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Valuation is at the heart of investing. A considerable part of the information for valuation is in the financial statements. "Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation," 5 e by Stephen Penman shows students how to extract information from financial statements and use that data to value firms. The 5th edition shows how to handle the accounting in financial statements and use the financial statements as a lens to view a business and assess the value it generates.
The importance of moving toward high-quality, global standards of accounting and auditing has never been clearer. In the midst of the global financial and economic crisis, the leaders of the Group of 20 met and issued their "Declaration on Strengthening the Financial System", placing significant emphasis on sound accounting and auditing standards as a critical piece of the international financial architecture. Transparent and reliable corporate financial reporting underpins much of the Latin America and Caribbean development agenda, from private-sector-led growth to enhanced financial stability, facilitating access to finance for small and medium enterprises, and furthering economic integration. For nearly 10 years, the World Bank has prepared diagnostic Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSCs) on Accounting and Auditing (A and A) at the country level. In Latin America and the Caribbean, ROSC A and A reports have been completed for 17 countries. This book takes a step back and seeks to distill lessons from a regional perspective. 'Accounting for Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean' is the first book to examine financial reporting and auditing in the region in a systematic way, drawing on the World Bank's years of experience and analysis in this area. The book is designed to inform the policy dialogue on accounting and auditing issues among government officials, the accounting profession, the private sector, academia, and civil society in LAC countries. It also seeks to disseminate the lessons learned to key players at the international and regional level, including the donor community, in order to generate momentum for reform of accounting and auditing throughout the region.
Goodwill, sometimes purchased but often more significantly internally generated, is the major constituent of the value of many listed companies. Accounting aims to provide users of financial statements with useful information, and more than fifty current International Financial Reporting Standards prescribe accounting disclosure requirements in minute detail. However, these Standards dismiss internally generated goodwill with a single brief provision that it is not to be brought to account at all. The impairment regime now laid down for dealing with purchased goodwill contains severe flaws, while previous methods have also been found to be unsatisfactory. This book traces the history of the goodwill accounting controversy in detail and demonstrates that it has been a prime example of an issue 'conceived in a way that it is in principle unsolvable'. It explores the problem of recognising the importance of goodwill as a whole and finding a way of presenting meaningful information regarding it in the context of the financial statements. The author's proposed solution builds upon research undertaken and uses a Market Capitalization Statement, based on a modification of nineteenth century 'double accounting' in a modern context. Examples show that the proposed Market Capitalization Statement has the potential to provide significant information not currently available form conventional financial statements, which in turn are freed to present clearer information.
Applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in a business situation can have a signficant effect on the financial results and position of a division or an entire business enterprise. 'International Financial Reporting Standards: A Practical Guide' gives private or public sector executives, managers, and financial analysts without a strong background in accounting the tools they need to participate in discussions and decisions on the appropriateness or application of IFRS. Each chapter summarizes an International Financial Reporting Standard, following a consistent structure: Objective of the Standard Scope of the Standard Key concepts Accounting treatment Presentation and disclosure Financial analysis and interpretation Many chapters of the book also contain examples that illustrate the practical application of key concepts in a particular standard. The publication includes all of the standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) through December 2008."
Examiners, lecturers and students know that practice is vital to
exam success, so why not test your knowledge with these useful
The issue of brand has overshadowed that of reputation. It has been fashionable to re-brand, spend a lot of money on advertising and hope that you can leave your negative baggage behind. This strategy doesn't always work, witness Monday or Consignia, both victims of their 'infectious history'. Terry Hannington provides a blueprint for effectively measuring and managing your reputation. That means understanding the difference between brand and reputation, the significance of the latter and how you get your reputation in the first place. This book shows you how to measure and understand stakeholder influence via reputation assessment research techniques and, once you have done that, how to build and manage a reputation management plan.
