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This book presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research on water treatment methods for the removal of cyanobacteria, taste and odour compounds, and cyanotoxins. The topics covered include practically all technologies that are currently used or are in a state of research and development e.g. membrane filtration, adsorption, biological treatment, chemical disinfection-oxidation, advanced oxidation processes, reviewing their effects on cyanotoxins with regards to degradation, detoxification, mineralization and relative mechanisms. The book highlights strong and weak points regarding the applicability of these techniques on a large scale, discusses issues regarding the quality of treated water, and identifies research gaps and future research needs on the topic. Topics covered include: * Introduction to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins * Cyanotoxins and human health * Physical treatment for the removal of cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins * Biological treatment for the destruction of cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins * Conventional disinfection and/or oxidation processes * Advanced oxidation processes * Removal and/or destruction of taste and odour compounds. * Integrated drinking water processes. * Transformation products of cyanobacterial metabolites during water treatment. The book concludes with a section of case studies and real life examples, followed by a review of the research gaps and future perspectives. This book has been developed within the frame of the COST-funded CYANOCOST Action http://cyanocost.com/index.php and is edited by experienced scientists in the field. Chapters are authoritative and written by an internationally recognized team of experts in specific research topics related to water treatment for purification from cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.
Winds, Waves, and Warriors examines the oceanographic conditions that U.S. military planners considered, or should have considered, when landing troops and vehicles on the beach at three historic amphibious assaults: Normandy, Tarawa, and Inchon. Oceanographer Thomas M. Mitchell brings welcome insight into a little-studied yet extraordinary aspect of ground warfare by explaining why certain tidal and weather conditions existed at those specific places and times, and how they affected the Army and Marine foot soldiers fighting to get ashore. Mitchell offers easy-to-understand descriptions of basic oceanographic concepts and applies them to actual amphibious operations. Winds and waves hampered the Allies' efforts on D-Day but less than they would have had the soldiers attempted storming the beach at Normandy the day before or after. Coral reefs and tides contributed to high Marine casualties at Tarawa Atoll in the Pacific. General Douglas MacArthur used the element of surprise by attacking the North Koreans at Inchon despite treacherous soft mud bottoms and unfavorable tidal conditions. Mitchell details how wartime necessity led to the development of clever methods to estimate such factors as water depth, beach slope, and underwater shoals, all of which affected troops' assaults and potentially changed the outcomes of key battles. An Army Air Corps lieutenant, for example, dug a hole on the beach at Normandy to help him predict tides more accurately. The Army's Beach Erosion Board and research groups such as the Scripps Institution of Oceanography exploited elementary principles of physical oceanography to develop crude but effective instruments and techniques for ocean remote sensing and forecasting. Indeed, soldiers, Marines, staff planners, commanders, oceanographers, meteorologists, and researchers all contributed to some of the largest and most important military invasions in history. Winds, Waves, and Warriors tells of the U.S. military's struggles with a foe that was sometimes just as formidable and unpredictable as the opposing army. When unheeded, unfavorable weather and ocean conditions could lead to tragic and avoidable deaths. The threat posed by the ocean at these three historic battles was an important factor not only in the outcomes of these operations but also to the survival of the troops who fought there.
Rising at 11,750 feet in the Sangre de Cristo range and snaking 926 miles through New Mexico and Texas to the Rio Grande, the Pecos River is one of the most storied waterways in the American West. It is also one of the most troubled. In 1942, the National Resources Planning Board observed that the Pecos River basin ""probably presents a greater aggregation of problems associated with land and water use than any other irrigated basin in the Western U.S."" In the twenty-first century, the river's problems have only multiplied. Bitter Waters, the first book-length study of the entire Pecos, traces the river's environmental history from the arrival of the first Europeans in the sixteenth century to today. Running clear at its source and turning salty in its middle reach, the Pecos River has served as both a magnet of veneration and an object of scorn. Patrick Dearen, who has written about the Pecos since the 1980s, draws on more than 150 interviews and a wealth of primary sources to trace the river's natural evolution and man's interaction with it. Irrigation projects, dams, invasive saltcedar, forest proliferation, fires, floods, flow decline, usage conflicts, water quality deterioration - Dearen offers a thorough and clearly written account of what each factor has meant to the river and its prospects. As fine-grained in detail as it is sweeping in breadth, the picture Bitter Waters presents is sobering but not without hope, as it also extends to potential solutions to the Pecos River's problems and the current efforts to undo decades of damage. Combining the research skills of an accomplished historian, the investigative techniques of a veteran journalist, and the engaging style of an award-winning novelist, this powerful and accessible work of environmental history may well mark a turning point in the Pecos's fortunes.
