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The life and times of one of the most important women painters - and celebrities - of the eighteenth century. A word was coined to describe the condition of people stricken with a new kind of fever when the Swiss-born artist Angelica Kauffman (1741 - 1807) came to London in 1766. 'The whole world', it was said, 'is Angelicamad.' One of the most successful women artists in history - a painter who possessed what her friend Goethe called an 'unbelievable' and 'massive' talent - Kauffman became the toast of Georgian England, captivating society with her portraits, mythological scenes and decorative compositions. She knew and painted poets, novelists and playwrights, collaborating with them and illustrating their work; her designs adorned the houses of the Grand Tourists she had met and painted in Italy; actors, statesmen, philosophers, kings and queen sat to her; and she was the force that launched a thousand engravings. Despite rumours of relationships with other artists (including Sir Joshua Reynolds), and an apparently bigamous and annulled first marriage to a pseudo Count, Kauffman was adopted by royalty in England and abroad as a model of social and artistic decorum. adaptations from classical antiquity and sentimental literature; a commercially successful celebrity yet also a founding member of The Royal Academy of arts; the virginal creator of sexually ambivalent beings who was one of the hardest-headed businesswomen of her age, Kauffman's life and work is full of apparent contradictions explored in this first biography in over 80 years.
This is a new edition of the book that helped to establish a new canon of country house studies and inspire a national series, county by county. Almost a new book, it incorporates the results of additional research in the last 12 years. The great wealth of documents, drawings and printed sources in archives and libraries has been systematically exploited to throw light on the history of more than a 130 significant houses. This book will have great appeal to students of architectural, social and local history and to the general reader alike.
The most acute, reliable and illuminating contemporary biography of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the father of English painting. Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) was the first superstar of British art. Ambition and application turned a talent for painting into genius and made him the first English painter of European stature - an especially impressive feat considering that his chosen field, portraiture, was often disregarded. His own position at the very heart of British intellectual life, as the close friend of Johnson, Burke, Garrick, Fox, Goldsmith and Sheridan gave painting an importance it had never had - as talked about and occasionally as controversial as Britart today. Reynolds' social and intellectual success - he was also the author of the "Discourses", the most important work of art theory hitherto published - combined with his crucial role as the first President of the Royal Academy, transformed the way art was made, appreciated, and enjoyed in Britain. All aspects of this astonishing life and career are examined with an acute eye by Joseph Farington, a fellow painter and Academician of the next generation, and the best diarist of his day.Farington knew Reynolds and was close to many of his intimates. His account, the most penetrating and impressive of the contemporary writings about Reynolds, tells the story of the life and gives a fascinating assessment of Reynolds' importance to British art. This edition is the first publication since 1819 of "Farington's Memoirs". They are introduced by the leading expert on the painter, Dr. Martin Postle, who elucidates the historical and artistic context of the Memoirs and of the man who wrote them. 42 pages of colour illustrations cover the span of Reynold's astonishing output.
Animals, European Enlightenment, Dutch Painting, Economic Thought, Scottish Enlightenment
"Aux limites de l'imitation "pose une question audacieuse que les innombrables etudes existantes sur l'"ut pictura poesis" a l'age classique ont eu tendance a laisser dans l'ombre: celle de la matiere comme limite de l'imitation, suivant l'hypothese selon laquelle le surgissement du materiel est a l'origine du delitement de l'"ut pictura poesis" au cours de l'age classique. Les etudes reunies ici abordent cette question pour l'ensemble de l'age classique (allant du XVIe a la fin du XVIIIe siecle) ainsi que pour les principaux domaines artistiques que l'on peut distinguer (litterature, peinture, sculpture, musique, danse).
Guarini was talented in many areas and was considered a philosopher, mathematician and theorist but not an artist having had no experience of drawing. This changed when he became involved in the architectural profession through studying books and staying in theatine priest monastries all over Europe - from Rome to Venice, Milan to Veneto, Sicily to Paris culminating in a longer sojourn in Turin. He effortlessly blended architecture and geometry, and invented his extraordinary style by introducing building practices from northern Europe such as stereotomy and ribbed vaults deriving from Gothic buildings, into the Italian architectural tradition.With Guarini, visual perception becomes the essential element in architecture, together with the relationship between light and space, resulting in completely novel buildings such as the church of San Lorenzo and the Palazzo Carignano located in Turin, an astounding prototype of a princely residence. This book is a product of a seminar organised in 2002 by Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio and supported by the Compagnia di San Paolo, and is the most complete and up-to-date analysis of the work of this great architect, thanks to the scientific contributions of today's most important scholars and experts.
