potter gilt als Ph nomen. Die sieben Harry Potter-B cher haben die internationalen Bestsellerlisten erobert und alle gekannten Verkaufsrekorde gebrochen. Aber was ist eigentlich das Erfolgsrezept von Harry Potter? Der Erfolg der Buchserie wird von Beobachtern oft vorschnell auf die Marketingstrategie zur ckgef hrt. Das Angebot auf dem Buchmarkt ist sehr gro; Marketing nimmt hier eine wichtige Funktion ein. Doch der langj hrige Erfolg der Harry Potter-B cher kann nicht alleine auf das Marketing zur ck gef hrt werden. In erster Linie kann der Erfolg der Serie den B chern selbst zugeschrieben werden, genauer gesagt: Der literarischen Qualit t der B cher. In diesem Buch werden die einzelnen Erfolgskomponenten der Harry Potter-Serie veranschaulicht. Dazu wird die Autorin genauso gez hlt wie die literarischen Aspekte der B cher und die Vermarktung. Am Beispiel S dtirol wird deutlich, dass Harry Potter nicht auf kunstvolle Werbema nahmen angewiesen war und sich auch ohne diese sehr gut verkauft hat.
This book models the default probabilities and credit spreads for select Indian firms in the Black-Scholes-Merton framework.In particular, it shows that the objective (or 'real') probability estimates are higher than the risk-neutral estimates over the sample period. However, the probability measure is found to be robust to the 'default trigger point'. The model output also compares favorably with the default rate reported by CRISIL's Average 1-year rating transitions as well as the Altman Z-score measure. However it does not generate spreads as high as those observed in the corporate bond market. Perhaps not surprisingly, this is consistent with the received literature on credit spreads. This book is meant for Credit Analysts and Officers of the Credit Risk Management Department of banks and financial institutions who are concerned with designing and developing internal credit rating models, pricing models and credit portfolio models as well as students of Finanace and those teaching Risk Management.
In a country where agriculture and an agrarian population dominate, the agricultural marketing system plays a pivotal role in coordinating resources and channeling production and growth across the different sectors of the economy. In the presence of a poorly organized and inefficient marketing system, like in Ethiopia, the population and the economy in general have no escape from suffering. To address the crux of the problem, Ethiopia has given an institutional solution by establishing the Ethiopia Commodity Exchange with a vision to revolutionize the country's agriculture through an efficient marketing system. This work tests the presence of the weak-form market efficiency using three random walk tests: the ADF, the Lo-MacKinlay variance ratio and the BDS tests. Being the first work on market efficiency of the Exchange, the analysis has mined important lessons to be learnt by the Exchange and the many coming-soon exchanges in developing countries. This work has also shed light on the diverse conclusions uncovered across time, across commodities, across statistical techniques and across countries in the Efficient Market Hypothesis literature.
... Ethiopian banks have not introduced credit card payment system till now. The research is a survey on what are the potential opportunities and challenges to introduce credit card payment systems in Ethiopia. Data was collected through two types of questionnaires (from bank employees and consumers). Results of this research have shown that the potential opportunities to introduce credit card in Ethiopia are the level of awareness of existing employees of Ethiopian banks and their skill, the financial capacity Ethiopian banks and merchants, the capacity of banks to keep electronic accounts of merchants and consumers. Potential challenges to introduce credit card in Ethiopia are low level of awareness of merchants and consumers, weak infrastructural issues (lack of immediate authorization, financial literacy initiations, well established credit bureau, and required infrastructure of merchants), lack of skill of both the merchants and the consumer, weak economic capacity of the consumers, unclear legal system and non existence of consulting firms that can help consumers in managing their credit card expenses.
