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The widespread debate on industrial mobility and on the consequences of industrial mobility for the income of local resources has motivated me to look closer at some immanent questions concerning optimal public policy. I think that regarding locations as endowed with some stock of local resources (especially local labour) and regarding local policy makers as interested in a high income of local resources is a quite realistic approach to the issue of rent-shifting public policy in view of industrial mobility. My attention has been especially drawn to the role of inter-industry mobility differentials for public policy. As soon as the discussion focuses on local resources, it becomes clear that the expansion of a mobile industry at some location will absorb local resources which may come from local immobile industries and that the contraction of a mobile industry will release local resources which may go to local illliIlobile industries. The present study is my dissertation for a doctorate in economics at the Universitat Mannheim. It evolved at the Universitat Mannheim, where I have been member of the Graduiertenkolleg Finanz- und Gutermarkte since October 1993, and at the University College London, where I stayed as a participant in the European Network for Training in Economic Research (ENTER) from November 1994 to April 1995. The implicit support by the Deutsche F orschungsgemeinschaft and the ERASMUS programme is gratefully acknowledged.
The book examines the effect of various public policies on economic performance in Japan. Various public policies include tax policy, regulation, macroeconomic policy, labour policy and some others. Many fields regarding economic performance are covered in this book: savings, portfolio choice, housings, investments, cost of capital, taxes, unemployment, wages, inequality, etc. Emphasis is placed on the examination of the two factor markets, namely, the capital and labour markets in Japan.
Over the last few decades universities in Australia and overseas have been criticized for not meeting the needs and expectations of the societies in which they operate. At the heart of this problem is their strategy. This book reviews the organizational-level strategies of some of Australia's prominent universities. It is based on their public documents that boldly report how they see their role in society and how they intend to navigate the future. These strategic statements are written to proclaim relevance, showcase achievements, attract students, and help to gain the support of the communities in which they operate. Using a strategy framework taught in their business schools, this book suggests that most such statements are deficient. Grand aspirations substitute for realistic operations and outcomes. The analysis also suggests that many of Australia's universities are poorly governed and have become too complex and bureaucratic. A greater focus on their core responsibilities would help alleviate their current funding predicament.
With the United States on the way to becoming an almost completely urban nation, the financing of cities has become an issue of great urgency; put simply, American cities do not have enough money. This book examines the role of local fiscal policies and fiscal politics in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America.
Does the European Union need closer fiscal integration, and in particular a stronger fiscal centre, to become more resilient to economic shocks? This book looks at the experience of 13 federal states to help inform the heated debate on this issue. It analyses in detail their practices in devolving responsibilities from the subnational to the central level, compares them to those of the European Union, and draws lessons for a possible future fiscal union in Europe. More specifically, this book tries to answer three sets of questions: What is the role of centralized fiscal policies in federations, and hence the size, features and functions of the central budget? What institutional arrangements are used to coordinate fiscal policy between the federal and subnational levels? What are the links between federal and subnational debt, and how have subnational financing crises been handled, when they occurred? These policy questions are critical in many federations, and central to the current discussions about future paths for the European Union. This book brings to the table new, practical insights through a systematic and comprehensive comparison of the EU fiscal framework with that of federal states. It also departs from the decentralization perspective that has been prominent in the literature by focusing on the role of the centre (which responsibilities are centralized at the federal level and how they are handled, rather than which functions belong to the local level). Such an approach is particularly relevant for the European Union, where a fiscal union would imply granting new powers to the centre.
This book presents case-studies in accountable government and the management of public funds, with particular reference to the multi-party political systems of Botswana, Jamaica, Sri Lanka and Zambia under the Third Republic. Criteria for judging accountability are set out, and the role and influence of political leadership, elections, parties, parliaments, interest groups, the media and external donors are explored. Conclusions take account of the comparisons which are drawn with the experience of single-party regimes in Africa and Asia.