The value of inventories in charting how houses were arranged, furnished and used is now widely appreciated. Typically, the listings and valuations were occasioned by the death of an owner and the consequent need to deal with testamentary dispositions. That was not always so. The inventory for Castlecomer House, Co. Kilkenny, for example, was drawn up to make a claim following the house's devastation in the 1798 uprising. For the most part, the inventories chosen for this book have never been published before and give new-found insights into the lifestyle and taste of some of the foremost families of the day, living in Ireland. Drawn up swiftly room by room, all the inventories were written by professional appraisers, often in consultation with family members or their stewards. The meticulous recording of the contents of the kitchen and scullery sheds light on life below stairs. Itemized equipment required for the brewery, dairy, stables, garden and farmyard reflects the at times significant scale of the communities the houses supported and alludes to remarkable self-sufficiency at some of the demesnes. Above stairs the inventories chart the evolving collecting habits and tastes of eighteenth-century patrons across Ireland and how the interiors of great town and country houses were arranged or responded to the availability of new materials such as mahogany timber. A comprehensive index facilitates access to the myriad items forming the inventories, while the books listed at three of the houses are tentatively identified in separate appendices. A foreword together with short preambles to the inventories set the households in their historical context. Illustrated with contemporary engravings of the houses and with portraits of the owners of the time, the inventories will appeal to country-house visitors, historians of interiors, patronage, collecting and material culture as well as to scholars, curators, collectors, creative designers, film directors, bibliographers, lexicographers and novelists. The eighteenth century is the period onto which the Knight of Glin directed his penetrating gaze as art historian. The book is dedicated to his memory.
In early modern Europe, the visual image began to move, not only as it traveled across great distances but also due to the introduction of innovative visual formats that produced animation within the image itself. This book traces the arduous journeys of visual images through evidence of their use and reproduction along missionary routes from Europe to India, Japan, China, Brazil and Chile. It argues that missionary world travel was crucial to the early modern re-animation of the image through devices such as the reflection of the mirror, the multiple registers of vision of the anthropomorphic image, the imaginative and disorienting possibilities of the utopic image, and even the reconstitution of the sacred image with memories of the relation of travel to life and death. Within the journeys traced in the book, the visual image forged new connections between different locations and across different cultures, accumulating increasingly entangled histories. Even more intriguingly, these images frequently returned to Europe, changed but still recognisable, there to be used again with an awareness of their earlier travels. -- .
The fragments of Greek painted pottery making up the 115 catalogue entries in this volume come from vases that were once part of Sir William Hamiltons prized second collection. About one third of that collection was lost when the ship transporting it back to England, HMS Colossus, struck a reef and sank off the Isles of Scilly in December 1798. The recovery of what remained of those vases, after almost 200 years on the seabed, took place between 1975 and 1979. The surviving fragments were formally acquired by the British Museum in 1981.
Searing disputes over caricature have recently sparked flames across the world"the culmination, not the beginning, of the story of one of modernity's definitive artistic practices. Modern visual satire erupts during a period marked by reform and revolution, by cohering nationalisms and expanding empires, and by the emerging discipline of art history. This has long been recognized as its Golden Age. It is time to look anew. In The Efflorescence of Caricature, 1759-1838, an international, interdisciplinary, and intergenerational team of scholars reconfigures the geography of modern visual satire, as the expansive narrative reaches from North America to Europe, to China and the Ottoman Empire. Caricature's specific visual cultures are also laid bare, its iconographic means and material support, as well as the diverse milieu of its making"the military, the art academy, diplomacy, politics, art criticism, and popular entertainment. Some of its greatest practitioners"James Gillray and Honore Daumier"are seen in a new light, alongside some of their far flung and opportunistic pastichers. Most trenchantly, assumptions about the consequences of caricature's rise come under intense scrutiny, interrogated for its cherished and long-vaunted civilizational claims on individual character, artistic supremacy, political liberty, and global domination.
