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This is a comprehensive guide to the characteristics and use of high resolution optical images from satellite-borne sensors, concentrating on sensors designed for mapping. It considers in detail the SPOT series of satellites and sensors with a ground sample distance (GSD) of less than 15m, operational since SPOT 1 and particularly the commercial sensors launched since 1999 with GSD of less than 1m The book explains to students, anyone working in map production and scientists working in fields other than mapping, the way in which high resolution imagery is obtained and the issues which surround its collection and use. It deals progressively with the fundamentals of mapping from imagery, followed by the key features in the design of sensors and methods of data storage and transmission, including data compression. Subsequent chapters cover the sensors, calibration, sensor models and the methods of determining the orientation elements and extracting coordinates from the images. Rigorous orientation, use of rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) and approximate methods are covered.Results from tests showing the accuracy which can be obtained, generation of digital elevations models, their accuracy and the production of orthoimages are included, as are image processing and data fusion. Finally, future missions and the issues which face further development are discussed. High Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery is written by a team of acknowledged international experts and is the only comprehensive text on the subject.
In the twenty-first century, we take the means to measure time for granted, without contemplating the sophisticated concepts on which our time scales are based. This volume presents the evolution of concepts of time and methods of time keeping up to the present day. It outlines the progression of time based on sundials, water clocks, and the Earth's rotation, to time measurement using pendulum clocks, quartz crystal clocks, and atomic frequency standards. Time scales created as a result of these improvements in technology and the development of general and special relativity are explained. This second edition has been updated throughout to describe twentieth- and twenty-first-century advances and discusses the redefinition of SI units and the future of UTC. A new chapter on time and cosmology has been added. This broad-ranging reference benefits a diverse readership, including historians, scientists, engineers, educators, and it is accessible to general readers.
For one-semester courses in Introductory Remote Sensing as well as Introductory Airphoto Interpretation. This widely adopted book introduces the fundamentals of remote sensing from an earth resource (versus engineering) perspective. Emphasis is on turning remote sensing data into useful spatial biophysical or socio-economic information that can be used to make decisions.
Written in an easy-to-follow approach, the text will help the readers to understand the techniques and applications of image fusion for remotely sensed multi-spectral images. It covers important multi-resolution fusion concepts along with the state-of-the-art methods including super resolution and multi stage guided filters. It includes in depth analysis on degradation estimation, Gabor Prior and Markov Random Field (MRF) Prior. Concepts such as guided filter and difference of Gaussian are discussed comprehensively. Novel techniques in multi-resolution fusion by making use of regularization are explained in detail. It also includes different quality assessment measures used in testing the quality of fusion. Real-life applications and plenty of multi-resolution images are provided in the text for enhanced learning.
This encyclopedia provides a snapshot of our current geological knowledge on solid-surface Solar System bodies. Each entry contains information about the features' morphology, its interpretation, proposed formation models, distribution and occurrence, planetary or terrestrial analogs, and research history. The entries are fully referenced. All image captions include original image IDs. More than 600 named planetary feature types are discussed in the encyclopedia, covering a wide range of scales--from micrometers to global scale--and also include landform types (structural or topographic features), parts of landforms, terrain types or surface textures, surface patterns, and features identified at wavelengths extending from visible to radio waves (e.g., albedo, thermal infrared, and radar features). The book covers features formed by impact, aeolian, magmatic, volcanic, tectonic, fluvial, lacustrine, marine and coastal, mass movement, sedimentary, desiccation, liquefaction, periglacial, glacial, nival, sublimation, collapse, weathering, and selective erosion or other, including complex processes. Depending on the information and formation models available, the entries have different approaches. Some of them discuss their subject from the point of view of the inferred process or origin, others are morphology or description-based. As a default, entries focus on extraterrestrial landforms, while also mentioning their proposed terrestrial analogs. Most planetary landforms are not body-specific, but some have no known terrestrial counterparts. Named historic (obsolete) landform types are also included to provide reference for previous key research papers. To make it easier to find features with related origins, the encyclopedia contains entries that list landforms based on their formative processes. It also lists body-specific features on Mercury (5 feature types), Venus (40), the Earth (13), the Moon (15), Mars (87), Io (7), Europa (17), Callisto (7), Titan (9), Triton (2), mid-sized satellites (8), and small bodies (3). Also included are entries on the 51 planetary feature descriptor terms approved by IAU.