Microfinance service is designed to help the poor section of the society which is not served by the formal banks. After the successful history of the Grameen bank, the service is widely spread in all over the world. In Ethiopia, the service of microfinance institutions is available to the poor section of the society with the objective reducing the level of poverty. As Poverty reduction strategy, the impact of microfinance institutions should be evaluated whether they safeguard the society from becoming poorer. This book evaluates the service of microfinance institutions in households' vulnerability to poverty by using primary data.The result shows us that, microfinance institutions can reduce household vulnerability to poverty and microfinance service user households are less vulnerable to poverty than non- users. Among the different vulnerability components poverty is the highest source of vulnerability which contributes almost 100 percent to the total level of vulnerability. Policy makers working in development related areas, microfinance service providers, researchers and students in the field of development economics will found this book more useful.
The world economy faces an increasingly trend in the importance of the service industry. Financial institutions play a crucial role in facilitating the accumulation and allocation of capital by channeling individual savings through loans to governments, businesses and individuals. Quality service delivery is not an optional competitive strategy which may, or may not, be adopted to differentiate one bank from another: today it is essential to corporate profitability and survival. In the highly competitive banking industry, the success and failure of a business organization merely depends on how well it satisfies the needs and wants of customers. Service quality, corporate image, and price were addressed as determinants to investigate their correlation with customer satisfaction and service loyalty at the bank. The results indicate service quality as the most determinant of both customer satisfaction and service loyalty at the bank.
During the past three decades, politicians, researchers, as well as managers have stressed the role of globalization in the world economy and its effect on consumers. This notion of "globalization" makes it necessary, that marketers should have a better understanding of foreign consumer reactions toward their brands. However, this notion of globalization should not be taken for granted. It is disappearing because of certain norms such as "buy domestic" and events like September 11th, and terrorism. This leads to the emergence of two new constructs from the marketing literature and suggest important additional factors that the international manager should consider when making branding decisions: consumer animosity toward a producing nation, and consumer ethnocentrism. This piece of study explores the antecedents of consumer animosity in Indian context. Moreover, it is established that religion plays pivotal role in shaping individual's behavior taking this as an cue this research attempts to study religious animosity as one of the construct of animosity including war, political and economy.
Financial management is a managerial activity which is concerned with planning and controlling of the firms resources, performing tasks such as Budgeting, financial forecasting, cash management, credit administration, investment analysis and funds procurement. Financial performance is an important aspect which influences the long term stability, profitability and liquidity of the organization. Financial statements are an input for financial analysis to examine the firm's performance. Different information users require a financial analysis report to make a financial decision. As a result, financial analysis is essential to determine how a firm achieving its financial objectives. Different tools of analysis such as ratios are used to evaluate the financial position of a firm. Such financial ratios are categorized mostly in to five categories: liquidity, solvency, profitability, repayment capacity and financial efficiency. This book has covered all of these financial ratios and evaluated the financial performance of the multipurpose cooperative societies rationally. A trend analysis and Industry average analysis was also used as an approaches of analysis.
A number of people are choosing to become entrepreneurs currently, starting their own business that enables them to lead meaningful careers. Entrepreneurship is now the driving force behind the economic development of every country. One of the major factors of economic growth is the level of entrepreneurial activity in that particular country. Entrepreneurs in MSEs as part of business community contribute to the country's economic welfare. They produce substantial portion of our total goods and services. Thus, their economic contribution is comparable to that of big business. This paper attempted to examine the challenges and opportunities on the developmental issues of entrepreneurship in MSEs found in Adama Town.
Mobile phones have become one of the most popular technological innovations with a penetration rate in Europe higher than 100%. Consumers can now conduct their banking transactions via mobile phones. However, although mobile banking services are widely available, research suggests that young consumers in Germany may not adopt these services. Thus, there is a need to better understand the acceptance of mobile banking from their perspective. Based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT), this dissertation develops and tests an integrated model for predicting consumers' intention to adopt mobile banking. Data was collected from 155 consumers aged between 18 and 35 in Germany. In general, males, people who use smart phones, those who have already used mobile services, and those who are already online banking users, exhibited a more positive intention to use mobile banking than others.
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