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On February 15, 2013, the Chelyabinsk meteor sailed over Russian skies in a streak of light that was momentarily brighter than the Sun. The remarkable event and its subsequent shock wave were witnessed and documented by countless local residents, launching a widespread scientific expedition to gather and study the remaining meteoritic fragments. This book chronicles Chelyabinsk's tale of recovery and discovery from the minds of many of the scientists who studied the superbolide, leading field experiments and collecting meteorites and meteorite dust across the region. The Chelyabinsk superbolide is a complex and multi-aspect phenomenon. The book not only presents the results of the scientific research but also details the firsthand experiences of those involved in such efforts, providing readers with a unique opportunity to look at the "inner workings" of science that are seldom shown to the public. Over the course of their studies, the scientists collected over 200 photographs and a dozen video recordings taken by nearly 40 different eyewitnesses. Many of those never-before-published illustrations and photos can be found in full color in the pages of this book.
Coined barely two decades ago, the Anthropocene has become one of the most influential and controversial terms in environmental policy. Yet it remains an ambivalent and contested formulation, giving rise to a multitude of unexpected, and often uncomfortable, conversations. This book traces in detail a broad variety of such 'Anthropocene encounters': in science, philosophy and literary fiction. It asks what it means to 'think green' in a time when nature no longer offers a stable backdrop to political analysis. Do familiar political categories and concepts, such as democracy, justice, power and time, hold when confronted with a world radically transformed by humans? The book responds by inviting more radical political thought, plural forms of engagement, and extended ethical commitments, making it a fascinating and timely volume for graduate students and researchers working in earth system governance, environmental politics and studies of the Anthropocene. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance.
A compilation of papers describing the geology, engineering properties and the hazards and design issues associated with the substrata of Melbourne and its surrounds. It includes the area from Geelong to Bacchus Marsch to the Dandenongs and Mornington Peninsula.
Based on more than twenty years of research and lecturing, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano and his team's textbook provides an excellent introduction to the interactions between the atmosphere and the land for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and a reference text for researchers in atmospheric physics and chemistry, hydrology, and plant physiology. The combination of the book, which provides the essential theoretical concepts, and the associated interactive Chemistry Land-surface Atmosphere Soil Slab (CLASS) software, which provides hands-on practical exercises and allows students to design their own numerical experiments, will prove invaluable for learning about many aspects of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. This book has a modular and flexible structure, allowing instructors to accommodate it to their own learning-outcome needs.
Originally published in 1981, Living Shores was for many years the standard reference for marine science students but was also embraced by a popular market for its fascinating insights into marine and coastal habitats and the life they support. After a long absence, this classic has been revived and thoroughly reworked to incorporate the many dramatic changes that our oceans and coasts have undergone over the past few decades.
This book is the first of a two volume set, and examines the different marine ecosystems and how humankind interacts with them. It discusses the evolution of the sea and continents and looks at the ecology of coastal systems, including intertidal zones, beaches, dunes, estuaries, islands, kelp forests and reefs. The book unpacks the relationship between humans and the marine environment, and the consequences of harvesting and mining to meet our needs. It also addresses the impact of climate change, and highlights what can be done to protect our environment.
Richly supported by full-colour photography and numerous explanatory illustrations, diagrams and graphs, this book will prove invaluable to students and teachers but will also appeal to anyone with a fascination for nature and our marine world in particular.
Oil exploration requires proper understanding of the geological set-up of any area to make the process economical and effective. This involves geological, geophysical, geochemical surveys including studying the lateral variations in litho-stratigraphic units in the adjoining areas surrounding the bore-hole, done through study of Dipmeter logs. This book `Dipmeter Surveys in Petroleum Exploration' giving all the required backup of the other allied subjects for easy and meaningful interpretations of the Dipmeter data, so that drilling of dry wells is avoided to maximum possible extent and new discoveries to be made, thereby enhancing the oil resource of a particular geographical location.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of the variables and processes of microclimate and local climate, including radiation balance and energy balance. It describes and explains the climate within the lower atmosphere and upper soil, the region critical to life on Earth. Topics that are covered include not only the physical processes that affect microclimate, but also biological processes that affect vegetation and animals, including people. A geographic tour of the microclimates of the major ecosystems around the world is included. All major biomes and surface types, including urban areas, are examined, and the effects of climate change on microclimate are described. This book is invaluable for advanced students and researchers in climatology in departments of environmental science, geography, meteorology, agricultural science, and forestry.