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
Changes in climate and sea level are nothing new - over the last 700 million years, the Earth has been slowly but constantly changing from within. We now know that our planet's surface, far from being fixed or stable, is composed of tectonic plates in continual movement, drifting in oceans which themselves appear and disappear over millennia. Such insecurity lies at the heart of both the physical and the living world, providing the creative impetus for all life forms to confront change, adapt and evolve.
This exceptional book celebrates the inevitability of global change and highlights our need as human beings to recognize and adjust to it. Its entertaining and accessible text displays a remarkable breadth and diversity of knowledge, drawing upon discoveries in natural history, geology, geography and paleontology to unravel secrets of millions of years. Its unique structure offers the opportunity to pursue two distinct but parallel narratives in one volume - the first characterized by discrete photo-essay spreads, and the second by authoritative running text illustrated with clearly numbered icons. Designed either to be browsed through like a website or read in chronological sequence, each chapter provides a fascinating glimpse into the formation and development of our world.
Glorious panoramic photography by the author, a specialist in interpretive landscape, reveals the physical legacy of the Earth's distant past. This intriguing exploration of key sites, often remote and inaccessible, provides a clear and original perspective on the Earth as a dynamic, interactive planet. The compelling narrative by a bestselling science writer places the history of our planet in a challenging contemporary context in which human beings, like all living things, must embrace change or fail to survive.
As a science writer Ron Redfern has received a number of prestigious literary and academic awards, perhaps most notably the American Institute of Professional Geologists' Outstanding Achievement Award. This was presented to him before his permanent return to England in 1996. The award was in recognition of his contribution to the public understanding in science.
Notable advances of the last quarter-century have deepened our appreciation of the three-dimensional nature of the ocean's large-scale circulation. This circulation has important implications for ocean chemistry and biology, atmospheric science, and climate. Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions surveys both observations and theories of the time-mean circulation, enabling readers to see the relevance and limitations of leading theories, as well as the patterns linking the behavior of different oceans. The book covers "classical" topics of horizontal circulation, and expands them to include shallow wind-driven overturning, the deep global "conveyer belt", high latitudes, the role of eddies, and the ocean's role in heat transport. Solutions to exercises are available online for instructor use. This textbook is ideal for students of physical oceanography, chemical oceanography and climate. It is also suitable for readers from related fields as it includes a summary of introductory topics.
The Elizabeth River courses through the heart of Virginia. The Jamestown colonists recognized the river's strategic importance and explored its watershed almost immediately after the 1607 founding. The Elizabeth River traces four centuries of this historic stream's path through the geography and culture of Virginia.
This is a modern, introductory textbook on the dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean, with a healthy dose of geophysical fluid dynamics. It will be invaluable for intermediate to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology, oceanography, mathematics, and physics. It is unique in taking the reader from very basic concepts to the forefront of research. It also forms an excellent refresher for researchers in atmospheric science and oceanography. It differs from other books at this level in both style and content: as well as very basic material it includes some elementary introductions to more advanced topics. The advanced sections can easily be omitted for a more introductory course, as they are clearly marked in the text. Readers who wish to explore these topics in more detail can refer to this book's parent, Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation, now in its second edition.