Satellite remote sensing presents an amazing opportunity to inform biodiversity conservation by inexpensively gathering repeated monitoring information for vast areas of the Earth. However, these observations first need processing and interpretation if they are to inform conservation action. Through a series of case studies, this book presents detailed examples of the application of satellite remote sensing, covering both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, to conservation. The authors describe how collaboration between the remote sensing and conservation communities makes satellite data functional for operational conservation, and provide concrete examples of the lessons learned in addition to the scientific details. The editors, one at NASA and the other at a conservation NGO, have brought together leading researchers in conservation remote sensing to share their experiences from project development through to application, and emphasise the human side of these projects.
Continuing the tradition of the best-selling Getting to Know series, Getting to Know ArcGIS Pro 2.6 teaches new and existing GIS users how to get started solving problems using ArcGIS Pro. Using ArcGIS Pro for these tasks allows you to understand complex data with the leading GIS software that many businesses and organizations use every day. Getting to Know ArcGIS Pro 2.6 introduces the basic tools and capabilities of ArcGIS Pro through practical project workflows that demonstrate best practices for productivity. Explore spatial relationships, building a geodatabase, 3D GIS, project presentation, and more. Learn how to navigate ArcGIS Pro and ArcGIS Online by visualizing, querying, creating, editing, analyzing, and presenting geospatial data in both 2D and 3D environments. Using figures to show each step, Getting to Know ArcGIS Pro 2.6 demystifies complicated process like developing a geoprocessing model, using Python to write a script tool, and the creation of space-time cubes. Cartographic techniques for both web and physical maps are included. Each chapter begins with a prompt using a real-world scenario in a different industry to help you explore how ArcGIS Pro can be applied for operational efficiency, analysis, and problem solving. A summary and glossary terms at the end of every chapter help reinforce the lessons and skills learned. Ideal for students, self-learners, and seasoned professionals looking to learn a new GIS product, Getting to Know ArcGIS Pro 2.6 is a broad textbook and desk reference designed to leave users feeling confident in using ArcGIS Pro on their own.
Traditional methods for handling spatial data are encumbered by the assumption of separate origins for horizontal and vertical measurements, but modern measurement systems operate in a 3-D spatial environment. The 3-D Global Spatial Data Model: Principles and Applications, Second Edition maintains a new model for handling digital spatial data, the global spatial data model or GSDM. The GSDM preserves the integrity of three-dimensional spatial data while also providing additional benefits such as simpler equations, worldwide standardization, and the ability to track spatial data accuracy with greater specificity and convenience. This second edition expands to new topics that satisfy a growing need in the GIS, professional surveyor, machine control, and Big Data communities while continuing to embrace the earth center fixed coordinate system as the fundamental point of origin of one, two, and three-dimensional data sets. Ideal for both beginner and advanced levels, this book also provides guidance and insight on how to link to the data collected and stored in legacy systems.
This comprehensive Handbook summarizes existing work and presents new concepts and empirical results from leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of behavioral and cognitive geography, the study of the human mind, and activity in and concerning space, place, and environment. It provides the broadest and most inclusive coverage of the field so far, including work relevant to human geography, cartography, and geographic information science. Behavioral and cognitive geography originated as a contrast to aggregate approaches to human geography that treat people as homogenous and interchangeable; to models of human activity based on simplistic and psychologically implausible assumptions; and to conceptualizations of humans as passive responders to their environment. This Handbook is highly multi- and interdisciplinary, featuring scholars from geography, geographic information science, and more than ten other academic disciplines; including: psychology, linguistics, computer science, engineering, architecture and planning, anthropology, and neuroscience. The contributors adhere to scientific rigor in their approach, while fully engaging with issues of emotion, subjectivity, consciousness, and human variability. Thoroughly informed by the history of geography and of the cognitive sciences but also providing guideposts for future research and application, this Handbook will be an essential resource for researchers, lecturers and students in geography, psychology, and other social, behavioral, cognitive, and design sciences.
