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Fertility, Biology, and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants presents the proximate determinants of natural fertility. This book discusses the biological and behavioral dimensions of human fertility that are linked to intermediate fertility variables. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the mechanisms through which socioeconomic variables influence fertility. This text then examines the absolute and relative age-specific marital fertility rates of selected populations. Other chapters consider the trends in total fertility rates of selected countries, including Colombia, Kenya, Korea, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, France, and United States. This book discusses as well the effects of deliberate marital fertility control through contraception and induced abortion. The final chapter deals with the management of sex composition and implications for birth spacing. This book is a valuable resource for reproductive physiologists, social scientists, demographers, statisticians, biologists, and graduate students with an interest in the biological and behavioral control of human fertility.
This volume is intended to complete the Cell Chemistry and
physiology module. It is about how the traditional boundaries of
cell chemistry and physiology are being erased by molecular
biology. We do not think it necessary to elaborate on this theme,
particularly since the body of core knowledge found in this volume
brings us a stage closer to answering the question, "what makes
cell biology into a new discipline?"
The biological function of clusterin (CLU, also known as ApoJ, SGP2, TRPM2, CLI) has been puzzling researchers since its discovery and characterization in the early 1980s. Approaches such as cloning, expression and functional characterization of the different protein products generated by the CLU gene have now produced a critical mass of information of tremendous biological importance that are teaching us an important lesson in molecular biology of gene expression regulation. This volume brings together the contributions of top researchers in the field, providing an overview and synthesis of the latest thought and findings relating to CLU.
Genetic recombination is a process of combining genes that leads to
the generation of cell variants that possess different
characteristics. This process is important to the evolution of a
species and to embryonic growth and differentiation. However, this
process can also lead to the development of abnormal, cancerous
cells. This book reviews the role of genetic recombination in the
generation of various cancers and how genetic alterations have been
or could be employed to elicit clinically useful information.
With cancer-related deaths projected to rise to 10.3 million people
by 2020, the need to prevent, diagnose, and cure cancer is greater
than ever. This book presents readers with the most up-to-date
imaging instrumentation, general and diagnostic applications for
various cancers, with an emphasis on lung and breast
carcinomas--the two major worldwide malignancy types. This book
discusses the various imaging techniques used to locate and
diagnose tumors, including ultrasound, X-ray, color Doppler
sonography, PET, CT, PET/CT, MRI, SPECT, diffusion tensor imaging,
dynamic infrared imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It
also details strategies for imaging cancer, emphasizing the
importance of the use of this technology for clinical diagnosis.
Imaging techniques that predict the malignant potential of cancers,
response to chemotherapy and other treatments, recurrence, and
prognosis are also detailed.
The Liver in Biology and Disease was conceived as a sequel in the
series "Principles of Medical Biology," whose general aim continues
to be the integration of human biology and molecular cell biology
into modern molecular medicine. It is a volume molded by the
Information Revolution which few will deny has forced the teaching
faculties in our medical schools to curtail and prune the teaching
load and focus on fundamentals and principles. With this intention
in mind, a volume of this nature takes into account the close
dependence of progress in the medical sciences on bioinformatics
(gene and protein analysis) or more precisely, computational
biology and of course, the Internet. In general, it follows the
pattern of its predecessors.
Now available in its Third Edition, Asthma: Basic Mechanisms and
Clinical Management has become "the" reference text in asthma. This
highly successful text sheds new light on the basic physiological
and molecular mechanisms of asthma, how current treatments work,
and how best to apply the latest knowledge to control this
important disease. The Third Edition has undergone radical revision
and includes several new chapters. It retains the virtues of the
previous volumes by bringing together all of the recent research
findings by internationally recognized experts on the causative
mechanisms of asthma, including in-depth clinical aspects and
therapy. The book presents an integrated approach toward the
treatment of this disease with new concepts, changes in asthma
management, and the development of new therapeutic agents. Asthma
provides extensive references for researchers and clinicians who
need to keep abreast of recent developments in this rapidly
Structured to be a companion to the recently published Handbook of
Transfusion Medicine, the Handbook of Pediatric Transfusion
Medicine is dedicated to pediatric hematology-oncology and
transfusion medicine, a field which remains ambiguous and which has
generated few comprehensive texts. This book stands alone as one of
the few texts that addresses transfusion issues specific to
pediatric medicine. Written in an eminently readable style, this
authoritative handbook is a requirement for any pediatric physician
Molecular Endocrinology, Third Edition summarizes the area and
provides an in-depth discussion of the molecular aspects of hormone
action, including hormone-receptor interactions, second messenger
generation, gene induction, and post-transcriptional control.
