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International Law offers a rigorous yet accessible introduction to public international law for students.
Presenting a clearly structured conceptual framework, the text is designed to support understanding by providing a concise, coherent perspective of international law principles and systems at domestic, regional and international levels. In addition to the standard, core material addressed in international law curriculae, the text examines judgments from South African courts and African jurisdictions, and provides a challenging analysis of key, emerging developments which are particularly relevant to the African context.
Introduction to law and legal skills introduces LLB students to legal history and basic frameworks and concepts in a graduated, applied and engaging way. The core focus of this text is its innovative educational and learning-developed approach, which helps teach students how to think as lawyers. Knowledge of theory and concept is reinforced through applied, practical exercises which support comprehension. This integrated approach furthers understanding to build and develop independent academic skills. In particular, the text encourages the development of language skills, critical and independent thinking, and legal research skills.
Drawing on both theory and practice, this insightful book offers a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and the International Criminal Court (ICC), centered on the referral mechanism. Arguing that the legal nature of the referral must be conceptualized as a conferral of powers from the UNSC to the ICC, the author explores the complex legal relationship between interacting international organizations. With a novel approach to the relationship between the UNSC and the ICC, this book addresses important questions raised in practice. In particular, Gabriel M. Lentner explores issues regarding any limits and conditions for referral under the UN Charter and the Rome Statute, and the legal effects on heads-of-state immunity, as well as the validity of jurisdictional exemptions for other specific categories of nationals. This is a persuasive study into the powers of the UNSC with respect to international criminal law. With its timely focus on an important topic, this book will be vital reading for academics in international institutional law, international criminal law, and human rights law. ICC judges and lawyers, as well as lawyers involved in the UN, governments, and non-governmental organizations will also benefit from this book.
The boundaries between international crimes and transnational crimes are blurring. Should prosecution and trial of transnational crimes be transferred from national to international jurisdictions? Or should criminal law repression in respect of such crimes remain the prerogative of the state? Cutting-edge contributions in this book demonstrate that there is no 'one-size-fits-all' answer to these questions. Addressing the distinctions and commonalities of transnational and international crimes, renowned contributors discuss the implications of this relationship in the realm of law enforcement. This book critically reflects on the connection between the 'core crimes' of the International Criminal Court, namely; war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, aggression, and several newly emerging transnational crimes. In view of this gradual merger of the categories, one of the major questions is whether the distinction in legal regime is still warranted. Significantly, the human rights consequences of transnational criminal law enforcement are brought to attention in this timely study. Academics and students of law, officials, policy makers and practising criminal lawyers, will all greatly benefit from this crucial insight into the future of handling transnational crime.
This authoritative book provides a holistic overview of terrorist groups and finances, including consideration of the necessity and differing financial needs of different groups. For over a decade international efforts by law enforcement, government and financial regulatory authorities have been deployed in combatting terrorist financing, in good faith and with dedication beyond reproach. This book surveys the methods of financing of numerous terrorist groups and organisations - including the Chinese and Asian dimension - and considers why ultimately international efforts to combat the financing of terror are failing. Nick Ridley expertly illustrates the scale of the problem by first outlining the strategies of anti terrorist financing, the pre and post 9/11 differences in scope and extent of terrorist attacks, the financial support and the national and international efforts to implement and carry out countermeasures. He then goes on to set out a detailed analysis of the apparent failure of such counter measures to date. Including operational case studies and details from the authors own experience, studies and access to law enforcement and private sector sources, this book will prove insightful for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying criminology, history and law disciplines. Those in the legal profession will also find plenty of useful information in this topical compendium.
This book analyzes the interactions of international criminal tribunals established since the 1990s with international, national and regional bodies, making recommendations for the International Criminal Court (ICC) as it goes forward. Placing the core issues within the statutory framework of the Rome Statute and major policy considerations, the authors examine ways in which the ICC can best coordinate with other accountability mechanisms on national and regional prosecutions, the UN Security Council, cooperation on the enforcement of arrest warrants, national non-judicial processes and amicus briefs from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This timely evaluation of the experiences of ad hoc international criminal tribunals spotlights the legal, political and coordination issues that will likely impact the ICC's current mandate to adjudicate core international crimes. It explores how governments, inter-governmental bodies and global civil society might best collaborate to strengthen national capacity to investigate and prosecute atrocity crimes in pursuit of global justice. The book also considers the challenge of state cooperation with international criminal tribunals, identifying lessons for the ICC, while emphasizing the need for positive complementarity between the emerging African Criminal Court and the ICC. Lawyers, judges, NGOs, government officials, academics and policymakers at all levels will value this book as an important resource on transitional justice and the place of justice in the aftermath of conflict and mass atrocity.