At the convergence of the land and sea, coastal environments are some of the most dynamic and populated places on Earth. This book explains how the many varied forms of spatial analysis, including mapping, monitoring and modelling, can be applied to a range of coastal environments such as estuaries, mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs. Presenting empirical geographical approaches to modelling, which draw on recent developments in remote sensing technology, geographical information science and spatial statistics, it provides the analytical tools to map, monitor and explain or predict coastal features. With detailed case studies and accompanying online practical exercises, it is an ideal resource for undergraduate courses in spatial science. Taking a broad view of spatial analysis and covering basic and advanced analytical areas such as spatial data and geostatistics, it is also a useful reference for ecologists, geomorphologists, geographers and modellers interested in understanding coastal environments.
GIS for Critical Infrastructure Protection highlights the GIS-based technologies that can be used to support critical infrastructure protection and emergency management. The book bridges the gap between theory and practice using real-world applications, real-world case studies, and the authors' real-world experience. Geared toward infrastructure owners and first responders and their agencies, it addresses gaps in the response, recovery, preparedness planning, and emergency management of large-scale disasters. It also explains the first principles of CIP, introduces the basic components of GIS, and focuses on the application of GIS analysis to identify and mitigate risk and facilitate remediation. In addition, it offers suggestions on how geospatial and emergency response communities can come together-and with combined knowledge-work toward viable solutions for future improvements. Provides a narrative of critical lessons learned through personal experience during the response to Hurricane Katrina Contains examples demonstrating how geospatial technologies may be applied to fire service Summarizes lessons learned from ten community collaboration studies GIS for Critical Infrastructure Protection serves as a reference for infrastructure owner's police, fire, paramedics, and other government agencies responsible for crisis and emergency response, and critical infrastructure protection. The book benefits first responders and infrastructure owners working to ensure the continued safety and operability of the nation's infrastructure.
The TransNav 2011 Symposium held at the Gdynia Maritime University, Poland in June 2011 has brought together a wide range of participants from all over the world. The program has offered a variety of contributions, allowing to look at many aspects of the navigational safety from various different points of view. Topics presented and discussed at the Symposium were: navigation, safety at sea, sea transportation, education of navigators and simulator-based training, sea traffic engineering, ship's manoeuvrability, integrated systems, electronic charts systems, satellite, radio-navigation and anti-collision systems and many others. This book is part of a series of six volumes and provides an overview of Navigational Systems and Simulators and is addressed to scientists and professionals involved in research and development of navigation, safety of navigation and sea transportation.
Written for both majors and non-majors alike, Introduction to Geospatial Technologies demonstrates the wide range of geographic technologies available to and used by geographers today. Each chapter contains an introduction to the key concepts and a lab activity, so that in addition to gaining a basic foundation of knowledge students also obtain hands-on experience with the relevant software. This new edition stays current with its rapidly moving field, with coverage and lab activities revised to reflect is the most up-to-date ideas and innovations in GST.
This book presents reviews, examples and case studies of innovative applications in solid and hazardous waste management. The economics of waste management have since become a significant research area in their own right, and two chapters address these issues. In addition, dedicated chapters cover specific categories of waste such as biomedical and institutional waste, plastics and e-waste. The book subsequently discusses newer analytical methods like SEM, EDX, XRD and optical microscopy, along with selected "older" methods for sampling and characterizing different types of waste. The various applications of mathematical tools like linear optimization, various software/models like WISCLeach, and DRASTIC, and tools like remote sensing and GIS are illustrated in many of the chapters. Lastly, since composting is one of the most popular treatment methods for managing the organic component of municipal solid waste, the book provides an overview of composting and the fundamentals of microbiology that are essential to understanding waste-related biological processes. The book was primarily written for students and practitioners in the field who are already familiar with the basics. All chapters were prepared by practicing experts and scholars in the field, and are intended to help readers better understand and apply these principles and practices in their own endeavours. Key topics covered in the book: * The circular economy and the economics of solid waste management * Various remote sensing and GIS applications for managing municipal solid waste, coal fires in mines, changes in land use and land cover in industrial areas, etc. * Treatment and management of different types of solid waste: institutional (including biomedical), residential, e-waste, plastic, and ash from thermal power plants * Sampling and characterization of municipal waste and compost * Fundamentals of microbiology * Overview of environmental regulations, especially those pertaining to solid and hazardous waste management