Thoroughly revised and updated, the Third Edition includes new
information on growth factors hematopoietic-immune factors,
nonclassical hormones, receptors, transduction, transcriptional
regulation, as well as other relevant topics. Incorporating an
abundance of new information, this text retains the self-contained,
focused, and easily readable style of the Second Edition.
The present volume is the first in the advances in oncobiology series. It is meant to be useful not only to clinical and non-clinical oncologists but also to graduate students and medical students. The individual chapters are presented as self-contained summaries of current knowledge rather than as reviews. The last chapter deals with the subject of chemotherapy.
"Fundamentals of Osteoporosis" offers a concise yet
comprehensive source of all the latest basic research related to
osteoporosis in one reference work. Experts from all areas of
osteoporosis research expose readers to genomic and proteomic
analysis, and histopathology and imaging, as well cellular and
molecular mechanisms relevant to assay development and drug
Experts from all areas of osteoporosis research expose readers to genomic and proteomic analysis, histopathology and imaging, as well cellular and molecular mechanisms relevant to assay development and drug discovery
Clear, concise presentations by bone biologists of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoporosis
Genetic Diseases of the Kidney identifies and analyzes genetic
abnormalities causing renal diseases in human subjects. Although in
a sense the genome contains all the instructions required for the
formation of a phenotype, the information is encoded in an
extremely complicated fashion. In primary genetic diseases, the
genetic instruction specifies a phenotype clearly linked with a
discreet lesion confined to the kidney. However, the genetic
disturbance may be imbedded in a complicated physiologic ensemble,
so that the nexus between the genetic disturbance and the phenotype
may be obscured; in consequence, the causal sequence is extremely
difficult to unravel. In many instances the renal disease is one
component of a complicated systemic hereditary disease, either
monogenic or polygenic. Indeed, renal disease may arise as the sum
of minor inputs from many different, seemingly unrelated genes, so
that the genetic contributions may be difficult to identify.
Confounding the problem further are environmental influences,
originating either in the chromosomal environment from modifier
genes, or in the extra-chromosomal environmental from intrauterine
or postnatal influences. These considerations have determined both
the organization of the text as well as the detailed description of
the genetic disorders and the physiologic derangements that emerge.
Bringing the hard-to-quantify aspects of lived experience to
analysis, and emphasizing what might be lost in interventions if
cultural insights are absent, this book includes case studies from
across the Asia and Pacific regions -Bangladesh, Malaysia, New
Guinea, Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand,
Tuvalu and the Cook Islands. When Culture Impacts Health offers
conceptual, methodological and practical insights into
understanding and successfully mediating cultural influences to
address old and new public health issues including safe water
delivery, leprosy, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and
body image. It contains useful methodological tools - how to map
cultural consensus, measure wealth capital, conduct a cultural
economy audit, for example. It provides approaches for discerning
between ethnic and racial constructs and for conducting research
among indigenous peoples. The book will be indispensible for
culture and health researchers in all regions.
In this volume of ASPA, devoted to developmental biology research,
9 authors from different fields of developmental biology present
their investigations on various developing plant and animal models.
An "a priori" concern in mind that weightlessness might have
negative effects on developmental processes, it is encouraging to
know that the overall development of various organisms tested so
far is essentially correct under spaceflight conditions, leading to
viable individuals with viable offspring. On the other hand,
particular studies on specifically neurophysiological aspects in
developing organisms reveal important flight or postflight
disturbances; however it is encouraging to know that they appear to
be transient only.