This book details the policy subsystems - links among members of Congress, interest groups, program beneficiaries, and federal and subnational government agencies - that blanket the American political landscape. Robert Stein and Kenneth Bickers have constructed a new data-base detailing federal outlays to congressional districts for each federal program, and use it to examine four myths about the impact of policy subsystems on American government and democratic practice. These include the myth that policy subsystems are a major contributor to the federal deficit; that, once created, federal programs grow inexorably and rarely die; that, to garner support for their programs, subsystem actors seek to universalize the geographic scope of program benefits; and that the flow of program benefits to constituencies in congressional districts ensures the reelection of legislators. The authors conclude with an appraisal of proposals for reforming the American political system, including a balanced budget amendment, a presidential line-item veto, term limitations, campaign finance reform, and the reorganization of congressional committees.
This study was conceived while I was a research assistant in the Department of Development Economics at the University of Heidelberg. The atmosphere there stimulated my interest in the increasing importance of the instimtional dimension of development administration. Since the smdy consists of both theoretical and empirical data, a large number of very different people have helped me to successfully complete the project. For the theoretical parts and the overall framework I am indebted to my advisor Prof. Bruno Knall, Dr. Hans Christoph Rieger, and my colleague Karl Ludwig Brockmann of the Department of Development Economics. I also want to express my gratimde to Bernhard Warkentin, Micheline Beaudry-Somcynsky, Dr. Kraft, Prof. Seifert, Prof. Rifkin, Prof. Liesegang, and Prof. Kieser, who offered useful advice on the overall framework of the smdy. For the empirical parts, I am also indebted to a large number of people in many different organizations. In particular may I express my gratimde to Mr. Kano and Mr. Sasaki of nCA. With their kind assistance I could stay two times as a visiting researcher in nCA and could survey several projects in Thailand. I am greatly indebted to the nCA office and the project personnel there. The frank comments about their activities was a very useful source of information.
The introduction of market mechanisms and a new public management are transforming government and public service throughout the world. Drawing on the experience of a number of countries but focusing, in particular, on the UK where change has progressed furthest and on the broadest front, this is the first comprehensive account of the impact of a whole range of innovations such as charging, contracting, internal markets and the creation of devolved agencies.
This book is written primarily for a Scandinavian and European audience interested in regional policy and planning. Attention is placed on the transformation process in the Swedish economy and its implications for regional balances of socio-economic conditions and changes in spatial structures. Conditions in the United States, especially North Carolina, are used as a reference. The book is based on work originating within the framework of an international forum for exchange of ideas and co-operation between researchers, planners and practitioners, The Consortium for the Study of Perceived Planning Issues in Marginal Areas -PIMA. The group was established in 1989 and is interested in various aspects of marginal areas defined either in locational or developmental terms. Members of the core group represent universities in the United States, Sweden and Ireland. During recent years a subgroup within PIMA has focused attention on studies of areas located between urban centres and rural peripheries. These areas have been labelled Intermediate Socio-econornic Regions - ISER. Joint work between Sweden and North Carolina of a comparative nature has been conducted by the authors of this book and Professor Ole Gade and some of his students at Appalachian State University, North Carolina. This work has been published in proceedings from PIMA meetings (Planning Issues in Marginal Areas, Boone: Ole Gade, Vincent P. Miller Jr. and Lawrence M. Sommers, eds. 1991; Planning and Development of Marginal Areas, Galway: Micheal O'Cinneide and Seamus Grimes, eds.
The year 1973 marked a turning point, as Peterson makes clear in this carefully documented book. When several key economic indicators changed course, the "silent depression set in, resulting in problems for the shrinking middle class, the poor, and the American family." Peterson calls for strong medicine and closes with proposals for health care, education, and the tax system that will help speed the economy's recovery.
This work challenges the theories of public goods, public enterprise and public choice on three fronts. Government action reflects wider interests and commitments than just the material self-interest assumed as primary by the three theories. Government contributes to the productivity and quality of the modern mixed economy in ways not captured by theories stressing the inherent superiority of private markets. Lastly, old and new ideas within established traditions of political thought justify government action beyond the libertarian argument for limited government.