Despite the importance of Chen Hongshou (1599-1652) as an artist and scholar of the Ming period, until now no full length study in English has focused on his work. Author Tamara H. Bentley takes a broadly interdisciplinary approach, treating Chen's oeuvre in relation to literary themes and economic changes, and linking these larger concerns to visual analyses. Considering Chen's paintings and prints alongside Chen's romance drama commentaries and prefaces and his collected writings (particularly poetry), Bentley sheds new light not only on Chen, but also on an important cultural moment in the first half of the seventeenth century. Through analysis of Chen's figure paintings and print designs, Bentley examines the artist's engagement with the values of "authenticity" and "emotion," which were part of a larger discourse stressing idiosyncrasy, the individual voice, and vernacular literature. She contrasts these values with the commercial aspects of his production, geared at an expanding art market of well-to-do buyers, excavating the apparent contradiction inherent in the two pursuits. In the end, she suggests, the emphasis on the "authentic" voice was marketed to a broad field of anonymous buyers. Though her primary focus is on Chen Hongshou, Bentley's investigation ultimately concerns not only this individual artist, but also the effect of early modern changes on an artist's mode of working and his self-image, in the West as well as the East. The study touches upon expanding international trade and the rise of middle class art markets (including print markets), not only in China but also in the Dutch Republic in circa 1630-1650. Bentley investigates the specific rhetoric of different categories of images, including Chen's non-literal figurative works; literal commemorative portraits; his printed romance-drama illustrations; and his printed playing cards. Bentley's investigation takes in issues of studio practice (including various types of image replicati
Guercino's Paintings and His Patrons' Politics in Early Modern Italy examines how the seventeenth-century Italian painter Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (better known as Il Guercino) instilled the political ideas of his patrons into his paintings. As it focuses on eight works showing religious scenes and scenes taken from Roman history, this volume bridges the gap between social and cultural history and the history of art, untangling the threads of art, politics, and religion during the time of the Thirty Years' War. A prolific painter, Guercino enjoyed the patronage of such luminaries as Pope Gregory XV, Cardinals Serra, Ludovisi, Spada, and Magalotti, and the French secretary of state La Vrilliere. While scholarly research has been devoted to Guercino's oeuvre, this book is the first to place his works squarely in the context of the political and social circumstances of seventeenth-century Italy, stressing the points of view and agendas of his powerful patrons. What were once meanings only apparent to the educated elite"or those familiar with the political affairs of the time"are now scrutinized and clarified for an audience far from the struggles of early modern Europe.
Once described as 'England's Apollo' James Brydges, first Duke of Chandos (1674-1744) was an outstanding patron of the arts during the first half of the eighteenth century. Having acquired great wealth and influence as Paymaster-General of Queen Anne's forces abroad, Chandos commissioned work from leading artists, architects, poets and composers including Godfrey Kneller, William Talman, Sir John Vanbrugh, Sir James Thornhill, John Gay and George Frederick Handel. Despite his associations with such renowned figures, Chandos soon gained a reputation for tasteless extravagance. This reputation was not helped by the publication in 1731 of Alexander Pope's poem 'Of Taste' which was widely regarded as a satire upon Chandos and Cannons, the new house he was building near Edgware. The poem destroyed Chandos's reputation as a patron of the arts and ensured that he was remembered as a man lacking in taste. Yet, as this book shows, such a judgement is plainly unfair when the Duke's patronage is considered in more depth and understood within the artistic context of his age. By investigating the patronage and collections of the Duke, through an examination of documentary sources and contemporary accounts, it is possible to paint a very different picture of the man. Rather than the epitome of bad taste described by his enemies, it is clear that Chandos was an enlightened patron who embraced new ideas, and strove to establish a taste for the Palladian in England, which was to define the Georgian era.
The struggles and achievements of forty-six notable women artists of the early modern period, as documented by their contemporaries, are uniquely brought together in this anthology. The life stories presented here are foundational texts for the history of art, but since most are found only in rare volumes and few have been translated into English, until now they have been generally inaccessible to many scholars. Originally published in biographical compendia such as Vasari's Lives of the Artists, the writings included here document not only the lives of relatively well known women artists such as Artemisia Gentileschi and Sofonisba Anguissola, but also those who have languished in obscurity, like Anna Waser and Li Yin. Each life story is preceded by a brief introduction to the artist as well as to her biographer, and the texts themselves are annotated to provide necessary clarification. Beyond their documentary value, these stories provide fascinating insight as to how men commonly characterized women artists as exceptions to their sex, and attempted to explain their presence in the male-dominated realm of art. The introductory chapter to the book explores this intriguing gender dynamic and elucidates some of the strategies and historical context that factored into the composition of these lives. The volume includes an appended index to women artists' life stories in biographical compendia of the period
As one of the first books to treat portraits of early modern women as a discrete subject, this volume considers the possibilities and limits of agency and identity for women in history and, with particular attention to gender, as categories of analysis for women's images. Its nine original essays on Italy, the Low Countries, Germany, France, and England deepen the usefulness of these analytical tools for portraiture. Among the book's broad contributions: it dispels false assumptions about agency's possibilities and limits, showing how agency can be located outside of conventional understanding, and, conversely, how it can be stretched too far. It demonstrates that agency is compatible with relational gender analysis, especially when alternative agencies such as spectatorship are taken into account. It also makes evident the importance of aesthetics for the study of identity and agency. The individual essays reveal, among other things, how portraits broadened the traditional parameters of portraiture, explored transvestism and same-sex eroticism, appropriated aspects of male portraiture to claim those values for their sitters, and, as sites for gender negotiation, resistance, and debate, invoked considerable relational anxiety. Richly layered in method, the book offers an array of provocative insights into its subject.
