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This first major book on Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in Nigeria explores the legal, policy and strategic issues involved in the structuring and execution of PPP projects in Nigeria. The book goes beyond the toolkit approach of other available resources to blend the theoretical analysis of concepts with practical step-by-step guides for consummating projects. The book adopts a multidisciplinary approach by integrating law, economics, finance and project management literature, relying on the author's extensive experience in the field to give clear insights on the PPP concept. The case study methodology employed in the book produces rich and compelling empirical results. This book is suitable for beginners wishing to develop an understanding of the concept, as well as practitioners advising on PPPs. Students and academics wishing to carry out further research on PPPs will also benefit from the book.
Distributional considerations are of central importance in the evolution of health care systems. Who gets served, who pays, and how, as a result, improved health is distributed, are among the pressing issues addressed in this volume. "Health, Health Care and Health Economics: Perspectives on Distribution" focuses on fundamental issues of equity or distribution in health care and health, and provides a stimulating and provocative discussion of the:
Persistence of inequalities despite policy interventions designed to remove economic barriers to access to care
Association between income and income inequalities on the one hand and health inequalities on the other
Under-emphasis on matters of distribution, relative to issues of efficiency, in much of the health economics research to date, and the potential policy distortions thereby created. This volume will be an indispensable sourcebook for all health economists as well as health care policy makers and managers.
'This book recognizes a milestone in the evolution of health economics as a discipline.' Joseph P. Newhouse, "Harvard University Boston, Massachusetts, USA"
At a time when state assistance to the arts sector has come under considerable scrutiny both in Europe and the United States, this book comprehensively examines the evolution of, and rationale for, state involvement with the so-called `high' arts on both continents. This book offers an overview of the key economic issues arising in relation to the state and the arts in these regions, with a detailed analysis of the European and American models of state assistance to the high arts sector. John O'Hagan examines in detail the various channels - regulation, taxation and direct expenditure - through which the state interacts with the arts and compares and contrasts the experiences of America and Europe. Regulatory measures considered include the guarantee of artistic freedom, copyright, resale royalties for artists, and trade restrictions. He also considers taxation measures to support the arts, including deductions for charitable contributions to the arts, property tax exemption, and relief on artists' income. The discussion on direct expenditure covers state ownership of institutions, revenue funding and matching grants as well as new avenues of expenditure such as community arts/arts centres, and new revenue sources for this expenditure, such as lottery funding. Finally the book covers the non-profit making arts sector, and examines why it, and not the commercial sector, receives private and state funding. The State and the Arts will be indispensable for students and academics of public and social policy, cultural economics and public management. It will also be of considerable interest to policymakers and key players in the arts sector.
In this innovative book the author examines the link between environmental, trade and industrial policies within an interregional setting. He models how regional governments, using tax rates on real capital and pollutant emissions, determine policies to favour their residents in terms of the provision of public goods and reduction in environmental degradation. Regions or countries engage in competition for mobile capital in a world where production causes pollution and tax revenues are required to finance public goods. In Fiscal Policy and Environmental Welfare the author considers the efficiency consequences when governments act strategically and seek to manage trade, capital flows and emissions. Using formal models, which extend and modify existing literature, the author demonstrates that interjurisdictional competition typically leads to inefficiencies. He argues that although interjurisdictional competition may lead to the overprovision of public goods and to an inefficiently high environmental quality, often the opposite seems to occur. This book will be welcomed by environmental economists, and those scholars interested in welfare and fiscal policy.