The treaty of Maastricht envisages the full economic and monetary union in Europe. With increasing real and monetary integration policy decisions in individual member countries tend to have a growing impact on the other member countries of the European Community. Against this background the following study analyses within a unified theoretical framework the impact of monetary and fiscal policy pursued by one country on its own macroeconomic performance as well as on those of the other member countries and of the rest of the world. The analysis contrasts the cases of a small and a large European union relative to the rest of the world and distinguishes very clearly between the short-run, the medium-run and the long-run effects. Based on this the consequences for union cohesion and the scope for policy coordination are discussed. Since the analytical framework is defined by a three country model many results from the traditional policy coordination literature which relies on two country models are qualified. In contrasts to most previous research in this area particular attention is paid to the implications of asymmetries between the EC member countries. Furthermore, the structural parameters are in some instances not taken as given but as responsive to the integration process. In this context numerous links to the traditional literature on optimal currency areas are established and interesting implications for union cohesion during the transition are derived.
'A brilliant critical and fresh look at the public choice school of thought.' - Paul Streeten This book challenges theories of public goods, public enterprise and public choice on three fronts. Government action reflects wider interests and commitments than just the material self-interest assumed as primary by the three theories. Government contributes to the productivity and quality of the modern mixed economy in ways not captured by theories stressing the inherent superiority of private markets. Lastly, old and new ideas within established traditions of political thought justify government action beyond the libertarian argument for limited government.
This book was prepared mainly for specialists on the assumption that it would provide the background to an important neglected field of discussion in public finance. Since it was first published in 1958, the theory of public goods and its implications for public policy have become incorporated in the main body of the economic analysis of public finance in the literature. A glance at the footnotes of some of the standard textbooks on public finance indicates that this assembly of articles has not been in vain. Probably the most influential part of this collection has been the papers concerned with the theory of public expenditure, which contains two closely related elements. The first is as a part of welfare economics: under what conditions can Pareto optimality be achieved in an economic system in which some goods supplied are indivisible? The other strand of thought is concerned with the positive theory of the public sector: how can economic analysis be used in order to explain how the size and composition of the budget is actually determined?
Recent decades have seen the study of politics invaded by economic theories, methods and techniques. This book gives a concise, non- technical account of these 'public choice' theories and examines their influence upon government policies in English-speaking countries. Issues covered include slimming the state, privatising welfare and re- structuring government. Final chapters offer an alternative view of the basis of good government. This book offers a unique survey and critique of the ideas and influence of an important branch of political thought and it links with market theories. It is vital reading for students of both politics and economics.
This scarce antiquarian book is a facsimile reprint of the original. Due to its age, it may contain imperfections such as marks, notations, marginalia and flawed pages. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting, preserving, and promoting the world's literature in affordable, high quality, modern editions that are true to the original work.
It is really no longer necessary to stress the importance of availing of sound statistical information on the environment. Originally .limited to circles of insiders and experts this message has now fully reached political decision makers and the general public at large. In this procedure macro-economics has - sumed a particular role, e.g. when evaluating related financial implications but also when propagating alarming overall figures on the harm this generation is doing to our environment. Accordingly, the need is o >vious to further promote the development of international standards and - operation in the field of environment statistics in general and environmental economic accounts in p- ticular. Therefore, the AiJstrian Statistical Society (ASS) together with the Austrian Central Statistical Office (ACSO) with pleasure hosted the IARIW Special Conference on Environmental Economic Accounts, in May 1991. These institutions are similarly pleased that now this publication on the proceedings of this Conference can be presented. They connect this with grateful thanks to all those who contributed to the successful completion of this work, in particular the authors and the editors. The impression seems warranted that the outcome of this coordinated overall endeavour was more than just better mutual understanding, viz. something like an increasing consciousness of the common - nominator tending to expand.
