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Feeding the world, climate change, biodiversity, antibiotics, plastics - the list of concerns seems endless. But what is most pressing, what are the knock-on effects of our actions, and what should we do first? Do we all need to become vegetarian? How can we fly in a low-carbon world? Should we frack? How can we take control of technology? Does it all come down to population? And, given the global nature of the challenges we now face, what on Earth can any of us do? Fortunately, Mike Berners-Lee has crunched the numbers and plotted a course of action that is practical and even enjoyable. There is No Planet B maps it out in an accessible and entertaining way, filled with astonishing facts and analysis. For the first time you'll find big-picture perspective on the environmental and economic challenges of the day laid out in one place, and traced through to the underlying roots - questions of how we live and think. This book will shock you, surprise you - and then make you laugh. And you'll find practical and even inspiring ideas for what you can actually do to help humanity thrive on this - our only - planet.
The diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique is a means of measuring the concentration and speciation of metals in natural waters. Edited by one of the pioneers of the technique, this unique volume provides a complete and authoritative guide to the theory and applications of DGT. The book includes explanations of the fundamental principles of DGT, accessible to readers with a modest background in chemistry, as well as more advanced chapters that provide a thorough treatment of the physical and chemical dynamics of this technique and evaluate how well it mimics the biological uptake process. Chapters on natural waters, soils and sediments illustrate the applications of DGT, and detailed instructions are included on how to use DGT in practice. Combining the fundamentals of DGT with more advanced principles, this is an indispensable text for students, researchers and professional scientists interested in the chemistry of natural waters, soils and sediments.
This first comprehensive review of airborne measurement principles
covers all atmospheric components and surface parameters. It
describes the common techniques to characterize aerosol particles
and cloud/precipitation elements, while also explaining radiation
quantities and pertinent hyperspectral and active remote sensing
measurement techniques along the way. As a result, the major
principles of operation are introduced and exemplified using
specific instruments, treating both classic and emerging
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
The polar regions are the 'canary in the coal mine' of climate change: they are likely to be hit the hardest and fastest. This comprehensive textbook provides an accessible introduction to the scientific study of polar environments against a backdrop of climate change and the wider global environment. The book assembles diverse information on polar environmental characteristics in terrestrial and oceanic domains, and describes the ongoing changes in climate, the oceans, and components of the cryosphere. Recent significant changes in the polar region caused by global warming are explored: shrinking Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost, accelerating loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets, and rising ocean temperatures. These rapidly changing conditions are discussed in the context of the paleoclimatic history of the polar regions from the Eocene to the Anthropocene. Future projections for these regions during the twenty-first century are discussed. The text is illustrated with many color figures and tables, and includes further reading lists, review questions for each chapter, and a glossary.
The 2011 nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the northern hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers, reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
This textbook covers the entire spectrum of topics required to completely understand air pollution. It emphasizes the atmospheric processes governing air pollution (emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformations, deposition on surfaces and ecosystems). Other areas of focus include air pollutant emission control technologies, health and environmental impacts, regulations and public policies, and interactions between climate change and air pollution. Topics are first presented conceptually, and then in terms of their fundamental aspects. Actual case studies are incorporated throughout to illustrate major air pollution phenomena, such as the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the development of strategies to reduce urban air pollution, mitigate acid rain, and improve atmospheric visibility. Graduate students, researchers, and air quality professionals will find the full coverage of these important matters to be well suited to their needs.
The need to understand and quantify change is fundamental throughout the environmental sciences. This might involve describing past variation, understanding the mechanisms underlying observed changes, making projections of possible future change, or monitoring the effect of intervening in some environmental system. This book provides an overview of modern statistical techniques that may be relevant in problems of this nature. Practitioners studying environmental change will be familiar with many classical statistical procedures for the detection and estimation of trends. However, the ever increasing capacity to collect and process vast amounts of environmental information has led to growing awareness that such procedures are limited in the insights that they can deliver. At the same time, significant developments in statistical methodology have often been widely dispersed in the statistical literature and have therefore received limited exposure in the environmental science community. This book aims to provide a thorough but accessible review of these developments. It is split into two parts: the first provides an introduction to this area and the second part presents a collection of case studies illustrating the practical application of modern statistical approaches to the analysis of trends in real studies. Key Features: * Presents a thorough introduction to the practical application and methodology of trend analysis in environmental science. * Explores non-parametric estimation and testing as well as parametric techniques. * Methods are illustrated using case studies from a variety of environmental application areas. * Looks at trends in all aspects of a process including mean, percentiles and extremes. * Supported by an accompanying website featuring datasets and R code. The book is designed to be accessible to readers with some basic statistical training, but also contains sufficient detail to serve as a reference for practising statisticians. It will therefore be of use to postgraduate students and researchers both in the environmental sciences and in statistics.
