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Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS IN FOSSIL BIOMINERALS An essential cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins that form biominerals and that are preserved in the fossil record Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals is an authoritative guide to the patterns of survival and degradation of ancient biomolecules in the fossil record. The author brings together new research in biomineralization and ancient proteins to describe mechanisms of protein diagenesis. The book draws on the author's experiences as well as current information from three research fields: geochemistry, archaeology and Quaternary sciences. The author examines the history of the study of ancient proteins, from the dating of Quaternary biominerals to the present advances in shotgun proteomics, and discusses their applications across archaeology, geology and evolutionary biology. This important guide: Explores the main components of biominerals Describes the breakdown of proteins in fossils Reviews the applications of ancient protein studies Written for students and researchers of biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology, Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals provides a cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins responsible for the formation of biominerals and to the survival of biomolecules in the archaeological and palaeontological record. This book forms one volume of the popular New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Series.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
The 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the Northern Hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations, and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.
The polar regions are the 'canary in the coal mine' of climate change: they are likely to be hit the hardest and fastest. This comprehensive textbook provides an accessible introduction to the scientific study of polar environments against a backdrop of climate change and the wider global environment. The book assembles diverse information on polar environmental characteristics in terrestrial and oceanic domains, and describes the ongoing changes in climate, the oceans, and components of the cryosphere. Recent significant changes in the polar region caused by global warming are explored: shrinking Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost, accelerating loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets, and rising ocean temperatures. These rapidly changing conditions are discussed in the context of the paleoclimatic history of the polar regions from the Eocene to the Anthropocene. Future projections for these regions during the twenty-first century are discussed. The text is illustrated with many color figures and tables, and includes further reading lists, review questions for each chapter, and a glossary.
The diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique is a means of measuring the concentration and speciation of metals in natural waters. Edited by one of the pioneers of the technique, this unique volume provides a complete and authoritative guide to the theory and applications of DGT. The book includes explanations of the fundamental principles of DGT, accessible to readers with a modest background in chemistry, as well as more advanced chapters that provide a thorough treatment of the physical and chemical dynamics of this technique and evaluate how well it mimics the biological uptake process. Chapters on natural waters, soils and sediments illustrate the applications of DGT, and detailed instructions are included on how to use DGT in practice. Combining the fundamentals of DGT with more advanced principles, this is an indispensable text for students, researchers and professional scientists interested in the chemistry of natural waters, soils and sediments.
This book covers diverse environmental issues such as climate change; biodiversity preservation; prevention of air, water, and soil pollution; and resource recycling. Readers can acquire these four practical interdisciplinary abilities: 1. knowledge; 2. technology; 3. evaluation; and 4. strategy in the diverse issues related to the environment. These abilities are fundamental to identifying the core essence of economic and ecological interdependence, to look at and analyze problems from an overarching perspective, and to consider countermeasures to be taken. Each chapter of this book corresponds to a lecture in the East Asia Environmental Strategist Training Program at Kyushu University and is excellent reading as a sourcebook.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers, reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
This book focuses on the use of farm level, micro- and macro-data of cooperative systems and networks in developing new robust, reliable and coherent modeling tools for agricultural and environmental policy analysis. The efficacy of public intervention on agriculture is largely determined by the existence of reliable information on the effects of policy options and market developments on farmers' production decisions and in particular, on key issues such as levels of agricultural and non-agricultural output, land use and incomes, use of natural resources, sustainable-centric management, structural change and the viability of family farms. Over the last years, several methods and analytical tools have been developed for policy analysis using various sets of data. Such methods have been based on integrated approaches in an effort to investigate the above key issues and have thus attempted to offer a powerful environment for decision making, particularly in an era of radical change for both agriculture and the wider economy.
Feeding the world, climate change, biodiversity, antibiotics, plastics - the list of concerns seems endless. But what is most pressing, what are the knock-on effects of our actions, and what should we do first? Do we all need to become vegetarian? How can we fly in a low-carbon world? Should we frack? How can we take control of technology? Does it all come down to population? And, given the global nature of the challenges we now face, what on Earth can any of us do? Fortunately, Mike Berners-Lee has crunched the numbers and plotted a course of action that is practical and even enjoyable. There is No Planet B maps it out in an accessible and entertaining way, filled with astonishing facts and analysis. For the first time you'll find big-picture perspective on the environmental and economic challenges of the day laid out in one place, and traced through to the underlying roots - questions of how we live and think. This book will shock you, surprise you - and then make you laugh. And you'll find practical and even inspiring ideas for what you can actually do to help humanity thrive on this - our only - planet.
This book is for all graduate students who are specializing in any environmental issue and who wish to grasp the fundamentals of physics that are required in various fields of science and engineering. The book provides the structural concept of the system state equation and its dynamics, which can be applicable to numerical solutions in several important areas such as heat and mass transfer and fluid dynamics. As a first step, there is a description of how to solve a linear system by conducting an analysis of temperature distribution in an infinite soil as a practical example. This exercise helps readers to fully understand what time and space discretizations are, and how actual numerical solutions should work. Because the concept of the system state equation relies on a vector-matrix form, the book shows how that particular form is applicable to other practical procedures: linear multi regression analysis, the least square method, and others. The book also gives the solution to non-linear dynamical systems and their applications. Although this book may appear to take an unusual approach, the author believes it will be inspiring and greatly helpful for the beginner who seeks a solid understanding of the basis of mathematics and physics for any environmental problems.
Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution contains almost all the technical know-how required to clean up our water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters.
Computer Modeling Applications for Environmental Engineers in its second edition incorporates changes and introduces new concepts using Visual Basic.NET, a programming language chosen for its ease of comprehensive usage. This book offers a complete understanding of the basic principles of environmental engineering and integrates new sections that address Noise Pollution and Abatement and municipal solid-waste problem solving, financing of waste facilities, and the engineering of treatment methods that address sanitary landfill, biochemical processes, and combustion and energy recovery. Its practical approach serves to aid in the teaching of environmental engineering unit operations and processes design and demonstrates effective problem-solving practices that facilitate self-teaching. A vital reference for students and professional sanitary and environmental engineers this work also serves as a stand-alone problem-solving text with well-defined, real-work examples and explanations.
This thorough and highly relevant volume examines exergy, energy and the environment in the context of energy systems and applications and as a potential tool for design, analysis, optimization. It further considers their role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing for sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered.
This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.
To provide useful and meaningful information, long-term ecological programs need to implement solid and efficient statistical approaches for collecting and analyzing data. This volume provides rigorous guidance on quantitative issues in monitoring, with contributions from world experts in the field. These experts have extensive experience in teaching fundamental and advanced ideas and methods to natural resource managers, scientists and students. The chapters present a range of tools and approaches, including detailed coverage of variance component estimation and quantitative selection among alternative designs; spatially balanced sampling; sampling strategies integrating design- and model-based approaches; and advanced analytical approaches such as hierarchical and structural equation modelling. Making these tools more accessible to ecologists and other monitoring practitioners across numerous disciplines, this is a valuable resource for any professional whose work deals with ecological monitoring. Supplementary example software code is available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521191548.
This textbook covers the entire spectrum of topics required to completely understand air pollution. It emphasizes the atmospheric processes governing air pollution (emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformations, deposition on surfaces and ecosystems). Other areas of focus include air pollutant emission control technologies, health and environmental impacts, regulations and public policies, and interactions between climate change and air pollution. Topics are first presented conceptually, and then in terms of their fundamental aspects. Actual case studies are incorporated throughout to illustrate major air pollution phenomena, such as the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the development of strategies to reduce urban air pollution, mitigate acid rain, and improve atmospheric visibility. Graduate students, researchers, and air quality professionals will find the full coverage of these important matters to be well suited to their needs.
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. It is also widely known as a digital terrain model (DTM). A DEM can be represented as a raster (a grid of squares) or as a vector based triangular irregular network (TIN). DEMs are commonly built using remote sensing techniques, but they may also be built from land surveying. DEMs are used often in geographic information systems, and are the most common basis for digitally-produced relief maps. The terrain surface can be described as compromising of two different elements; random and systematic. The random (stochastic) elements are the continuous surfaces with continuously varying relief. It would take an endless number of points to describe exactly the random terrain shapes, but these can be described in practice with a network of point. It is usual to use a network that creates sloping triangles or regular quadrants. This book examines how the methods and data sources used to generate DEMs and calculate land surface parameters have changed over the past 25 years. The primary goal is to describe the state-of-the-art for a typical digital terrain modeling workflow that starts with data capture, continues with data preprocessing and DEM generation, and concludes with the calculation of one or more primary and secondary land surface parameters. Taken as a whole, this book covers the basic theory behind the methods, the instrumentation, analysis and interpretation that are embedded in the modern digital terrain modeling workflow, the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods that the terrain analyst must choose among, typical applications of the results emanating from these terrain modeling workflows, and future directions. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners who wish to use DEMs, land surface parameters, land surface objects and landforms in environmental projects. The book will also be valuable as a reference text for environmental scientists who are specialists in related fields and wish to integrate these kinds of digital terrain workflows and outputs into their own specialized work environments.
This book offers extensive and comprehensive knowledge to the researchers and academicians who are working on decontamination of radioactively contaminated areas. Remediation strategies for contaminated sites are provided. Readers who will find this book useful include professionals specializing in radioecology, safe disposal of radioactive waste, as well as decontamination, remediation legacies and impact of radioactive waste material on the environment. The chapters give a broad overview and reviews of a number of original publications on remediation strategies that were explored after the Chernobyl and Fukushima Nuclear Power plant accidents. Useful case studies are provided that explore the latest technological developments and future trends for affected area decontamination.