Despite the growing focus on issues of socio-economic transformation in contemporary transitional justice, the path dependencies imposed by the political economy of war-to-peace transitions and the limitations imposed by weak statehood are seldom considered. This book explores transitional justice's prospects for seeking economic justice and reform of structures of poverty in the specific context of post-conflict states. Systematic and timely, this book examines how the evolution of contemporary civil war, the modalities of peacemaking and peacebuilding, as well as the role of grassroots forms of justice, condition prospects for tackling the economic roots of conflict. It argues that discourse in the area focuses too much on the liberal commitments of interveners to the exclusion of understanding how interventionist impulses are compromised by the agency of local actors. Ultimately, the book illustrates that for transitional justice to become effective in transforming structures of injustice, it needs to acknowledge the salience of domestic political incentives and accumulation patterns. Transitional justice scholars will find this book indispensable as the first consideration of transitional justice and economic transformation from the perspective of the domestic political economy. Both peacebuilding and development specialists will also benefit from its wealth of lessons to be learned.
With the establishment of numerous international and mixed tribunals in recent years, international criminal law has gained unprecedented importance and continues to expand tremendously. This systematic analysis of substantive international criminal law examines its general principles, sources and evolution as well as specific international crimes, providing an in-depth analysis of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and customary international law. The updated second edition takes account of the emerging case law of the ICC and other international and national courts in the field. It includes more recent methods of enforcing international criminal law, such as hybrid tribunals, and contains a new separate chapter on implementation.
The international criminality of waging illegal war, alongside only a few of the gravest human wrongs, is rooted not in its violation of sovereignty, but in the large-scale killing war entails. Yet when soldiers refuse to kill in illegal wars, nothing shields them from criminal sanction for that refusal. This seeming paradox in law demands explanation. Just as soldiers have no right not to kill in criminal wars, the death and suffering inflicted on them when they fight against aggression has been excluded repeatedly from the calculation of post-war reparations, whether monetary or symbolic. This, too, is jarring in an era of international law infused with human rights principles. Tom Dannenbaum explores these ambiguities and paradoxes, and argues for institutional reforms through which the law would better respect the rights and responsibilities of soldiers.
Written by a team of international lawyers with extensive academic and practical experience of international criminal law, the fourth edition of this leading textbook offers readers comprehensive coverage and a high level of academic rigour while maintaining its signature accessible and engaging style. Introducing the readers to the fundamental concepts of international criminal law, as well as the domestic and international institutions that enforce that law, this book engages with critical questions, political and moral challenges, and alternatives to international justice. Suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics and practitioners in the field, and cited by the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, and the highest courts in domestic systems, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in learning more about international criminal law.
International criminal law has witnessed a rapid rise after the end of the Cold War. The United Nations refers to the birth of a new 'age of accountability', but certain historical objections, such as selectivity or victor's justice, have never fully gone away, and many of the justice dimensions of international criminal law remain unexplored. Various critiques have emerged in socio-legal scholarship or globalization discourse, revealing that there is a stark discrepancy between reality and expectation. Linking discussion of legal theories, case-law and practice to scholarship and opinion, A Critical Introduction to International Criminal Law explores these critiques through five main themes at the heart of contemporary dilemmas: * The shifting contours of criminality and international crimes * The tension between individual and collective responsibility * The challenges of domestic, international, hybrid and regional justice institutions * The foundations of justice procedures * Approaches towards punishment and reparation Suitable for students, academics and professionals from multiple fields wishing to understand contemporary theories, practices and critiques of international criminal law. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Drawing on the expertise and experience of contributors from a wide range of academic, professional and judicial backgrounds, the Research Handbook on the International Penal System critically analyses the laws, policies and practices that govern detention, punishment and the enforcement of sentences in the international criminal justice context. Comprehensive and innovative, it examines the operation of the international penal system, covering pertinent issues such as non-custodial sanctions, monitoring of conditions of detention, the protection of prisoners under international law and the transfer of prisoners. These aspects are presented in a logical order, linking up with the chronological sequence of the international criminal justice process. Far-reaching, this Handbook also explores broader normative questions related to contemporary human rights law, transitional and restorative justice and victim redress, before exploring contemporary and alternative mechanisms for punishing and overseeing punishment, and possible avenues for development. This up-to-date assessment will provide valuable insights for researchers and students of international criminal law and justice, comparative penal law, penology, prisoners' rights and transitional and restorative justice. Its recommendations for development will also interest international and national officials working in criminal law and justice.