This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.
The environmental impact of development projects is currently studied and mitigated from two distinct perspectives: before and after project implementation, with environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management systems (EMS) being the main instruments on the respective sides. This double perspective creates a discontinuity in the way environmental impacts are analysed, an issue that has been noted by both academics and practitioners. This book gathers and presents both theoretical and actual examples to link EIA with EMS and explores ways to overcome difficulties and provide innovative solutions. Academic researchers, advanced students, EIA practitioners and EMS practitioners will find the book essential for the theoretical explorations of how the link might occur and practical examples in which to explore and critique these theories.
This book covers the current states of microbial and related technologies that have been developed for the efficient production of chemicals, fuels and materials by integrating strain and enzyme development, fermentation processes, and downstream processes. The book also covers how microbes and microbial products can be employed to facilitate petroleum recovery. Global consequences of bio-based production of chemicals, fuels and materials are also discussed with insights.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
This book covers diverse environmental issues such as climate change; biodiversity preservation; prevention of air, water, and soil pollution; and resource recycling. Readers can acquire these four practical interdisciplinary abilities: 1. knowledge; 2. technology; 3. evaluation; and 4. strategy in the diverse issues related to the environment. These abilities are fundamental to identifying the core essence of economic and ecological interdependence, to look at and analyze problems from an overarching perspective, and to consider countermeasures to be taken. Each chapter of this book corresponds to a lecture in the East Asia Environmental Strategist Training Program at Kyushu University and is excellent reading as a sourcebook.
Filling the urgent need for a professional book that specifies the applications of nanoelectrochemistry for the monitoring of persistent toxic substances, this monograph clearly describes the design concept, construction strategies and practical applications of PTS sensing interfaces based on nanoelectrochemical methods. The comprehensive and systematic information not only provides readers with the fundamentals, but also inspires them to develop PTS monitoring sensors based on functional nanostructures and nanomaterials. Of interestto chemists, electrochemistry researchers, materials researchers, environmental scientists, and companies dealing with electrochemical treatment and environment.
This book covers all aspects of environmental trace analysis from sampling through to preparation of the sample to the analytical techniques used to quantify the level of trace metals or organic compounds. The book is divided into two areas: sample preparation for inorganic analysis and sample preparation for organic analysis. This allows the reader to focus on key aspects related to the preparation of samples for their subsequent analysis. Selected case studies provide the reader with the opportunity to consider how the sample preparation approach can be optimized for their own area of expertise.
Since the birth of the modern environmental movement in the 1970s, the United States has witnessed dramatic shifts in social equality, ecological viewpoints, and environmental policy. With these changes has also come an increased popular resistance to environmental reform, but, as Eric T. Freyfogle reveals in this book, that resistance has far deeper roots. Calling upon key environmental voices from the past and present--including Aldo Leopold, Wendell Berry, David Orr, and even Pope Francis in his Encyclical--and exploring core concepts like wilderness and the tragedy of the commons, A Good That Transcends not only unearths the causes of our embedded culture of resistance, but also offers a path forward to true, lasting environmental initiatives. A lawyer by training, with expertise in property rights, Freyfogle uses his legal knowledge to demonstrate that bad land use practices are rooted in the way in which we see the natural world, value it, and understand our place within it. While social and economic factors are important components of our current predicament, it is our culture, he shows, that is driving the reform crisis--and in the face of accelerating environmental change, a change in culture is vital. Drawing upon a diverse array of disciplines from history and philosophy to the life sciences, economics, and literature, Freyfogle seeks better ways for humans to live in nature, helping us to rethink our relationship with the land and craft a new conservation ethic. By confronting our ongoing resistance to reform as well as pointing the way toward a common good, A Good That Transcends enables us to see how we might rise above institutional and cultural challenges, look at environmental problems, appreciate their severity, and both support and participate in reform.
