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The largest known collection of ledger art ever acquired by one
individual is Mark Lansburgh's diverse assemblage of more than 140
drawings, now held by the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College
and catalogued in this important book. The Cheyennes, Crows,
Kiowas, Lakotas, and other Plains peoples created the genre known
as ledger art in the mid-nineteenth century. Before that time,
these Indians had chronicled the heroic achievements of their
warriors and chiefs on rock, buffalo robes, and tipi covers. As
they came into increasing contact with American traders, the
artists recorded their experiences in pencil and crayon drawings on
paper bound in ledger or account books. The drawings became known
as ledger art.
Revealing firsthand narratives of Indian captivity from
eighteenth-century New Hampshire and Vermont.
Each year more than five hundred new books appear in the field of North American Indian history. There exists, however, no means by which scholars can easily judge which are most significant, which explore new fields of inquiry and ask new questions, and which areas are the subject of especially strong inquiry or are being overlooked. New Directions in American Indian History provides some answers to these questions by bringing together a collection of bibliographic essays by historians, anthropologists, sociologists, religionists, linguists, economists, and legal scholars who are working at the cutting edge of Indian history.
This volume responds to the label "new directions" in two ways. First, it describes what new directions have been pursued recently by historians of the Indian experience. Second, it points out some new directions that remain to be pursued.
Part One, "Recent Trends," contains six essays reviewing the following six areas where there has been significant interest and activity: quantitative methods in Native American history, by Melissa L. Meyer and Russell Thornton; American Indian women, by Deborah Welch; new developments in Metis history, by Dennis F.K. Madill; recent developments in southern plains Indian history, by Willard Rollings; Indians and the law, by George S. Grossman; and twentieth-century Indian history, by James Riding In.
Part Two, "Emerging Trends," contains essays on aspects of Indian history that remain undeveloped: language study and Plains Indian history, by Douglas R. Parks; economics and American Indian history, by Ronald L. Trosper; and religious changes in Native American societies, by Robert A. Brightman. These latter essays present a critique of current scholarship and sketch an agenda for future inquiry. Taken together, the nine essays in this book will help students at all levels to evaluate recent scholarship and tap the immense contemporary literature on American Indian history.
In 1791, General Arthur St. Clair led the United States army in a campaign to destroy a complex of Indian villages at the Maumee River in northwestern Ohio. Almost within reach of their objective, St. Clair's 1,400 men were attacked by about one thousand Indians. The U.S. force was decimated, suffering nearly one thousand casualties in killed and wounded, while Indian casualties numbered only a few dozen. But despite the lopsided result, it wouldn't appear to carry much significance; it involved only a few thousand people, lasted less than three hours, and the outcome, which was never in doubt, was permanently reversed a mere three years later. Neither an epic struggle nor a clash that changed the course of history, the battle doesn't even have a name. Yet, as renowned Native American historian Colin Calloway demonstrates here, St. Clair's Defeat-as it came to be known- was hugely important for its time. It was both the biggest victory the Native Americans ever won, and, proportionately, the biggest military disaster the United States had suffered. With the British in Canada waiting in the wings for the American experiment in republicanism to fail, and some regions of the West gravitating toward alliance with Spain, the defeat threatened the very existence of the infant United States. Generating a deluge of reports, correspondence, opinions, and debates in the press, it produced the first congressional investigation in American history, while ultimately changing not only the manner in which Americans viewed, raised, organized, and paid for their armies, but the very ways in which they fought their wars. Emphasizing the extent to which the battle has been overlooked in history, Calloway illustrates how this moment of great victory by American Indians became an aberration in the national story and a blank spot in the national memory. Calloway shows that St. Clair's army proved no match for the highly motivated and well-led Native American force that shattered not only the American army but the ill-founded assumption that Indians stood no chance against European methods and models of warfare. An engaging and enlightening read for American history enthusiasts and scholars alike, The Victory with No Name brings this significant moment in American history back to light.
Dartmouth College began life as an Indian school, a pretense that has since been abandoned. Still, the institution has a unique, if complicated, relationship with Native Americans and their history. Beginning with Samson Occom's role as the first "development officer" of the college, Colin G. Calloway tells the entire, complex story of Dartmouth's historical and ongoing relationship with Native Americans. Calloway recounts the struggles and achievements of Indian attendees and the history of Dartmouth alumni's involvements with American Indian affairs. He also covers more recent developments, such as the mascot controversies, the emergence of an active Native American student organization, and the partial fulfillment of a promise deferred. This is a fascinating picture of an elite American institution and its troubled relationship-- at times compassionate, at times conflicted--with Indians and Native American culture.