The commonly used financial statements--balance sheet, income statement, and statement of changes in cash flows-- focus on a firM's financial structure and performance over a defined period of time. Although they may conform to generally accepted accounting standards they still fail to provide other information that is equally important to achieving true full disclosure. Riahi-Belkaoui proposes remedies for this neglect by taking a close look at other types of statements: the inflation, value added, employee, social performance, and human asset reports. His book is a concise, easily accessed summary of all types of reports, for practitioners, and especially useful as a text or review for students in graduate level courses in financial management and accounting.
The author begins by examining the traditional statements. He shows how they fail to disclose vital information on the measurement and impact of inflation; the measurement of total wealth generated by the total production team, not merely its return to stockholders; necessary information on employees, and about them, that can be useful in management decision making; the measurement of social costs and the benefits attributable to the effects of organizational behavior on the environment, and the measurement of the value of human assets. He takes up these failures and neglects one by one and provides concise discussions of the other, less widely used statements that could remedy them, statements that could provide a fully useful display of an organization's financial well being, if they were better understood and commonly available.
It is clear that value added methods provide relevant, useful information for financial analysis, market valuation, and financial decision making in corporate settings. Value added methods can be used in ratio analysis, in the determination of earnings as an earnings management tools, and can be substituted for earnings in equity valuation. When included in a wealth measurement it can vastly improve the quality of decision making. Riahi-Belkaoui covers these topics and more. His book is a probing, essential examination of what the latest value added methods are and what they can do, not only for accounting professionals but for academics and top corporate management as well.
Value added reporting is popular in most European countries and in New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia. Most emerging countries are using it too, or considering it. Riahi-Belkaoui explicates latest developments in value-added practice and research, first covering the meaning of the concept, the history behind value added's development and its implied advantages and disadvantages. He then covers the derivation of a value added report, using a fictional case and the resulting data, before moving to an overview of the empirical literature most concerned with value added in the United States. Documenting the overall behavior of the net value added earnings policy model, he lays the foundation for more contextually specific approaches and investigates the usefulness of the substitution of net-value added in equity valuation. The book concludes with an examination of whether accounting knowledge is associated with a decision maker's tendency to ignore value added in wealth measurement in favor of the profit concept. Riahi-Belkaoui draws heavily on his own important writings, to further illustrate and explain the methods and benefits of value added approaches in accounting and other forms of financial decision making.
The traditional model for financial statements is so unreliable, maintains Kirkegaard, that even the most meticulously prepared statement cannot give a true and fair view of the financial health of a business. Statements should be dynamic, current, complete, and comprehensible. Based on strong and well-founded criticism of the traditional accounting model, with its guiding concepts of profit and owners' equity, Kirkegaard proposes a model that concentrates on a company's solvency or insolvency at a given time. With that, it becomes possible to employ modern information technology to predict future liquidity problems early on, thus helping to limit or prevent future losses. A challenging, provocative work for professional accountants and their academic colleagues.
Unforeseen, sudden collapses in business and banking are tragic, familiar phenomena. Creditors suffer huge losses and critics cry, Where was the auditor? Ironically, in most cases the balance sheet published prior to the collapse gave no warning signals. Often it showed a nice owners' equity, and thus the auditors failed to sound an alarm in time. Kirkegaard attributes the lack of advance warning largely to the inadequacy of financial statements. They are so unreliable that even the most meticulously prepared statement cannot give a true, fair view of a business's financial health. Statements should be dynamic, current, complete, and comprehensible. Most importantly, instead of focusing on profit and owners' equity, financial statements should concentrate on a firM's solvency or insolvency. It then becomes possible, using modern technology, to anticipate liquidity problems before they occur, therefore limiting or even preventing future losses. This is precisely the essence of the new model Kirkegaard proposes and develops with forceful clarity. His book will prove to be essential reading, not only for professional and academic accountants, but also for investors, corporate management, and skilled observers of the business scene.