Exam board: AQA, Edexcel, OCR, WJEC/Eduqas Level: A-level Subject: Geography First teaching: September 2016 First exams: Summer 2017 (AS); Summer 2018 (A-level) Master the in-depth knowledge and higher-level skills that A-level Geography students need to succeed; this focused topic book extends learning far beyond your course textbooks. Blending detailed content and case studies with questions, exemplars and guidance, this book: - Significantly improves students' knowledge and understanding of A-level content and concepts, providing more coverage of The Water and Carbon Cycles than your existing resources - Strengthens students' analytical and interpretative skills through questions that involve a range of geographical data sources, with guidance on how to approach each task - Demonstrates how to evaluate issues, with a dedicated section in every chapter that shows how to think geographically, consider relevant evidence and structure a balanced essay - Equips students with everything they need to excel, from additional case studies and definitions of key terminology, to suggestions for further research and fieldwork ideas for the Independent Investigation - Helps students check, apply and consolidate their learning, using end-of-chapter refresher questions and discussion points, plus tailored advice for the AQA, Edexcel, OCR and WJEC/Eduqas specifications - Offers trusted and reliable content, written by a team of highly experienced senior examiners and reviewed by academics with unparalleled knowledge of the latest geographical theories
When, as a young man in the 1880s, Benjamin Lundy signed up for duty aboard a square-rigged commercial sailing vessel, he began a journey more exciting, and more terrifying, than he could have ever imagined: a treacherous, white-knuckle passage around that notorious "graveyard of ships," Cape Horn.
A century later, Derek Lundy, author of the bestselling "Godforsaken Sea" and an accomplished amateur seaman himself, set out to recount his forebear's journey. "The Way of a Ship" is a mesmerizing account of life on board a square-rigger, a remarkable reconstruction of a harrowing voyage through the most dangerous waters. Derek Lundy's masterful account evokes the excitement, romance, and brutality of a bygone era -- "a fantastic ride through one of the greatest moments in the history of adventure" ("Seattle Times").
Half of the world's population today lives in coastal regions lapped by tidal waters. But the tide rises and falls according to rules that are a mystery to almost all of us. In The Tide, celebrated science writer Hugh Aldersey-Williams weaves together centuries of scientific thinking with the literature and folklore the tide has inspired to explain the power and workings of this most remarkable force. Here is the epic story of the long search to understand the tide from Aristotle, to Galileo and Newton, to classic literary portrayals of the tide from Shakespeare to Dickens, Melville to Jules Verne. Throughout, Aldersey-Williams whisks the reader along on his travels: He visits the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, where the tides are the strongest in the world; arctic Norway, home of the raging tidal whirlpool known as the maelstrom; and Venice, to investigate efforts to defend the city against flooding caused by the famed acqua alta.
Blending memoir, travelogue and history, The Seine is a love letter to Paris and the river that determined its destiny. Master storyteller and The New York Times foreign correspondent Elaine Sciolino explores the Seine through its lively characters-a bargewoman, a riverbank book- seller, a houseboat dweller, a famous cinematographer-and follows it from the remote plateaus of Burgundy, through Paris and to the sea. The Seine is a vivid, enchanting portrait of the world's most irresistible river.
The World Ocean Assessment - or, to give its full title, The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment - is the outcome of the first cycle of the United Nations' Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects. The Assessment provides vital, scientifically-grounded bases for the consideration of ocean issues, including climate change, by governments, intergovernmental agencies, non-governmental agencies and all other stakeholders and policymakers involved in ocean affairs. Together with future assessments and related initiatives, it will support the implementation of the recently adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly its ocean-related goals. Moreover, it will also form an important reference text for marine science courses.
Groundwater mechanics is the study of fluid flow in porous media. Focusing on applications and case studies, this book explains the basic principles of groundwater flow using mathematical expressions to describe a wide range of different aquifer configurations. Emphasis is placed throughout on the importance of developing simplified models that can be solved analytically to provide insight into complex groundwater flow scenarios and to allow better interpretation of the full numerical solution. Focusing first on identifying the important features of a problem, the book explains how to translate practical questions into mathematical form and discusses the interpretation of the results. Illustrated with numerous real-world examples and graphical results, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate Earth science, geological engineering, and environmental engineering courses, as well as a useful reference for researchers and professionals.