Corruption is a global phenomenon with costs estimated to be in the trillions of dollars. This source of original research and policy analysis deals with the most important concepts and empirical evidence in foreign corrupt practices globally. Handbook of Global Research and Practice in Corruption includes research from all continents and provides a critical analysis of the key issues of corruption and its control. Through rigorous analysis and theoretical foundations, this book provides a multi-disciplinary and international account of corruption from the perspectives of public policy, criminal law and criminology, as well as considering principles of prevention and control in both the public and private sectors. With original and empirical analyses, this unique book will appeal to academics, researchers and students in international business and international law, staff of crime and corruption commissions and police integrity agencies, as well as international organisations such as the World Bank, IMF, Transparency International and the World Economic Forum.
What is international criminal justice? The authors of this book set out a framework for understanding international criminal justice in all its facets. Considering both definition and content, the authors argue for its treatment as a holistic field of study, rather than a by-product of international criminal law. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, this book draws on a range of legal and extra-legal disciplines. Whilst addressing crucial legal questions throughout, it also considers the role and impact of politics, history, psychology, terrorism, transitioning society, and even the idea of hope in how we understand international criminal justice. Challenging many of the prevalent paradigms of thinking in this area, Gideon Boas and Pascale Chifflet explore whether it is possible to reconcile some of the enduring intellectual conflict, such as whether and how retributive and restorative approaches to justice can co-exist. Written by leading academics who themselves are also practitioners in the field, this unique work performs a significant role in defining and explaining international criminal justice, and as such will be important reading for scholars and practitioners, as well as providing an entry point for students in a classroom environment.
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s and designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the practice and case law of the ICTY to make a novel theoretical analysis of the structural flaws inherent in ICTs as institutions that inhibit their contribution to social peace and prosperity. Kerstin Bree Carlson proposes a seminal analysis of the structural challenges to ICTs as socially constitutive institutions, setting the agenda for future considerations of how international organizations can perform and disseminate the goals articulated by political liberalism.
Does the passage of time prevent the prosecution of international crimes committed in the past? Statutory Limitations in International Criminal Law examines whether and to what extent a rule of customary international law or general principle of law exists which prohibits the application of statutory limitations to international crimes. The focus is on international crimes, such as genocide, war crimes and torture, committed during World War II, under the former communist regimes in Eastern Europe and under military junta regimes in Latin America. Comprehensive analysis is included of the legislation of 192 UN Member States, the case law of 18 states, various international instruments and the documents and activities of scholars and non-governmental organisations. Those specialising in international criminal law or statutes of limitation and those dealing with the prosecution of international crimes committed in the past will find this a helpful and practical resource.
Over the last decade, law enforcement agencies have engaged in increasingly intrusive surveillance methods, from location tracking on cell phones to reading metadata off of e-mails. As a result, many believe we are heading towards an omniscient surveillance state and irrevocable damage to our privacy rights. In Smart Surveillance, Ric Simmons challenges this conventional wisdom by taking a broader look at the effect of new technologies and privacy, arguing that advances in technology can enhance our privacy and our security at the same time. Rather than focusing exclusively on the rise of invasive surveillance technologies, Simmons proposes a fundamentally new method of evaluating government searches - based on quantification, transparency, and efficiency - resulting in a legal regime that can adapt as technology and society change.
This book examines the position of 'contextual elements' as a constitutive element of the legal definition of the crime of genocide, and determines the extent to which an individual genocidaire is required to act within a particular genocidal context. Unlike other books in the field of the study of the crime of genocide, this book captures the nuance and the complex issues of the debate by providing book-length comprehensive examination of the position of contextual elements in light of the evolution of genocide as a concept and the literal legal definition of the crime of genocide, which expressly characterized the crime with only the existence of an individualistic intent to destroy a group. With scholars of international criminal law, students, researchers, practitioners in the field, and international criminal tribunals in mind, the author tackles many of the issues raised on the position of contextual elements in both academic literature and judicial decisions. Nasour Koursami is the Director of Applied Research and a Lecturer at the National School of Administration in Chad. He studied law at Cardiff and Bristol Universities and holds a Ph.D. in International Law from the University of Edinburgh.