Some goods and services are normally left to the market mechanism. Health care is often described as an exception to the rule. Society wants care to be allocated equitably; it wants the financial burden to be kept within bounds; it wants treatments to be both medically effective and economically efficient. These shared concerns lead to a demand for State intervention which this book seeks impartially to appraise and evaluate.
This collection of essays deals with aspects of the recent fiscal crisis in developing countries. Macro aspects cover theoretical underpinning of fiscal policy, the size of the required adjustment and the link between internal and external transfers. Micro aspects cover the relation between private and public investment, the experience of tax and expenditure reforms and the impact of fiscal adjustment on the poor. The essays are by applied economists, who analyze real-life issues.
Maastricht will induce changes to the EC budget the various dimensions of which are explored in this volume. Based on the theory of fiscal federalism the author discusses important aspects of multilayer government finance for existing federations - Australia, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. He sketches the effects of an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) onto the Community budget, and concludes with a systematic treatment of revenue instruments for its future financing
In recent years, workers earnings have hardly grown, violence and crime have plagued the inner cities, homelessness and public begging have become commonplace, and family life has greatly deteriorated. With governments facing large deficits and slowly growing revenues, and public distrust in the efficiency of government and elected officials at all-time highs, the authors ask, ""What can government do for you?""This book brings together a prominent group of experts to answer this critical question. Edited by Henry Aaron and Charles L. Schultze, two of the nation's most noted and experienced economists, the book focuses on the crucial domestic and social issues confronting America today. Seven vital areas are discussed by the following contributors: Henry Aaron on health care; Gordon L Berlin and William McAllister on homelessness; Linda R Cohen and Roger G. Noll on research and development; John J. DiIulio, Jr., on crime; Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane on education and training; Isabel V. Sawhill on children and families; and Clifford M. Winston and Barry P. Bosworth on infrastructure. In each problem area, the authors use the results of research and analysis to identify existing or proposed governmental interventions that are likely to work, as well as some that are likely to fail and some that need to be reformed. They then present a budget proposal that not only pays for suggested changes in domestic policy, but brings the budget into virtual balance in ten years.
This book describes the complex of economic processes which sustains inflationary pressure in nations with severe inflation problems. Paul Beckerman uses an innovative approach to study the strategies inhabitants of economies with lengthy inflation experience use to maintain their purchasing power despite inflation. He examines how these tactics function as 'feedback mechanisms', economic processes by which inflation in any given time period generates inflationary pressure in subsequent periods, and how they complicate the efforts of policy-makers to achieve stabilization.
In the turbulent years between passage of the Federal Reserve Act (1913) and the Bretton Woods Agreement (1945), the peoples of the Western world suffered two World Wars, two major and several minor international financial panics, an epidemic of currency devaluations and debt repudiations, civil wars, and revolutions. They also enjoyed a decade of unprecedented prosperity and a decade of unprecedented depression and deflation. They also saw the beginning of a period of prolonged, world-wide inflation.No period in history could serve better as a case study for the analysis of applied economic policy. From his vantage point as economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank and editor of the Chase Economic Bulletin, who participated in much of what he records, Dr. Anderson here describes the climactic events of a turbulent era.Arthur Kemp is Professor Emeritus of Economics at Claremont McKenna College.
Famed international economist Carlo Cottarelli explains public debt the IOUs governments issue to keep the machinery of government running. Where does public debt originate? Why is it so difficult to reduce? Why is it so important for a nation's economy? Can nations live with debt, and how? Is it possible to eliminate public debt? Drawing on his roles as director of fiscal affairs and executive director for Italy at the International Monetary Fund, and as commissioner of public spending reform in Italy, Cottarelli brings a wealth of direct experience, especially of the crises generated by public debt, including in Italy and Greece, and their solutions: from the orthodox (austerity) to the more combative (""I won't pay you"), to more realistic, long term, growth-focused solutions. Cottarelli provides an essential, bias-free guide to public debt. He describes the different forms of debt in countries across the globe and illustrates what experts know and do not know about it, its perils and its solutions. A must-read to understand one or the main issues in today's global economy.
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