This new and completely updated edition gives a detailed description of radiative transfer processes at a level accessible to advanced students. The volume gives the reader a basic understanding of global warming and enhanced levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone depletion. It teaches the basic physics of absorption, scattering and emission processes in turbid media, such as the atmosphere and ocean, using simple semi-classical models. The radiative transfer equation, including multiple scattering, is formulated and solved for several prototype problems, using both simple approximate and accurate numerical methods. In addition, the reader has access to a powerful, state-of-the-art computational code for simulating radiative transfer processes in coupled atmosphere-water systems including snow and ice. This computational code can be regarded as a powerful educational aid, but also as a research tool that can be applied to solve a variety of research problems in environmental sciences.
""What about the twenty-first century? Will we finally accept our responsibilities as guardians of planet Earth, the biological living trust, for the beneficiaries, the children of today, tomorrow, and beyond? Or, will it too be a century of lethal, economic struggle among the polarized positions of the supremely dysfunctional among us? Are they--once again--to be allowed to determine the legacy we, as a society, as a nation, bequeath those who follow us? The choice is ours, the adults of the world. How shall we choose?""
So writes Chris Maser in this compelling study of three interactive spheres of the ecosystem: atmosphere (air), litho-hydrosphere (rock that comprises the restless continents and the water that surrounds them), and biosphere (all life sandwiched in between).
Rich in detail and insightful analogies, "Earth in Our Care" addresses key issues including land-use policies, ecological restoration, forest management, local living, and sustainability thinking. Exploring our interconnectedness with the Earth, Maser examines today's problems and, more importantly, provides solutions for the future.
European explorers were captivated by the seemingly endless bounty of natural resources on Cape Cod Bay. One Englishman declared that the codfish were so thick one "could" walk on their backs. Early settlers quickly learned how to harness the bay's resources and excelled at shore whaling, shipping and salt making. But as these new industries flourished, the native Wampanoag, who helped the fledgling colony to take root, nearly vanished. Author Theresa Mitchell Barbo's skillful narrative weaves together the natural and cultural histories of the bay, highlighting some of the region's diverse milestones- from the drafting of the Mayflower Compact in 1620 to the establishment of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant 350 years later. "Cape Cod Bay: A History of Salt & Sea" inspires new appreciation for this storied and stunning seascape, and underscores the importance of new efforts to preserve the bay's unique ecosystem.
Katrina's arrival on the Gulf Coast was a long time in coming. But it was assured. Since 1965, when Hurricane Betsy struck New Orleans, breached a levee, and flooded part of the city, everyone was waiting and talking about when the Big One would strike and do even more damage. Katrina was that hurricane, predictedand imagined before she struck, but so much worse in her reality.
Holding Back the Sea is about the consequences of ignoring the warning signs that nature provides and the struggle to convince the rest of the country that South Louisiana lay in the path of destruction. The signs were not subtle; there were Hurricanes Andrew in 1992, George and Mitch in 1998, and Ivan in 2004, among others. At one time or another in their journeys north, they all threatened New Orleans. Some had headed right for the city before veering to the east and west, sparing the Big Easy and reinforcing the nickname. But the Big Easy ended -- at least in reputation -- on August 29, 2005, when the Big One came ashore as Katrina.