Heliophysics is a fast-developing discipline that integrates studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. Over the past few centuries, our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced dramatically. This set brings together three books edited by Carolus Schrijver and George Siscoe, which together provide a complete guide to heliophysics - covering the full range of sub-disciplines that constitute this field. Supplemented by online teaching materials, the volumes can be used as textbooks for graduate courses or as a foundational reference resource for researchers in fields from astrophysics and plasma physics to planetary and atmospheric science. Volume 1 is Heliophysics: Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos, Volume 2 is Heliophysics: Space Storms and Radiation: Causes and Effects, and Volume 3 is called Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth.
Groundwater is integral to many human and environmental systems but there are significant challenges in dealing with the impact of anthropogenic activities on groundwater systems. These challenges need innovative solutions. This book contains a wide range of content, from a discussion of the Australian regulatory framework for unconventional hydrocarbons, the extraction of which have the potential to significantly impact groundwater systems, to the best way to apply numerical models to help solve complex, real world problems. The impact of urbanisation on groundwater systems in the developing world is also discussed, at both a local scale in Nigeria and at a world scale. The use of innovative tools such as managed aquifer recharge, a critical tool in solving the groundwater challenges of the 21st century, is also discussed. The framework used to manage the legacy of agricultural contamination in Denmark, covering investigation to regulation and remediation, is also presented, focussing on how the many challenges in implantation were solved. This book is targeted at professional hydrogeologists, experts in governance, law and policy as well as other professionals that need to incorporate an understanding of groundwater. The book will also appeal to politicians, resource managers, regulators and others interested in sustainable water supply.
A major objective of this monograph is to identify the impact of thermal environment on urban center district. It provides in-depth evaluation and research on the correlation between urban spatial morphology indicator and urban thermal environment. In addition, the distribution characteristics of thermal environment and urban morphology units sample are also evaluated intensively. Furthermore, it analyses from three aspects of urban planning, architecture and landscape respectively and includes 35 concrete measures that could be brought into practice on reducing negative impact of urban thermal environment. Through 500 vivid figures, graphs and diagrams it illustrates the relationship between urban morphology and urban thermal environment. The analysis software employed by the author includes Ecotect, ENVI-met and Ray-man. It intertwines the quantitative research of both thermal environment and urban morphology through in-depth analysis and urban microclimate simulation. It makes a valuable contribution for the research on urban environment and urban morphology.
Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.
A guide to 48 sites of geologic interest in Newfoundland -- one of North Americas most popular areas for rock enthusiasts. Maps, GPS waypoints, and travel directions make it easy for anyone to visit breath-taking, informative locations both on and off the beaten path. Together, these sites reveal the remarkable geological history of the island. Colour photographs and accompanying descriptions capture the appeal and significance of the rocks at each site. Includes: Profiles of 48 easy to find geological sites; Colour photographs, maps, GPS waypoints, directions; Tabs and icons for quick identification.
Fish, or lower vertebrates, occupy the basal nodes of the vertebrate phylogeny, and are therefore crucial in interpreting almost every feature of more advanced vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Recent research focuses on combining evolutionary observations - primarily from the fish fossil record - with developmental data from living fishes, in order to better interpret evolutionary history and vertebrate phylogeny. This book highlights the importance of this research in the interpretation of vertebrate evolution, bringing together world-class palaeontologists and biologists to summarise the most interesting, current and cutting-edge topics in fish evolution and development. It will be an invaluable tool for researchers in early vertebrate palaeontology and evolution, and those particularly interested in the interface between evolution and development.