Some of the provocative, challenging ideas that Kirkegaard offers in his book: DEGREESL DEGREESL *The accounting theory which we know at present is in a state of apathy and resistance to change. DEGREESL DEGREESL *Enterprises which are already insolvent but not yet illiquid are dangerous to their creditors DEGREESL DEGREESL *It is impossible to accurately describe the financial position of a business enterprise using traditional financial statements DEGREESL DEGREESL *The concept of time has been a stepchild in accounting theory DEGREESL DEGREESL *It is wrong to believe that the task of accounting is to determine a firM's financial position. Accounting should be concerned with what DEGREESIwe can say DEGREESR about the financial position DEGREESL DEGREESL *The financial statements of the future can be made logically complete, and therefore clean and easy to understand. They can also be made up to date, and used to show the financial situation right now, which will make them reliable.
Value added reporting provides a better measure of the wealth produced by a firm than other methods, says Riahi-Belkaoui in this research-based analysis. It is more useful generally to investors and other users of accounting information, and to policy makers throughout the financial services and related industries. Empirical studies of its uses in Europe support the author's contention and provide a compelling argument for its use in the United States. An important book for professionals and academics alike.
A new form of accounting statement--the value added statement--is gaining popularity in the corporate annual reports of the largest companies in the United Kingdom. This new statement can be viewed as a modified version of the income statement. Like the income statement, the value added statement reports the operating performance of a company at a given point in time, using both accrual and matching procedures. Unlike the income statement, however, it is interpreted not as a return to shareholders but as a return to the larger group of capital and labor providers. Riahi-Belkaoui shows that the value added statement can be easily derived from the income statement and is therefore easily adaptable to the needs of U.S. companies.
To illustrate the usefulness of the value added statement, Riahi-Belkaoui devotes Chapter 1 to a thorough discussion of its many benefits. He then analyzes the usefulness of the value added concept in understanding the characteristics of corporate takeovers in the United States, and in Chapter 3 he discusses the relationship between the value added concept and the systematic risk of U.S. companies, concluding in Chapter 4 with a discussion of value added statements in financial analysis. His book will thus interest not only accountants, teachers, and students who follow trends in international and multi-national accounting but also those who want to prepare themselves for the development of value added techniques and procedures that might reasonably be expected in the United States.
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This monograph critically examines the adoption of Anglo-American models of corporate governance and financial reporting in China. More specifically, it examines whether measures taken by the Chinese government, including the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards, the introduction of independent directors and audit committees, and the strengthening of auditor independence, are likely to improve the quality of financial reporting. A comprehensive theoretical framework based on institutional theory, which incorporates international influences, domestic influences, and intraorganizational dynamics, was developed. The findings suggest that the current institutional environment in China does not yet fully support Anglo-American practices. The implementation of internationally acceptable principles and standards is largely symbolic rather than instrumental. This monograph shows how contradictory institutional pressures shape the process and outcome of loose coupling between regulations and actual operations, which are intertwined with organizations' conflicts of interest and power dependence within China's institutional setting.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are now mandatory in many parts of the world, including Europe, Australia and China. In addition, many countries are in the process of IFRS adoption. Lastly, foreign registrants in US companies no longer have to undertake a costly US-IFRS reconciliation. Therefore, it is clear that investors, analysts and valuers need to understand financial statements produced under IFRS to feed in to their valuations and broader investment decisions. Written by practitioners for practitioners, the book addresses valuation from the viewpoint of the analyst, the investor and the corporate acquirer. It starts with valuation theory: what is to be discounted and at what discount rate? It explains the connection between standard methodologies based on free cash flow and on return on capital. And it emphasizes that, whichever method is used, accurate interpretation of accounting information is critical to the production of sensible valuations. The authors argue that forecasts of cash flows imply views on profits and balance sheets, and that non-cash items contain useful information about future cash flows - so profits matter. The book then addresses the implications for analysis and valuation of key aspects of IFRS including: - Pensions - Stock options - Derivatives - Provisions - Leases The text also sets out which countries use GAAP, as well as the key differences between IFRS and US GAAP treatments of these issues, in addition to their implications for analysis. A detailed case study is used to provide a step-by-step valuation of an industrial company using both free cash flow and economic profit methodologies. The authors then address a range of common valuation problems, including cyclical or immature companies, as well as the specialist accounting and modelling knowledge required for regulated utilities, resource extraction companies, banks, insurance and real estate companies. Accounting for mergers and disposals is first explained and then illustrated with a detailed potential acquisition using real companies.