Remote sensing stands as the defining technology in our ability to monitor coral reefs, as well as their biophysical properties and associated processes, at regional to global scales. With overwhelming evidence that much of Earth's reefs are in decline, our need for large-scale, repeatable assessments of reefs has never been so great. Fortunately, the last two decades have seen a rapid expansion in the ability for remote sensing to map and monitor the coral reef ecosystem, its overlying water column, and surrounding environment. Remote sensing is now a fundamental tool for the mapping, monitoring and management of coral reef ecosystems. Remote sensing offers repeatable, quantitative assessments of habitat and environmental characteristics over spatially extensive areas. As the multi-disciplinary field of coral reef remote sensing continues to mature, results demonstrate that the techniques and capabilities continue to improve. New developments allow reef assessments and mapping to be performed with higher accuracy, across greater spatial areas, and with greater temporal frequency. The increased level of information that remote sensing now makes available also allows more complex scientific questions to be addressed. As defined for this book, remote sensing includes the vast array of geospatial data collected from land, water, ship, airborne and satellite platforms. The book is organized by technology, including: visible and infrared sensing using photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral instruments; active sensing using light detection and ranging (LiDAR); acoustic sensing using ship, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and in-water platforms; and thermal and radar instruments. Emphasis and Audience This book serves multiple roles. It offers an overview of the current state-of-the-art technologies for reef mapping, provides detailed technical information for coral reef remote sensing specialists, imparts insight on the scientific questions that can be tackled using this technology, and also includes a foundation for those new to reef remote sensing. The individual sections of the book include introductory overviews of four main types of remotely sensed data used to study coral reefs, followed by specific examples demonstrating practical applications of the different technologies being discussed. Guidelines for selecting the most appropriate sensor for particular applications are provided, including an overview of how to utilize remote sensing data as an effective tool in science and management. The text is richly illustrated with examples of each sensing technology applied to a range of scientific, monitoring and management questions in reefs around the world. As such, the book is broadly accessible to a general audience, as well as students, managers, remote sensing specialists and anyone else working with coral reef ecosystems.
This report reviews how biomaterials and biomass have been assessed within The Green Guide to Specification, including the application of the Environmental Profiles methodology, which underlies data. The way in which biomaterials and biomass are addressed within building-level environmental assessment schemes such as BREEAM and the Code for Sustainable Homes is also explained.
The report will give manufacturers and specifiers a general understanding of the significant benefits and impacts of biomaterials and biomass over their whole life cycle and help to identify opportunities for improvements to their environmental performance.
It is part of a series that provides comparable information on
windows, masonry and concrete, metals, floor finishes, cladding and
insulation to assess the environmental impact of specific
This book explores state-of-art techniques based on methodological and modeling aspects of solid and hazardous waste management, specifically focusing on the recent trends in data acquisition and robust modeling of the results obtained. In addition to an in-depth description of the recent regulatory paradigm for solid waste disposal and revealing insights into solid waste management models, the book also addresses significant case history and remediation methodologies for sustainable development in emerging economies like India, China and Brazil. The main emphasis is on a suitable regulatory framework with site-specific baseline calibration and aimed at the robust modeling of contaminant transport and its remediation. This is based on instructive case history in various locations/regions worldwide. The focus on recent modeling and quantification methods is the backbone of the book. One of the major aspects discussed is the application of non-invasive methods for studies related to the Earth's interior, which are increasingly preferred over invasive techniques thanks to their economic utility, as well as robust techniques for the interpretation of geophysical data. The increasing demand for groundwater and energy resources, especially for rapidly emerging countries with large populations like India and China, has made it vital to derive safe utilization approaches for our resources, including suitable waste disposal and remediation methodologies that can be adopted for 'contaminated sites.'
This open access book presents the findings from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. This third volume in the series reports on studies undertaken at contaminated sites such as farmland, forests, and marine and freshwater environments, with a particular focus on livestock, wild plants and mushrooms, crops, and marine products in those environments. It also provides additional data collected in the subsequent years to show how the radioactivity levels in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time and the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products as well as their movement between different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book covers various topics, including radioactivity testing of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in paddy fields and upland forests; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' attitudes. Chapter 19 introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, a pioneering technique to visualize the movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data on the actual change of radioactivity, and as such is of great value to all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. In addition, it helps the general public to better understand the issues of radio-contamination in the environment. The project is ongoing; the research groups from the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo continue their work in the field to further evaluate the long-term effects of the Fukushima accident.
This book identifies the key hydrologic and hydraulic factors which influence the performance of stormwater quality treatment systems such as constructed wetlands and bioretention basins. Mathematical relationships derived using conceptual models underpinned by fundamental hydraulic theory are presented to predict treatment performance. The key highlights of the book will include the identification of the linkages between influential hydrologic and hydraulic factors for constructed wetlands and bioretention basins to support more accurate prediction of treatment performance and effective design of these types of stormwater treatment systems. Furthermore, this book will showcase an innovative approach for using conceptual models to analyze stormwater treatment system performance.
This book presents selected contributions of the 34th International School of Hydraulics that was held in May 2015 in Zelechow, Poland. It gives an overview about the state of the art in environmental hydraulics. A special emphasis is put upon physical, biochemical and ecological processes that act at interfaces in natural surface water bodies but also other important hydraulic problems are considered. The achievements of well-known researchers from all over the world as well as the results obtained by young researchers, among others within a Marie Curie funded Initial Training Network, led by the University of Padua (HYTECH - HYdrodynamic Transport at Ecologically Critical Heterogeneous Interfaces) are gathered in this volume.
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