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
Weather and climate are not the same. Weather is what occurs outdoors on a daily basis and is unpredictable from one week to the next, whereas climate follows a stable pattern that is developed over centuries. The planet is divided into climate zones-tropical, temperate and polar-based on temperature differences with distance from the equator where the sun is most intense and temperature affects humidity, precipitation, cloudiness and wind. To understand what drives our climate, scientists study the atmosphere, the oceans, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. 30-Second Climate is an immediately accessible guide to the 50 key factors affecting Earth's climate, past, present and future, each explained in half a minute. From atmospheric circulation to zero carbon, this is the quickest way to know your planet.
Approximately 70% of the surface of Earth is the bottom of the seafloor and about 80% of the seafloor is the deep seafloor (at deeper than 200m below the sea-surface). This book discusses the deep sea. It provides topics on the biodiversity, human dimension and ecological significance of the deep sea, including the metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis discoveries; the biodiversity and life-history strategies of deep sea megafauna in the Mediterranean Sea; and prokaryotes in metal deposits on the deep seafloor.
An ancient and long-extinct volcano lies at the heart of Scotland's capital. It roared into life some 350 million years ago and has been a source of fascination since it was first studied in earnest during the Enlightenment by James Hutton, one of the most significant geologists of all time. Many of Hutton's ground-breaking ideas of how the world works were predicated on the rocks and landscapes of his home city and surrounding area. This book is a fascinating exploration into Edinburgh's geological history over millions of years - including the passage of ice during a great freeze that has left an indelible stamp on Edinburgh's cityscape, the use rocks quarried locally from ancient, now long disappeared seas to create the stunning elegance of Edinburgh's New Town, and the coal deposits and oil shale which were exploited from the Industrial Revolution to the present day.
The geology of the Cairngorms was created on a timeline that stretches back hundreds of millions of years. Much of the land is underlain by granite that formed deep within the Earth's crust and 'surfaced' as the overlying layers of rock were stripped away by ice, wind and water. The bedrock is hard, and although the area has been heavily glaciated, still boasts 18 Munros, the highest of Scotland's peaks. The area attracts climbers, walkers and assorted adventurers who want to pit themselves against some of the most challenging conditions to be found anywhere in the UK. The plants and animals of the Cairngorms need to be hardy to survive the severe winter conditions. The higher reaches of the mountains are rich in montane vegetation such as lichen-rich heath and other habitats support many rare species.
"The Geologic Time Scale 2012," winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy.
This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field.
The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access. Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility. Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events. Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content).
The line-scan images collected in this book represent the most accurate optical record of Antarctic ice cores ever presented, providing an invaluable resource for glaciologists and climate modellers, as well as a fascinating compilation of ice core images for Antarctica enthusiasts. Global warming and the Earth's past climate are the two main reasons for extracting deep ice cores from Antarctica. Indeed, dust particles, aerosols and other climatic traces deposited on the snow surface, as well as the air trapped in bubbles by compacted snow, produce chronologically ordered strata, making the ice from Antarctica the most accurate and valuable archive of the Earth's climate over the last million years. In addition, the layered structure produced by these strata, when revealed by appropriate methods, provides indispensable information concerning the flow and mechanical stability of the Antarctic ice sheet, allowing us to assess the current and future impact of global warming on the melting of polar ice caps with much greater precision.
"The storm has entered the Gulf." For those who live or travel near the Gulf of Mexico, this ominous announcement commands attention, especially given the frequency and force of hurricane strikes in recent years. Since 2004, the shores around the Gulf of Mexico have been in the crosshairs for an increasing number of hurricanes and tropical storms, including Charley and Wilma in southwestern Florida and Ivan, Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike along the northern Gulf coast from Panama City to near Galveston. In this definitive guide, climatologists Barry D. Keim and Robert A. Muller examine the big picture of Gulf hurricanes -- from the 1800s to the present and from Key West, Florida, to Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula -- providing an extraordinary compilation and interpretation of the entire region's hurricane and tropical storm history.