This publication provides an illustrative set of consolidated financial statements, prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), for a fictional manufacturing, wholesale and retail group (IFRS GAAP plc). IFRS GAAP plc is an existing preparer of IFRS consolidated financial statements. This publication is based on the requirements of IFRS standards and interpretations for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2012. Previous ISBN: 9781847669094
Financial management comprises more than accounting and reporting. It is crucial at all stages in the business cycle, whatever the state of your business. Effective Financial Management starts with advice on raising money for a business, continues through maintaining investor relationships, includes useful information on accounting, reporting and communicating effectively with a wide range of stakeholders, gives vital tips on budgeting, forecasting and managing business costs and cash flow, and tells you how to successfully assess projects and buy assets. This indispensible guide will appeal if you are a financial or non-financial manager, in a small or medium sized enterprise, an established entrepreneur or if you are setting up your own business for the first time. It covers day to day financial concerns of a business in a practical commonsense way.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are now mandatory in many parts of the world, including Europe, Australia and China. In addition, many countries are in the process of IFRS adoption. Lastly, foreign registrants in US companies no longer have to undertake a costly US-IFRS reconciliation. Therefore, it is clear that investors, analysts and valuers need to understand financial statements produced under IFRS to feed in to their valuations and broader investment decisions. Written by practitioners for practitioners, the book addresses valuation from the viewpoint of the analyst, the investor and the corporate acquirer. It starts with valuation theory: what is to be discounted and at what discount rate? It explains the connection between standard methodologies based on free cash flow and on return on capital. And it emphasizes that, whichever method is used, accurate interpretation of accounting information is critical to the production of sensible valuations. The authors argue that forecasts of cash flows imply views on profits and balance sheets, and that non-cash items contain useful information about future cash flows - so profits matter. The book then addresses the implications for analysis and valuation of key aspects of IFRS including: Pensions; Stock options; Derivatives; Provisions; and, Leases. The text also sets out which countries use GAAP, as well as the key differences between IFRS and US GAAP treatments of these issues, in addition to their implications for analysis. A detailed case study is used to provide a step-by-step valuation of an industrial company using both free cash flow and economic profit methodologies. The authors then address a range of common valuation problems, including cyclical or immature companies, as well as the specialist accounting and modelling knowledge required for regulated utilities, resource extraction companies, banks, insurance and real estate companies. Accounting for mergers and disposals is first explained and then illustrated with a detailed potential acquisition using real companies.
Standardization and harmonization of accounting practices is a
fundamental element of a global business environment. Achieving
this is a complex process that involves technical and political
negotiation. The International Accounting Standards Committee
(IASC) was the organization that pioneered this process on a
A textbook that provides a coherent description of valuation models over a wide range of securities. Students can study both the theories and the practical implementations of the valuation models. Further, students can use the extensive Excel models applying to practical problems ( the cases) and exercises. The book is the only textbook that is supported by a complete set of excel models enabling students to use the models in 'real life' cases. This book combines the theories and case studies in one coherent treatment for the courses in securities valuation.
Applied Financial Accounting is an exciting textbook that successfully applies the traditional basis and theory of accounting to an actual company annual report. Based on UK standards, but highlighting where international standards differ, this text will meet the needs of changing accounting practice. The book explains the detailed regulatory framework of accounting and makes this accessible to students by applying it throughout to an actual company annual report (Domino's Pizzas UK and IRL plc.) Each chapter contains several cross-references to the main report and also a range of other company references. The application of the theory is reinforced with a wealth of pedagogical features including case studies, web links, glossary, multiple choice questions, numerical questions and longer exam questions. This book is an excellent introduction to financial accounting and reporting which users will find student-friendly, up-to-date and informative. ONLINE RESOURCE CENTRE For lecturers: discussion questions, maxi case studies, PowerPoint slides, random question generaotr, figures and longer questions. for student: gloassary, multiple choice questions, proformas and calculations, and web links.