Velázquez's 1656 masterpiece Las Meninas has inspired an avalanche of published attention since it was first placed on public view in the Museo del Prado in 1819. The essays in this volume survey the responses to the painting in the nineteenth century, when Velázquez's fame outside Spain peaked. They include introductions to interpretations of Las Meninas by twentieth-century art historians, critics, philosophers, and art theorists, as well as the modern appropriation of the work by Picasso.
Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1826) has long been recognized as the
greatest European portrait sculptor of the late eighteenth century,
flourishing during both the American and French Revolutions as well
as during the Directoire and Empire in France. Whether sculpting a
head of state, an intellectual, or a young child, Houdon had an
uncanny ability to capture the essence of his subject with a
characteristic pose or expression. Yet until now, Houdon's
exquisite sculptures have never been the subject of a major
The fruits of knowledge--such as books, data, and ideas--tend to
generate far more attention than the ways in which knowledge is
produced and acquired. Correcting this imbalance, "Making Knowledge
in Early Modern Europe" brings together a wide-ranging yet tightly
integrated series of essays that explore how knowledge was obtained
and demonstrated in Europe during an intellectually explosive four
centuries, when standard methods of inquiry took shape across
several fields of intellectual pursuit.
In the late eighteenth century, the British took greater interest than ever before in observing and recording all aspects of the natural world. Travelers and colonists returning from far-flung lands provided dazzling accounts of such exotic creatures as elephants, baboons, and kangaroos. The engraver Thomas Bewick (1753-1828) harnessed this newfound interest by assembling the most comprehensive illustrated guide to nature of his day.
"A General History of Quadrupeds," first published in 1790, showcases Bewick's groundbreaking engraving techniques that allowed text and images to be published on the same page. From anteaters to zebras, armadillos to wolverines, this delightful volume features engravings of over four hundred animals alongside descriptions of their characteristics as scientifically understood at the time. "Quadrupeds "reaffirms Bewick's place in history as an incomparable illustrator, one whose influence on natural history and book printing still endures today.
Shakespeare, Vermeer, Lope de Vega, Moliere, and Diderot don't
usually keep company with one another. This new book-Richard
Helgerson's first since the highly acclaimed "Forms of
Nationhood"-shows that each contributed to a common project of
enormous significance: the artistic promotion of the middle-class
home. In a study that stretches over two centuries and four
countries, Helgerson unearths the shared preoccupations of European
domestic drama and painting. The result is an unexpected prehistory
of the nineteenth- and twentieth-century cult of domesticity.
Brightly hued, highly finished, and relatively large in scale, pastels in the 18th century were regarded as a type of painting and displayed like oils. The powdery, vibrant crayons are particularly suited to capturing the skin tones and evanescent expressions that characterize the most lifelike portraits.
Pastels cannot be permanently displayed because they are susceptible to fading, and they rarely travel. Until now, there has never been an exhibition in the U.S. devoted to these intriguing and important works. "Pastel Portraits," the companion book to an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum, presents over 40 exquisite works by French, Italian, English, Swiss, and American artists. It offers a technical discussion of the materials and explains why pastels achieved widespread popularity in the 1700s and how the fabrication of this medium intersected with Enlightenment thinking.
Business leader and arts patron Sir Edwin A. G. Manton (1909-2005) and his wife Florence, Lady Manton, assembled an outstanding collection of 18th- and 19th-century British art. A gift to the Clark Art Institute from the Manton Foundation in 2007, their collection features more than three hundred oil paintings, watercolors, drawings, and prints, including works by John Constable, J. M. W. Turner, Thomas Gainsborough, and William Blake.
In a series of wide-ranging essays, prominent scholars consider the major works and themes in the collection, relating them to larger issues within the field of British studies. Individual essays are devoted to Constable's oil sketches, cloud studies, and magisterial painting "The Wheat Field"; the growth of the watercolor tradition; print portfolios and narrative series; Thomas Rowlandson's satiric drawings; and Gainsborough's use of experimental materials as revealed through recent scientific analysis. The volume concludes with an illustrated checklist of the works in the collection.
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