This book consists of the articles from the special issue of "'Hot Spots' in the Climate System" in the Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 71 No. 5, 2015, comprising 9 chapters that cover a wide spectrum of topics. This spinoff book is a collection of papers on the scientific outcomes of a nationwide 5-year project funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and known internationally as the "Hot-Spot Project." The academic achievement of the project has gained international recognition, making substantial contribution to unveiling the climatic role of warm western boundary ocean currents, including the Kuroshio, and associated oceanic fronts characterized by sharp temperature gradients and active meso-scale oceanic eddies. Specifically, those warm currents may be called "hot spots" in the climate system, as they intensively release heat and moisture to the atmosphere, thereby acting to organize clouds and precipitation systems and set conditions favorable for recurrent development of storms. This spinoff is a unique collection of the outcome of the particular project. The collected papers cover a wide range of aspects of ocean-atmosphere interaction characteristic of the oceanic fronts and continental marginal seas, unveiled through observational, theoretical, analytical, and numerical investigations. Most of the readers of the book are assumed to be researchers and graduate students who study climate dynamics, physical oceanography, atmospheric science, and air-sea interaction.
Rich and strange from the tip of its title to its deep-sunk bones' Robert Macfarlane From the author of Leviathan, or, The Whale, comes a composite portrait of the subtle, beautiful, inspired and demented ways in which we have come to terms with our watery planet. In the third of his watery books, the author goes in pursuit of human and animal stories of the sea. Of people enchanted or driven to despair by the water, accompanied by whales and birds and seals - familiar spirits swimming and flying with the author on his meandering odyssey from suburbia into the unknown. Along the way, he encounters drowned poets and eccentric artists, modernist writers and era-defining performers, wild utopians and national heroes - famous or infamous, they are all surprisingly, and sometimes fatally, linked to the sea. Out of the storm-clouds of the twenty-first century and our restive time, these stories reach back into the past and forward into the future. This is a shape-shifting world that has never been certain, caught between the natural and unnatural, where the state between human and animal is blurred. Time, space, gender and species become as fluid as the sea. Here humans challenge their landbound lives through art or words or performance or myth, through the animal and the elemental. And here they are forever drawn back to the water, forever lost and found on the infinite sea.
Multi-scale systems, involving complex interacting processes that occur over a range of temporal and spatial scales, are present in a broad range of disciplines. Several methodologies exist to retrieve this multi-scale information from a given time series; however, each method has its own limitations. This book presents the mathematical theory behind the stochastic analysis of scaling time series, including a general historical introduction to the problem of intermittency in turbulence, as well as how to implement this analysis for a range of different applications. Covering a variety of statistical methods, such as Fourier analysis and wavelet transforms, it provides readers with a thorough understanding of the techniques and when to apply them. New techniques to analyse stochastic processes, including empirical mode decomposition, are also explored. Case studies, in turbulence and ocean sciences, are used to demonstrate how these statistical methods can be applied in practice, for students and researchers.
In the harsh winter of 1779, John Donelson loaded his family and thirty slaves into a 40' flatboat at the present site of Kingsport, Tennessee. Their journey into the wilderness led to the founding of a settlement now known as Nashville - over 1,000 river miles away. In the fall of 2016, photographer John Guider retraced the Donelson party 17's journey in his hand-built 14 1/2' motorless rowing sailboat while making a visual documentation of the river as it currently exists 240 years later. This photo book contains more than 120 striking images from the course of the journey, allowing the reader to see how much has changed and how much has remained untouched in the two and a half centuries since Donelson first took to the water. Equally significant, the essays include long-ignored contemporary histories of both the Cherokee who Donelson encountered and the slaves he brought with him, some of whom did not survive the journey. Guider, a professional photographer, has created images of every point in the thousand-mile journey from a platform just a few feet above the waterline of three of Tennessee's most notable rivers.
This textbook is a self-contained introduction to tides that will be useful for courses on tides in oceans and coastal seas at an advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level, and will also serve as the go-to book for researchers and coastal engineers needing information about tides. The material covered includes: a derivation of the tide-generating potential; a systematic overview of the main lunar periodicities; an intuitive explanation of the origin of the main tidal constituents; basic wave models for tidal propagation (e.g. Kelvin waves, the Taylor problem); shallow-water constituents; co-oscillation and resonance; frictional and radiation damping; the vertical structure of tidal currents; and a separate chapter on internal tides, which deals with ocean stratification, propagation of internal tides (vertical modes and characteristics) and their generation. Exercises are provided in each chapter.
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