How do you draw a map of 100,000 places, of more than a million flows of people, of changes over time and space, of different kinds of spaces, surfaces and volumes, from human travel time to landscapes of hopes, fears, migration, manufacturing and mortality? How do you turn the millions of numbers concerning some of the most important moments of our lives into images that allow us to appreciate the aggregate while still remembering the detail? The visualization of spatial social structure means, literally, making visible the geographical patterns to the way our lives have come to be socially organised, seeing the geography in society. To a statistical readership visualization implies using data. More widely defined it implies freeing our imaginations. The Visualization of Spatial Social Structure introduces the reader to new ways of thinking about how to look at social statistics, particularly those about people in places. The author presents a unique combination of statistical focus and understanding of social structures and innovations in visualization, describing the rationale for, and development of, a new way of visualizing information in geographical research. These methods are illustrated through extensive full colour graphics; revealing mistakes, techniques and discoveries which present a picture of a changing political and social geography. More complex aspects on the surface of social landscapes are revealed with sculptured symbols allowing us to see the relationships between the wood and the trees of social structure. Today's software can be so flexible that these techniques can now be emulated without coding. This book centres on a particular place and time; 1980s Britain, and a particular set of records; routine social statistics. A great deal of information about the 80s' social geography of Britain is contained within databases such as the population censuses, surveys and administrative data. Following the release of the 2011 census, now is a good time to look back at the past to introduce many new visualization techniques that could be used by future researchers.
New In This Edition: This second edition of the Encyclopedia of GIS includes 30% to 50% new content. It provides up-to-date information on emerging topics such as spatial big data, smart-phone GIS, urban computing and mobile recommender systems. It also expands the first edition's rich set of GIS-related commercial and societal applications such as geo-targeting, geo-fencing and understanding climate changes, while enabling more comprehensive coverage of classical GIS topics such as map projections, global positioning systems and spatial cognition. The entries explain the key software, data sets and processes used by geographers and computational scientists. Additionally, the reference emphasizes the role of GIS in business and mobile intelligence. By offering more diversified GIS-related topics from theory and research than most of the other available literature, the authors equip newcomers to the field with principles as well as applications. With an accessible breadth of content and intuitive A-Z organization, this new edition of the encyclopedia is an invaluable reference for newcomers to the field of GIS, as well as researchers, students, developers and professionals who are interested in exploring this new dynamic area. Praise For The First Edition: "The focus here, however, is on the mathematical and computational aspects of GIS ... . This is very welcome to those practitioners who have been less exposed to some of the mathematical and computational aspects of GIS. This is also very welcome to the researcher or graduate student within any of the interdisciplinary areas that use GIS. ... I highly recommend it." (Pascal V. Calarco, ACM Computing Reviews, November, 2008) "This single-volume reference work is a highly welcome ... addition to the rapidly advancing field of geographic information systems. Peer-reviewed entries from over 300 contributors cover 41 topical subfields, with an overall emphasis on computational aspects of GIS. The volume is adequately illustrated with 723 figures and 90 tables in black and white. A full bibliography and concise list of entry terms are provided at the back of the work. ... Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division geography students through professionals." (C. E. Smith, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (11), 2008) "The encyclopedia is divided into 41 fields, each one an important sub-area within GIS. ... the editors' organization of the material and comprehensive and systematic approach are superb and shall give students, eager readers as well as researchers an understanding of the topics in quite full depth and breadth. ... is lavishly illustrated with figures, graphs and tables, the design and execution of which are as perfect as the material they illustrate. ... it is sturdy and opens out nicely for study and reference." (Current Engineering Practice, 2008).