The 1676 killing of Metacomet, the tribal leader dubbed "King Philip" by colonists, is commonly seen as a watershed event, marking the end of a bloody war, dissolution of Indian society in New England, and even the disappearance of Native peoples from the region. This collection challenges that assumption, showing that Indians adapted and survived, existing quietly on the fringes of Yankee society, less visible than before but nonetheless retaining a distinct identity and heritage. While confinement on tiny reservations, subjection to increasing state regulation, enforced abandonment of traditional dress and means of support, and racist policies did cause dramatic changes, Natives nonetheless managed to maintain their Indianness through customs, kinship, and community.
George Washington dominates the narrative of the nation's birth, yet American history has largely forgotten what he knew: that the country's fate depended less on grand rhetorical statements of independence and self-governance than on land-Indian land. While other histories have overlooked the central importance of Indian power during the country's formative years, Colin G. Calloway here gives Native American leaders their due, revealing the relationship between the man who rose to become the most powerful figure in his country and the Native tribes whose dominion he usurped. In this sweeping new biography, Calloway uses the prism of Washington's life to bring focus to the great Native leaders of his time-Shingas, Tanaghrisson, Bloody Fellow, Joseph Brant, Red Jacket, Little Turtle-and the tribes they represented: the Iroquois Confederacy, Lenape, Miami, Creek, Delaware; in the process, he returns them to their rightful place in the story of America's founding. The Indian World of George Washington spans decades of Native American leaders' interaction with Washington, from his early days as surveyor of Indian lands, to his military career against both the French and the British, to his presidency, when he dealt with Native Americans as a head of state would with a foreign power, using every means of diplomacy and persuasion to fulfill the new republic's destiny by appropriating their land. By the end of his life, Washington knew more than anyone else in America about the frontier and its significance to the future of his country. The Indian World of George Washington offers a fresh portrait of the most revered American and the Native Americans whose story has been only partially told. Calloway's biography invites us to look again at the story of America's beginnings and see the country in a whole new light.
In this superb volume in Oxford's acclaimed Pivotal Moments series,
Colin Calloway reveals how the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had a
profound effect on American history, setting in motion a cascade of
unexpected consequences, as Indians and Europeans, settlers and
frontiersmen, all struggled to adapt to new boundaries, new
alignments, and new relationships.
Before European incursions began in the seventeenth century, the Western Abenaki Indians inhabited present-day Vermont and New Hampshire, particularly the Lake Champlain and Connecticut River valleys. This history of their coexistence and conflicts with whites on the northern New England frontier documents their survival as a people-recently at issue in the courts-and their wars and migrations, as far north as Quebec, during the first two centuries of white contacts. Written clearly and authoritatively, with sympathy for this long-neglected tribe, Colin G. Calloway's account of the Western Abenaki diaspora adds to the growing interest in remnant Indian groups of North America. This history of an Algonquian group on the periphery of the Iroquois Confederacy is also a major contribution to general Indian historiography and to studies of Indian white interactions, cultural persistence, and ethnic identity in North America Colin G. Calloway, Assistant Professor of History in the University of Wyoming, is the author of Crown and Calumet: British-Indian Relations, 1783-181S, and the editor of New Directions in American Indian History, both published by the University of Oklahoma Press. "Colin Calloway shows how Western Abenaki history, like all Indian history, has been hidden, ignored, or purposely obscured. Although his work focuses on Euro-American military interactions with these important eastern Indians, Calloway provides valuable insights into why Indians and Indian identity have survived in Vermont despite their lack of recognition for centuries."-Laurence M. Hauptman, State University of New York, New Paltz. "Far from being an empty no-man's-land in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the western Abenaki homeland is shown in this excellent synthesis to have been an active part of the stage on which the events of the colonial period were acted out. -Dean R. Snow, State University of New York, Albany. "At last the western Abenakis have a proper history. Colin Calloway has made their difficultly accessible literature his own and has written what will surely remain the standard reference for a long time."-Gordon M. Day, Canadian Ethnology Service. "Although they played a central role in the colonial history of New England and southern Quebec, the western Abenakis have been all but ignored by historians and poorly known to anthropologists. Therefore, publication of a careful study of western Abenaki history ranks as a major event.... Calloway's book is a gold mine of useful data."-William A. Haviland, senior author, The Original Vermonters.