The 8th Hague Joint Conference honored the centennial anniversary of The 1907 Hague Conference, which launched the modern era of international humanitarian law. The provisions adopted at the 1907 Hague Conference formed the basis for, amongst other things, the later promulgation of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. Moreover, the so-called "Martens Clause" in the 1907 Hague Convention IV served as a foundation for the concept of crimes against humanity. Held from 28-30 June 2007, the 8th Hague Joint Conference was attended by an interesting mix of established experts and international institutional 'insiders' as well as promising newcomers, practitioners and academics, which resulted in lively debate. Most of the participating speakers' contributions are included in this book. The Conference consisted of a series of key note addresses and panels focusing on salient issues in international humanitarian law and criminal jurisdiction. The topics include the battle against impunity, the head of State immunity for former leaders and lessons learned from the trials of Slobodan Milosevic, Charles Taylor, and Saddam Hussein; the need for a comprehensive anti-terrorism convention and the judicial review of internationally-enacted anti-terror measures; the defining, suppressing and trying of genocide; the issues of truth commissions, accountability and the International Criminal Court, as well as the future of the International Criminal Court; corporate liability for human rights crimes; international humanitarian intervention in the post-9/11 era; the plundering of natural resources and destruction of the environment in times of armed conflict, and, finally, ways of dealing with present-day conduct of hostilities. The 8th Hague Joint Conference, entitled Criminal Jurisdiction 100 Years after the 1907 Hague Peace Conference, was organized by the Foundation "The Hague Joint Conferences on International Law" in which the American Society of International Law, the Netherlands Society of International Law and the T.M.C. Asser Instituut participate. The editors of the present book acted as academic co-chairs of the Conference.
This Companion is a one-stop reference resource on the Phnom Penh based 'Khmer Rouge tribunal'. It serves as an introduction to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, while also exploring some of the Chambers' practical and jurisprudential challenges and outcomes. Established by an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Cambodia, the tribunal has been operational since 2006, and seeks a mandate to try those most responsible for serious crimes committed during the Khmer Rouge period from 1975 to 1979. The Companion is organized around a series of themes including legality, structure, proceedings, jurisprudence, legitimacy and legacy, and offers both direct insights and academic analysis by an author who has worked as senior adviser to the tribunal's Pre-Trial and Supreme Court Chambers. This original book will prove a valuable and stimulating read for lawyers, judges and UN staff working within, establishing, or monitoring international courts and tribunals as well as local and international NGOs in Cambodia concerned with accountability for the crimes of the Kymer Rouge era. Academics focusing on international criminal justice will also find this Companion useful to assess the contribution of the Extraordinary Chambers, both during the tribunal's lifespan and after it has closed its doors.
Peace and Justice at the International Criminal Court focuses on the evolution and the present-day work of the International Criminal Court, a historic global institution. Errol P. Mendes provides a compelling argument that there can never be a sustainable peace in conflicts unless the cause of justice is also addressed. The author dives deep into the facts and rulings of the Court that involved some of the most serious international conflicts in recent times. The author also discusses the challenges facing the Court from failed prosecutions to failures of the UN Security Council and other member states. What results is a detailed but honest critique of where the Court succeeds and where it needs to improve. Mendes goes on to provide a prediction of the greatest challenges facing the Court in the foreseeable future. This book is a valuable resource for academics and students in international criminal law and practice, public international relations, political science, military and war studies.
The emergence of international criminal courts, beginning with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and including the International Criminal Court, has also brought an evolving international criminal procedure. In this book, the authors examine selected issues that reflect a blending of, or choice between, civil law and common law models of procedure. The topics include background on civil law and common law legal systems; plea bargaining; witness proofing; written and oral evidence; self-representation and the use of assigned, standby, and amicus counsel; the role of victims; and the right to appeal. International Criminal Procedure will appeal to academics, students, researchers, lawyers and judges working in the field of international criminal law.
Over the last quarter of a century a new system of global criminal justice has emerged; national judges have become bolder in prosecuting crimes committed abroad, special tribunals have been able to target national leaders as well as their henchmen, and a permanent International Criminal Court has been established. But how successful have these ambitious transformations been? Have they ushered in a new era of cosmopolitan justice or are the old principles of victors justice still in play? In this book, Daniele Archibugi and Alice Pease offer a vibrant and thoughtful analysis of the successes and shortcomings of the global justice system from 1945 to the present day. Part I traces the evolution of this system and the cosmopolitan vision enshrined within it. Part II looks at how it has worked in practice - focusing on the trials of some of the world s most notorious war criminals, including Augusto Pinochet, Slobodan Milo evi , Radovan Karad i , Saddam Hussein and Omar al-Bashir, to assess the efficacy of the new dynamics of international punishment and the extent to which they can operate independently, without the interference of powerful governments and their representatives. Looking to the future, Part III asks how the system s failings can be addressed. What actions are required for cosmopolitan values to become increasingly embedded in the global justice system in years to come?
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