At present, human society is facing a health care crisis that is affecting patients worldwide. In the United States, it is generally believed that the major problem is lack of affordable access to health care (i.e. health insurance). This book takes an unprecedented approach to address this issue by proposing that the major problem is not lack of affordable access to health care per se, but lack of access to better, safer, and more affordable medicines. The latter problem is present not only in the United States and the developing world but also in countries with socialized health care systems, such as Europe and the rest of the industrialized world. This book provides a comparative analysis of the health care systems throughout the world and also examines the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.
Written by experts in the field, Handbook of Endocrine Research
Techniques is currently the only single source of up-to-date
methods and strategies particularly useful in endocrinological
research. As a resource for both the novice and experienced
investigator, the book includes chapters which provide an
introduction to the area, general concepts, detailed protocols, and
Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials deals with the research processes and the role of statistics in these processes. The book offers real-life case studies and provides a practical, how to guide to biomedical R&D. It describes the statistical building blocks and concepts of clinical trials and promotes effective cooperation between statisticians and important other parties. The discussion is organized around 15 chapters. After providing an overview of clinical development and statistics, the book explores questions when planning clinical trials, along with the attributes of medical products. It then explains how to set research objectives and goes on to consider statistical thinking, estimation, testing procedures, and statistical significance, explanation and prediction. The rest of the book focuses on exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials; hypothesis testing and multiplicity; elements of clinical trial design; choosing trial endpoints; and determination of sample size. This book is for all individuals engaged in clinical research who are interested in a better understanding of statistics, including professional clinical researchers, professors, physicians, and researchers in laboratory. It will also be of interest to corporate and government laboratories, clinical research nurses, members of the allied health professions, and post-doctoral and graduate students.
Nutritional Biochemistry takes a scientific approach to nutrition.
It covers not just "whats"--nutritional requirements--but why they
are required for human health, by describing their function at the
cellular and molecular level. Each case study either leads to a
subsequent discovery or enables an understanding of the
physiological mechanisms of action of various nutrition-related
processes. The text is "picture-oriented" and the commentary is
directed towards explaining graphs, figures, and tables.
Breast cancer research has never been in such an exciting and
hopeful phase as today. From a clinical perspective, the discovery
of genetic markers of risk in a proportion of familial breast
cancer cases has opened up new vistas for understanding and
ultimately preventing this disease. On the other hand, aggressive -
even daring - therapies are being proven to be effective against
advanced breast cancer. For the breast cancer experimentalist, this
is also a time of great advance. Although animal and cell culture
breast cancer models have proven to be of great use, there are now
increasing opportunities to test the concepts developed in these
models in actual clinical samples and cases. It is gratifying to
see how well these concepts "translate" into the clinical setting.
A very active area of research that is linking the laboratory to
the clinic is the dissection of the biology and elucidation of the
significance of proliferate breast disease and the identification
of true, "high risk" or "preneoplastic" legions within the
previously ill-defined spectrum of fibrocystic or benign breast
disease. One anticipates that discoveries made here will also lead
to earlier detection, intervention and prevention of
During the past several years there has been a shortage of flight
opportunities for biological and medical projects. And those that
were available usually had severe restrictions on instrumentation,
number of subjects, duration, time allotted for performing the
experiments, a possibility for repetition of experiments. It is our
hope and expectation that this will change once the international
Space Station is in full operation. The advantages of a permanent
space station, already demonstrated by the Russian Mir station, are
continuous availability of expert crew and a wide range of
equipment, possibility of long-term experiments where this is
waranted, increased numbers of subjects through larger laboratory
space, proper controls in the large 1-G centrifuge, easier
repeatability of experiments when needed.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common
maladies of mankind. Approximately 40% of the adult population of
the USA suffers from significant heartburn and the numerous
antacids advertised incessantly on national television represents a
$8 billion per year drug market. The ability to control acid
secretion with the increasingly effective acid-suppressive agents
such as the H2 blockers ("pepcid, zantac") and proton pump
inhibitors ("nexium, prevacid") has given physicians an excellent
method of treating the symptoms of acid reflux.