From maps, monuments, and architectural features to stamps and currency, images of Native Americans have been used again and again on visual expressions of American national identity since before the country's founding. In the first in-depth study of this extraordinary archive, Cecile R. Ganteaume argues that these representations are not empty symbols but reflect how official and semi-official government institutions-from the U.S. Army and the Department of the Treasury to the patriotic fraternal society Sons of Liberty-have attempted to define what the country stands for. Seen collectively and studied in detail, American Indian imagery on a wide range of emblems-almost invariably distorted and bearing little relation to the reality of Native American-U.S. government relations-sheds light on the United States' evolving sense of itself as a democratic nation. Generation after generation, Americans have needed to define anew their relationship with American Indians, whose lands they usurped and whom they long regarded as fundamentally different from themselves. Such images as a Plains Indian buffalo hunter on the 1898 four-cent stamp and Sequoyah's likeness etched into glass doors at the Library of Congress in 2013 reveal how deeply rooted American Indians are in U.S. national identity. While the meanings embedded in these artifacts can be paradoxical, counterintuitive, and contradictory to their eras' prevailing attitudes toward actual American Indians, Ganteaume shows how the imagery has been crucial to the ongoing national debate over what it means to be an American. Officially Indian is published in concert with the Americans exhibition, which opens October 26, 2017, at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. American Indians represent less than 1 percent of the U.S. population, yet names and images of Indians are everywhere: military weapons, songs, town names, advertising, and that holiday in November. Americans invites visitors to take a closer look, and to ask why. Featuring nearly 350 objects and images, from a Tomahawk missile to baking powder cans, Americans examines the staying power of four stories (Thanksgiving, Pocahontas, the Trail of Tears, and the Battle of Little Bighorn) that are woven into the fabric of both American history and contemporary life. By highlighting what has been remembered, contested, cherished, and denied about these stories, and why they continue to resonate, this exhibition shows that Americans have always been fascinated, conflicted, and profoundly shaped by their relationship to American Indians.
Although many Americans consider the establishment of the colonies as the birth of this country, in fact early America existed long before the arrival of the Europeans. From coast to coast, Native Americans had created enduring cultures, and the subsequent European invasion remade much of the land and society. In New Worlds for All, Colin G. Calloway explores the unique and vibrant new cultures that Indians and Europeans forged together in early America. The journey toward this hybrid society kept Europeans' and Indians' lives tightly entwined: living, working, worshiping, traveling, and trading together-as well as fearing, avoiding, despising, and killing one another. In some areas, settlers lived in Indian towns, eating Indian food. In the Mohawk Valley of New York, Europeans tattooed their faces; Indians drank tea. A unique American identity emerged. The second edition of New Worlds for All incorporates fifteen years of additional scholarship on Indian-European relations, such as the role of gender, Indian slavery, relationships with African Americans, and new understandings of frontier society.
George Washington's place in the foundations of the Republic remains unrivalled. His life story-from his beginnings as a surveyor and farmer, to colonial soldier in the Virginia Regiment, leader of the Patriot cause, commander of the Continental Army, and finally first president of the United States-reflects the narrative of the nation he guided into existence. There is, rightfully, no more chronicled figure. Yet American history has largely forgotten what Washington himself knew clearly: that the new Republic's fate depended less on grand rhetoric of independence and self-governance and more on land-Indian land. Colin G. Calloway's biography of the greatest founding father reveals in full the relationship between Washington and the Native leaders he dealt with intimately across the decades: Shingas, Tanaghrisson, Guyasuta, Attakullakulla, Bloody Fellow, Joseph Brant, Cornplanter, Red Jacket, and Little Turtle, among many others. Using the prism of Washington's life to bring focus to these figures and the tribes they represented-the Iroquois Confederacy, Lenape, Miami, Creek, Delaware-Calloway reveals how central their role truly was in Washington's, and therefore the nation's, foundational narrative. Calloway gives the First Americans their due, revealing the full extent and complexity of the relationships between the man who rose to become the nation's most powerful figure and those whose power and dominion declined in almost equal degree during his lifetime. His book invites us to look at America's origins in a new light. The Indian World of George Washington is a brilliant portrait of both the most revered man in American history and those whose story during the tumultuous century in which the country was formed has, until now, been only partially told.
In 1791, General Arthur St. Clair led the United States army in a
campaign to destroy a complex of Indian villages at the Miami River
in northwestern Ohio. Almost within reach of their objective, St.