Full of valuable tips, techniques, illustrative real-world examples, exhibits, and best practices, this handy and concise paperback will help you stay up to date on the newest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies in XBRL.
"The accounting industry is in the midst of a technological tsunami in which antiquated closed, proprietary financial reporting systems are being challenged by more cost effective, XBRL-based systems. Bergeron’s book provides an excellent, no-nonsense overview of how executives can take advantage of this cost savings technology without losing their shirts on hidden infrastructure costs. Don’t even think about talking to a vendor before reading this book."
"Implementing XBRL is likely to be on the top 10 wish list of CFOs throughout the next decade. Essentials of XBRL provides the executive with a comprehensive range of information about this important new technology, describes how it can improve financial and business processes, notes possible pitfalls, and lists key points to consider during an implementation. It is a mandatory guidebook on the journey to a successful XBRL implementation."
QUESTIONS about STATEMENTS? Find All the Answers Here
Are you considering buying a small business? Do you want to invest in a Fortune 500 company? Are you trying to sell your own business? Balance sheets and income statements are essential to helping you make informed decisions regarding important business transactions. But unless you're an accountant, these documents can be intimidating hodgepodges of columns, rows, and numbers. Don't fret. "Financial Statements Demystified" is just the tool you need.
Devoid of confusing business jargon, this engaging and easy-to-follow guide defines basic financial statement terminology and explains the components of the four most common financial statements: Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Statement of Stockholders' Equity, and Statement of Cash Flows. You will learn how to read, interpret, and use pivotal data from these sources--each of which will help you make accurate financial decisions without having to go back to school.
This confusion-busting guide covers: An overview of financial statements--what they are and what they tell us Easy-to-understand explanations of profit and loss Statement of cash flows and special reporting issues How to spot fraudulently misstated financial statements Quizzes at the end of each chapter to help test your knowledge
Simple enough for a novice but in-depth enough for a seasoned investor, "Financial Statements Demystified" will help you understand the four main financial statements.
Securities Valuation: Applications of Financial Modeling is a
clear, concise guide to securities valuation and the principles of
financial theory. It describes state-of-the-art methods for valuing
a broad range of securities: equity, equity and interest rate
options, swaps and swaptions, treasuries, corporate bonds with and
without credit risks, mortgage-backed securities, collateralized
mortgage obligations, credit derivative swaps, and more.
"A must-read for any investor serious about knowing what they own. With the help of some of the best financial detectives, Michelle Leder provides a roadmap for delving beneath the surface –– where most investors dare not tread."
"Obfuscators beware! Michelle Leder has cracked the code. In this invaluable guide to combing the footnotes of financial statements for indicators of accounting tricks and attempts to hide the bad news needles in a haystack of numbers. This is a clear, sensible, and, above all, practical guide that will be indispensable for anyone who invests in, does business with, or works for a corporation."
"Too many companies would prefer that you not read the footnotes," observes former SEC chairman Arthur Levitt. "That should be incentive enough to delve into them." In fact, not only do companies prefer you ignore the details they are required to report–the pesky particulars on exactly how they account for those whopping earnings–they take calculated steps to make this information as hard as possible to understand. But for those who know how to look, the facts that predict a company’s true prospects are usually hidden in plain sight.
Financial Fine Print gives you the tools you need to break down annual reports and SEC filings, make sense of the deliberately cryptic language of footnotes, and get the real goods on a potential investment.
To make money in today’s tough market, investors have to make deliberate, well-researched choices. To do this requires not only having the right information, but also knowing how to decode it. With their obscuring tactics, companies won’t help you any. So be advised: those who would help themselves–and expect to profit–should get down to the nitty-gritty of Financial Fine Print.
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