Progression of chronic diseases in general and chronic kidney
disease in particular has been traditionally viewed in the light of
various contributors to development of glomerulosclerosis and
tubulointerstitial scarring culminating in renal fibrosis. Indeed,
this dogma prevailed for decades underscoring experimental attempts
to halt fibrotic processes. Breakthrough investigations of the past
few years on stem/progenitor cell involvement in organ regeneration
caused a conceptual shift in tackling the mechanisms of
nephrosclerosis. It has become clear that the rate of progression
of chronic kidney disease is the net sum of the opposing trends:
degenerative fibrotic processes and regenerative repair mechanisms.
The latter part of this equation has been by and large ignored for
years and only recently attracted investigative attention. This
book revisits the problem of kidney disease by focusing on
regenerative mechanisms in renal repair and on the ways these
regenerative processes can become subverted by an intrinsic disease
process eventuating in its progression. Cutting-edge investigations
are summarized by the most experienced international team of
* Presents a comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of renal stem cells, tissue regeneration, and stem cell therapies for renal diseases in one reference work. This will ultimately result in time savings foracademic, medical and pharma researchers.
* Experts in the renal stem cell system in kidney repair and regeneration take readers from the bench research to new therapeutic approaches, providing a common language for nephrology researchers, fellows and other stem cell researchers. This enables the discussion of development of stem cells and their use in the repair and regeneration of the kidney."
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an adaptive form of cell death that plays a critical role in turnover of mitotic cells and various tissues in the adult, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts and various endocrine cells. Programmed cell death also plays a major role in development in organizing the body plan and molding intricate cellular structures such as nerve cell circuits in the brain. Rapidly progressing research into the molecular and biochemical underpinnings of the programmed cell death process are revealing novel genetic programs and molecular interactions that coordinate a process that results in death and removal of cells without an immune response and in the absence of the adverse effects on neighboring cells.
"Programmed Cell Death, Volume I," critically details the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms of apoptosis. This volume covers programmed cell death in a variety of tissues and organ systems highlighting the interesting families of proteins involved in promoting or preventing apoptosis. These include the caspase and calpain families of proteases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Each chapter is written by an internationally recognized expert in a particular aspect of programmed cell death.
This book will provide the reader with a comprehensive
understanding of the cascade of events leading from an apoptotic
signal, such as trophic factor withdrawal or increased oxidative
stress, to cell death. Importantly, this volume also covers
signaling mechanisms designed to prevent apoptosis. Such
anti-apoptotic signaling cascades involve neurotrophic factors and
stress response pathways. "Programmed Cell Death, Volume I,"
provides the molecular and cellular foundation for http:
//www.elsevier.com/locate/isbn/0444507302Programmed Cell Death,
Volume II in which the roles of aberrant regulation of apoptosis in
human diseases ranging from cancer to Alzheimer's disease are
This comprehensive, full color hematopathology reference book
emphasizes immunophenotpic features, cytogenetic studies, and
diagnostic molecular aspects. Hematopathology begins with
introductions to morphologic evaluation of the hematopoietic
tissues and principles of immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and
molecular studies followed by chapters dedicated to different types
of hematologic disorders. Each chapter starts with a basic overview
of hematopathlogy followed by a comprehensive review of
immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular findings. The text is
balanced with large numbers of full color images, graphs, charts,
and tables to assist the reader in understanding these highly
This practical, easy-to-use guide, named to Doody s Core Titles 2013, addresses interference issues in all laboratory tests, including patient epigenetics, process of specimen collection, enzymes, biomarkers. Clinicians and laboratory scientists can therefore rely on one reference which speaks to both their needs of accurate specimen analysis and optimal patient care.
Erroneous hospital and pathology laboratory results can be
confusing and problematic, especially in acute care situations.
While some factors creating interference, can be identified in the
laboratory, detecting many others is often dependent on clinical
details unavailable to the laboratory scientists or pathologists.
Therefore, clinicians must become proficient in identifying such
erroneous reports, and working with pathologists and laboratory
scientists so that they can understand the source of such
interferences, correct the results, and then decide what course of
action must be followed for proper patient management.
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