Clair's 1,400 men were attacked by about one thousand Indians. The
U.S. force was decimated, suffering nearly one thousand casualties
in killed and wounded, while Indian casualties numbered only a few
dozen. But despite the lopsided result, it wouldn't appear to carry
much significance; it involved only a few thousand people, lasted
less than three hours, and the outcome, which was never in doubt,
was permanently reversed a mere three years later. Neither an epic
struggle nor a clash that changed the course of history, the battle
doesn't even have a name.
Treaties were the primary instruments by which Native American tribal homelands passed into non-Indian hands. Indian people were coerced, manipulated, and misled into signing treaties and Euro-Americans used treaty documents to justify their acquisition and perpetuate their occupation of Indian lands. Indians called treaties "pen and ink witchcraft." But each treaty had its own story and cast of characters and involved particular maneuverings and competing ambitions, and Indians frequently matched their colonizing counterparts in diplomatic savvy. Treaties were cultural encounters, human dramas, and power struggles where people representing different ways of life faced each other in a public contest of words rather than weapons. Treaty making changed over time and serves as a barometer of Indian-white relations in North America. Early treaty negotiations usually followed Indian protocol and forms, and sometimes were conducted on Indian terms, and early treaties were often agreements between equals. As power dynamics shifted the United States adapted and applied processes and procedures developed in the colonial era to effect the acquisition of Native lands by a rapidly expanding nation state. Pen and Ink Witchcraft begins with the protocols, practices, and precedents of Indian diplomacy in colonial America but then focuses the century between 1768 and 1871 when Congress ended treaty making. It traces the stories and the individuals behind three treaties that represent distinct phases in treaty relations. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768 culminated colonial efforts to establish a boundary between Indian lands and white settlers; the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 implemented national efforts to remove Indians, and the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 intended to confine and transform Indians as the United States pushed across the Great Plains. Although treaty making officially ended in 1871, nearly four hundred Indian treaties remain the law of the land. They continue to define the status of tribes as sovereign entities, determine their rights to hunting, fishing, and other resources, shape their dealings with state and federal governments, and provide the basis for much litigation and lobbying.
This magnificent, sweeping work traces the histories of the Native peoples of the American West from their arrival thousands of years ago to the early years of the nineteenth century. Emphasizing conflict and change, "One Vast Winter Count" offers a new look at the early history of the region by blending ethnohistory, colonial history, and frontier history. Drawing on a wide range of oral and archival sources from across the West, Colin G. Calloway offers an unparalleled glimpse at the lives of generations of Native peoples in a western land soon to be overrun.
This magnificent, sweeping account traces the histories of the Native peoples of the American West from their arrival thousands of years ago to the early years of the nineteenth century. Colin G. Calloway depicts Indian country west of the Appalachians to the Pacific, with emphasis on conflict and change. With broad and incisive strokes Calloway's narrative includes: the first inhabitants and their early pursuit of big-game animals; the diffusion of corn and how it transformed American Indian life; the Spanish invasion and Indian resistance to Spanish colonialism; French-Indian relations in the heart of the continent; the diffusion of horses and horse culture; the collision of rival European empires and the experiences of Indian peoples whose homelands became imperial borderlands; and the dramatic events between the American Revolution and the arrival of Lewis and Clark. The account ends as a new American nation emerged independent of the British Empire, took over the trans-Mississippi West, and began to expand its own empire based on the concept of liberty and the acquisition of Indian land. One Vast Winter Count offers a new look at the early history of the region-a blending of ethnohistory, colonial history, and frontier history. It features Native voices and perspectives; a masterful, fluid integration of a wide range of oral and archival sources from across the West; a dynamic reconstruction of cultural histories; and balanced consideration of controversial subjects and issues. Calloway offers an unparalleled glimpse at the lives of generations of Native peoples in a western land soon to be overrun. Colin G. Calloway is a professor of history, Samson Occom Professor of Native American Studies, and chair of the Native American Studies program at Dartmouth College. He is the coeditor of Germans and Indians: Fantasies, Projections, Encounters (Nebraska 2002) and the author of many publications including New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America.
For over three hundred years, the Indian peoples of North America
have attracted the interest of diverse segments of German
society--missionaries, writers, playwrights, anthropologists,
filmmakers, hobbyists and enthusiasts, and even royalty. Today,
German scholars continue to be drawn to Indians, as is the German
public: tour groups from Germany frequent Plains reservations in
the summer, and so-called Indianerclubs, where participants dress
up in "authentic" Indian costume, are common. In this fascinating
volume, scholars and writers illuminate the longstanding connection
between Germans and the Indians.