A summary of the results achieved in the geological-structural mapping, by potential fields and airborne gamma spectrometry data, of the units of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the western regions (Havana-Matanzas), central (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara-Sancti Spiritus) and central-eastern (Camaguey-Las Tunas-Holguin) of Cuba is presented. In addition, the structural- tectonic regionalization with hydrocarbon exploration purposes, focusing mapping of possible new oil-gas targets in the regions of Land Blocks 9, 23 and 17-18 are detailed in this volume. In certain case study locations (Majaguillar, North Motembo, Guamutas and Maniabon) reconnaissance work by a profile of Redox Complex (complex of unconventional geophysical-geochemical exploration techniques) was performed with positive results. In an attempt to contribute to the geological-structural mapping of the metamorphic massif Isla de la Juventud, with emphasis on acid magmatism, the gravi-magnetometric data is used. According to the results, the presumed post metamorphic granitic bodies of low density are located, mainly, in the central and southwestern part of the massif. The granitic bodies apparently were introduced through the system of longitudinal faults (syn metamorphic) and transverse (post metamorphic) at the end of the process multyfolding and metamorphism of the massif sequences, taking a leading role the deep longitudinal fracture zones of sublatitudinal direction in the central and southern part of the massif. On the map of the magnetic field vertical derivative the anomalies, basically, reflected the direction and limits of the folded tectonic structure, the development area of volcanogenic rocks, the presumed development zones of migmatitic rocks and tectonised rocks in North and center of the massif, respectively, and the prevailing direction of the main tectonic dislocations.
This book departs from typical cartography textbooks, which tend to focus on the characteristics of the methods and means of expression. Instead, it offers an explanation of the individual perspective on the map as a specific product of civilization, one that constitutes a component of social communication. The layout highlights the essential property of cartographic notation, namely: the way of forming the map's content elements, adjusted to its purpose. This property is ensured thanks to the dimension of reference units in relation to the observation scale of the objects, and by topological consistency between the reference units system and real layout of the objects. An exploration of the characteristics of various ways of depicting a map's content elements, organized in the reference units dimension, is preceded by a general section accentuating the position of cartography among other sciences, as well as the definition and general properties of a map. The book's closing chapter includes a separate textbook overview of the applications of taxonomic methods in cartography.
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
The Definitive Volume on Cutting-Edge Exploratory Analysis of Massive Spatial and Spatiotemporal Databases
Since the publication of the first edition of Geographic Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, new techniques for geographic data warehousing (GDW), spatial data mining, and geovisualization (GVis) have been developed. In addition, there has been a rise in the use of knowledge discovery techniques due to the increasing collection and storage of data on spatiotemporal processes and mobile objects. Incorporating these novel developments, this second edition reflects the current state of the art in the field.
New to the Second Edition
Geographic data mining and knowledge discovery is a promising young discipline with many challenging research problems. This book shows that this area represents an important direction in the development of a new generation of spatial analysis tools for data-rich environments. Exploring various problems and possible solutions, it will motivate researchers to develop new methods and applications in this emerging field.
While traditional apsects of GIS have been growing rapidly in recent years, new developments have focused on the geographic information service and delivery, which will realise the benefits of spatial information to the community. The analysis and application of spatial information for decision support systems is an important development in realising these benefits. This book is a collection of peer-reviewed articles presented at the ISPRS Workshop on Spatial Analysis and Decision Making in Hong Kong in 2003. It covers topics such as image-based spatial analysis and decision making; 3-D modelling and analysis; general spatial analysis methodology; web- and mobile-based analysis; knowledge-based systems; integrated systems; visualisation and representation methodology, and some application systems.
This text in the series "Innovations in GIS", continues the theme of directions in geographical information systems research established by the four previous Research UK (GISRUK) conferences. The chapters reflect the interdisciplinary nature of GIS research and includes coverage of such themes as: virtual GIS; spatial analysis; artificial intelligence; spatial agents and fuzzy systems; and space-time GIS and GIS applications.
Recent advances in theory and observations using passive microwave remote sensing have hightlighted the potential of spaceborne sensors for contributing to the required land surface measurements of soils, vegetation, snow cover and precipitation. Furthermore, the spatial resolution of passive microwave observations matches the special scales of large-scale models of land-atmosphere interactions both for data assimilation and validation. In order to stimulate and focus this research a workshop, sponsored by ESA and NASA, was organized to review the state-of-the-art in microwave radiometry related to land applications and to exchange ideas leading into new directions for future research. This volume contains the refereed papers from the aforementioned ESA/NASA workshop, which are arranged by topic, as well as the (edited) working group reports.
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