Our coasts provide a home and livelihoods for millions of people; many of the world's biggest cities are along coastlines. Yet these precious areas face increasing threats from irresponsible development and the potential dangers of climate change. This volume explores the wide spectrum of coastal hazards, from high-magnitude, low-frequency events like tsunamis and hurricanes, to longer-term processes like urban regeneration and changing agricultural practices. International case studies range from mitigation measures in the Azores Archipelago to managing a coastal resort in South Wales, to tsunami early warning systems in the Indian Ocean Region. The resulting collection spans approaches from social science, engineering, planning, geology and biology and presents an integrated approach for assessing the impact of, and response to, coastal hazards. It will be of interest to all those involved in strategies for the environmental management of coastlines.
One-stop weather database
This open access book presents the findings from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. This third volume in the series reports on studies undertaken at contaminated sites such as farmland, forests, and marine and freshwater environments, with a particular focus on livestock, wild plants and mushrooms, crops, and marine products in those environments. It also provides additional data collected in the subsequent years to show how the radioactivity levels in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time and the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products as well as their movement between different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book covers various topics, including radioactivity testing of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in paddy fields and upland forests; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' attitudes. Chapter 19 introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, a pioneering technique to visualize the movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data on the actual change of radioactivity, and as such is of great value to all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. In addition, it helps the general public to better understand the issues of radio-contamination in the environment. The project is ongoing; the research groups from the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo continue their work in the field to further evaluate the long-term effects of the Fukushima accident.
This publication is based on peer-reviewed manuscripts from the 2014 International Network of Environmental Forensics (INEF) Conference held at St John's College, Cambridge. INEF is an organization founded by environmental forensic scientists for the express purpose of sharing and disseminating environmental forensic information to the international scientific community. Providing a wide range of up to date topics on the advancement and refinement of environmental forensic techniques, this book ensures the reader gets a good understanding of the scope of environmental forensics. Aimed at scientists, regulators, academics and consultants throughout the world, this professionally edited book is the fourth of a series of INEF conference publications chronicling the current state of the art in environmental forensics.
Environmental rights, also known as the human rights or constitutional rights that are used for the protection of the environment, have proliferated over the last forty-five years. However, the precise levels of protection that they represent has since been a major question associated with this phenomenon. Environmental Rights: The Development of Standards systematically investigates this question by analyzing the emerging standards of environmental protection that are associated with such rights and the way that those associations are becoming formalized. It covers all of the relevant human rights treaties to illustrate how environmental rights standards are emerging in this dynamic area. Bringing together an elite group of scholars, this book discusses significant new insights into the way that environmental rights are developing, the standards of protection that they confer, and the way that standards in the field of environmental rights can potentially be further developed in the future.
Numerous studies report that ultraviolet (UV) radiation is harmful to living organisms and detrimental to human health. Growing concerns regarding the increased levels of UV-B radiation that reach the earth's surface have led to the development of ground- and space-based measurement programs. Further study is needed on the measurement, modeling, and effects of UV radiation. The chapters of this book describe the research conducted across the globe over the past three decades in the areas of: (1) current and predicted levels of UV radiation and its associated impact on ecosystems and human health, as well as economic and social implications; (2) new developments in UV instrumentation, advances in calibration (ground- and satellite-based), measurement methods, modeling efforts, and their applications; and (3) the effects of global climate change on UV radiation.
Dr. Wei Gao is a Senior Research Scientist and the Director of the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University. Dr. Gao is a SPIE fellow and serves as the Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Applied Remote Sensing.
Dr. Daniel L. Schmoldt is the National Program Leader for instrumentation and sensors at the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dr. Schmoldt served as joint Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Computers & Electronics in Agriculture, from 1997 to 2004.
Dr. James R. Slusser retired in 2007 from the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program at Colorado State University. He was active in the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Meteorological Society. Dr. Slusser is currently pursuing his interests in solar energy and atmospheric transmission.
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