Drawing from their own research and from National Hurricane Center records, Keim and Muller examine numerous individual Gulf storms, considering each hurricane's origin, oceanic and atmospheric influences, seasonality, track, intensity, size, point of landfall, storm surge, and impact on life, property, and the environment. They describe the unique features of the Gulf that influence the development of hurricanes, such as the loop current and its eddies, and identify areas of the coastline that are more or less vulnerable because of physical environment, socioeconomic environment, or both. They point out that the increase in population along the Gulf Coast over the past century has led to a rise in hurricane damage as once sparse coastlines are now lined with residents, commerce, and industry. In addition, they assess predicted hurricane activity for coming years in light of competing climate theories as well as cyclical patterns over the past century.
Keim and Muller begin their book by scrutinizing the Gulf's deadliest storm, the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, whose victims received little to no warning of its approach. They then retrace 2005's Hurricane Katrina, the most costly storm, using NHC advisories and reports. Their comparison of these two catastrophic events shows that despite 105 years of tremendous technological advances, hurricanes remain ultimately rather unpredictable and human warning, readiness, and response measures continue to be imperfect. Keim and Muller also detail other memorable Gulf storms -- the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, Audrey, Betsy, Camille, Gilbert, Andrew, Wilma, and more -- and give the hurricane strike records from 1901 to 2005 at thirty locations around the Gulf. They extend the New Orleans hurricane strike record back to the middle of the nineteenth century, providing key insight into comparisons of storm activities during the two centuries.
An epilogue summarizes the destructive 2008 hurricane season, including storms Dolly, Gustav, and Ike. Plentiful maps, charts, tables, graphs, and photos, along with anecdotal observations and an informative text, make Hurricanes of the Gulf of Mexico a captivating and useful volume for Gulf residents, storm trackers, or anyone fascinated by the weather.
A comprehensive and scholary history of prehistoric and early Cardiganshire. This volume is illustrated with maps, line-drawings and photographic plates. It begins with the geography of the county, its flora and fauna, and traces the slow emergence of Man in prehistoric times. It reconstructs, from evidence much of which has only been recently discovered, the extent and nature of the Roman Occupation, and finaly the slow emergence of the kingdom of Ceredigion, the nature of its economic and social organization and political structures. The coming of Christianity, the settlements of the Saints and their priceless heritage, are also explored. The volume ends with the coming of the Normans. This is the first volume to appear in the County History which is being prepared by the Cardiganshire County Historical Society. The completed history will consist of three scholarly volumes designed to present the history of the ancient county from the beginning to the present day. Volume 2: "Medieval and Early Modern Cardiganshire", edited by Professor J. Beverley Smith and Volume 3: "Cardiganshire in Modern Times", edited by Professor Ieuan Gwynedd Jones and Professor Geraint H. Jenkins are in preparation and will follow at regular intervals.
This book is offered as a contribution to the spread of knowledge and understanding in the field of strata mechanics in coal mining. It is written for professionals in the coal mining industry and students of mining engineering and includes some of the author's own philosophy of coal mine stability.
This book brings together in one place as much factual data as possible relating to the engineering geology of the Sydney Region, A huge amount of information resides in the files of various consulting and government organizations from the innumerable site investigations and construction projects in Sydney. This information brought together provides a data source that is the first point of reference for future investigations and construction projects. With the above object in mind subject headings were established based on the stratigraphic sequence of the Sydney Basin. Invitations were extended to potential authors with expertise and experience in these subjects and after some two years, the papers in this volume were produced. Engineering Geology of the Sydney Region is produced by a committee. As such it has the advantage of canvassing a broad range of opinion and experience. A data source has been produced for geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists working in or having a particular interest in the Sydney Region.
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