In 19th century paintings, the proud Indian warrior and the Scottish highland chief are portrayed in similar wayscolorful and wild, righteous and warlike, the last of their breeds. In 17th and 18th century accounts, they are both presented as barbarians, in need of English language, religion, and civilization. During the Seven Years War, the Cherokees and Highland troops were said to be cousins. By the 19th century, one could hear Cree, Mohawk, Cherokee, and Salish spoken with Gaelic accents. Colin Calloway, in this imaginative work of imperial history, looks at why these two peoples have so much in common. A comparative approach to the American Indians and Scottish Highlanders, this book examines the experiences of clans and tribal societies, which underwent parallel experiences on the peripheries of Britains empire (in Britain, the United States, and Canada) and what happened when they encountered one another on the frontier. Pushed out of their ancestral lands, their traditional food sourcescattle in the Highlands and bison on the Great Plainswere decimated to make way for livestock farming. Chapters of this book explore the storied landscapes, communal land-holding practices, and deep spiritual connections to place they shared; families and clans; Christian missionary activities among both Highlanders and Indians; and the forced removals of both peoples from their ancestral lands. Eventually, the conquering cultures would romanticize the indigenous peoples whose tribal ways of life they destroyed, in art and literature by such authors as Sir Walter Scott and James Fenimore Cooper. In North America, the groups often came together through the fur and deerskin industries and intermarried, and this book examines their relationships in the context of relations with colonial powers. Today, both groups continue to celebrate the survival of their heritages in pow-wows and Highland festivals, and growing numbers of Indians apply for membership in Scottish clan societies. A scholar of American Indians, who is of Scottish Highlander heritage, Calloway is known for his work on the relationships between Indians and colonists in North America. In this book, he complicates the notion of British power by differentiating between the English and Scottish Highlanders, who the English co-opted into serving in their military forces in North America. What one gains is a more finely-tuned understanding of how indigenous peoples with their own rich identities experienced cultural change, economic transformation, and demographic dislocation amidst the growing power of the British empire.
This study presents the first broad coverage of Indian experiences in the American Revolution rather than Indian participation as allies or enemies of contending parties. Colin Calloway focuses on eight Indian communities as he explores how the Revolution often translated into war among Indians and their own struggles for independence. Drawing on British, American, Canadian and Spanish records, Calloway shows how Native Americans pursued different strategies, endured a variety of experiences, but were bequeathed a common legacy as a result of the Revolution.
Indian peoples made some four hundred treaties with the United
States between the American Revolution and 1871, when Congress
prohibited them. They signed nine treaties with the Confederacy, as
well as countless others over the centuries with Spain, France,
Britain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, Canada, and even Russia,
not to mention individual colonies and states. In retrospect, the
treaties seem like well-ordered steps on the path of dispossession
and empire. The reality was far more complicated.
In this collection, Champagne and Stauss demonstrate how the rise of Native studies in American and Canadian universities exists as an extraordinary achievement in higher education. In the face of historically assimilationist agendas, institutional racism, and structural opposition by Western educational institutions, collaborative programs continue to grow and promote the values and goals of sovereign tribal communities. The contributors show how many departments grew significantly following the landmark 1969 Senate report, 'Indian Education: A National Tragedy, A National Challenge.' They evaluate the university efforts to offer Native students intellectual and technical skills, and the long battle to represent Native cultures and world views in the university curriculum. In twelve case studies, Indian and non-Indian teachers provide rich, contextual histories of their programs through three decades of growth. They frankly discuss successes and failures as innovative strategies and models are tested. Programs from University of California-Davis, Harvard, Saskatchewan, Arizona and others provide detailed analyses of academic battles over curriculum content, the marginalization of indigenous faculty and students, the pedagogical implications of integrating native instructors, the vagaries of administrative support and funding, Native student retention, the vulnerability of native language programs, and community collaborations. A vision of Indian education that emerges from these pages that reveals the university's potential as a vehicle for Indian nation-building, one in which the university curriculum also benefits from sustained contacts with tribal communities. As Native populations grow and the demand for university training increases, this book will be a valuable resource for Native American leaders, educators in Native American studies, race and ethnic studies, comparative education, minorities in education, anthropology, sociology, higher education administration and educational policy.
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