Flying into the Future explores the organization of air transport in the European Union. It analyses the nature of the industries supplying air transport services, the institutional structure of air transport services, and impediments to increased efficiency in the provision of air transport. The reduction in institutional barriers and regulations has led to a more efficient provision of air transport services in the EU. This book assesses the improvements in the efficiency of air transport services, and highlights institutional and physical problems impeding further efficiency gains. The authors examine airline operations, and the ability of two or more transport systems to operate effectively in tandem. They also consider how to make the boundaries between different transport networks invisible, as well as discussing issues of national organization and the juridical structures which impede operations. The analysis examines both the internal European Union market for air transport services and the links between it and the rest of the world. Other key issues discussed include: * EU air transport developments in the context of global markets * comparisons of recent developments in aviation policy between the EU and the United States * the problems of congestion in the air transport industry in Europe * the growth and significance of airline alliances. The authors not only consider the economics of European air transport but also legal, political, technical and geographical issues. They explore the problems of providing air transport in the context of inadequate information, institutional constraints, inherent market imperfections and imprecise objectives. Flying into the Future will be essential reading for industrialists, policymakers and academics interested in transport economics and transport policy.
Urban governance in most western democracies has seen various forms of public-private concerted actions becoming increasingly important instruments for local governments. These new features of urban governance are often seen as local governments trying to enhance their "capacity to act" by fusing their capabilities with those of other major societal actors. At the same time such transgressions of the border between the public and the private spheres of society make local governments more susceptible to political pressures from those actors. This volume looks at the historical development and present performance of public-private partnerships for local economic development in western Europe and the United States. The theoretical framework applied in the volume is derived from theories of governance as well as from institutional theory.
The Handbook for Muni-Bond Issuers provides professionals with succinct guidance on what issuers need to know before beginning the issuance process - choosing a method of sale, getting the right financial advice, disclosure and legal guidelines, and lowering the cost of financing. It includes a detailed discussion of what happens prior to a sale through what to expect after the close. Author Joe Mysak takes issuers through the process, step-by-step, with smart answers and pragmatic strategies for success in today's muni-bond market. This book provides an insider's perspective on choosing a method of sale, finding the right financial advisers, what to expect from regulators, and earning a high credit rating.
Public policies increasingly emphasize active consumerism, entrepreneurship on the part of service providers and professionals, privatization, and an expanded role for markets. This text draws on research by economists, psychologists, sociologists and public policy experts. The research demonstrates that the traditional rational choice model of economic behaviour is unsatisfactory in providing accounts of the way people choose in relation to work, saving, spending, investment and social welfare. It also shows that the public policies of active consumerism, public sector entrepreneurship, and privatization based on this approach may be flawed.
Financing Federal Systems provides a comprehensive selection of Edward M. Gramlich's essays, which have made a major contribution to public finance and macroeconomics over three decades. The structure of fiscal federalism is a major issue in most countries around the world. Developed economies are continually confronting the question of fiscal federalism as they consider harmonizing tax and trading arrangements. Emerging market economies are addressing these issues as they organize systems to promote growth and development. The book begins with a new introduction by the author which provides a clear and concise overview of the current issues in fiscal federalism. The book comprises some 23 papers and features empirical, theoretical and diagnostic work together with comprehensive evaluations of the fiscal federal systems in the United States, Australia, Sweden and Canada. It includes work on state and local government behaviour, grant policies, macroeconomic policies, state tax limitations, federal tax policy, sub-national fiscal policy, infrastructure investment and public welfare policies. Financing Federal Systems will complement graduate and undergraduate courses in public finance and fiscal federalism. It will also appeal to policymakers and local government practitioners.
In all countries debt and deficits of the public sector are at the heart of economic policy debate. Debt and deficits pose major problems, all the more pressing in Europe because of the Maastricht criteria for entry into European Monetary Union. And in the developing world debt has been associated with major financial crises. This volume, arising from an International Economic Association conference at the Bundesbank, sees academics and policy makers debate the key issues and their implications in theory and practice.
Das Standardwerk der Investor Relations beleuchtet in der 2., uberarbeiteten und erweiterten Auflage praxisnah die aktuellen rechtlichen Entwicklungen sowie Themen der Finanzmarktkrise. Es zeigt, wie IR-Verantwortliche auf die neuen Herausforderungen der internationalen Finanzmarkte reagieren mussen und welche Instrumente die Investor Relations dafur bieten."
How far can government be reinvented? What is the impact of globalization on the delivery of government services around the world? This comparative book debates new managerial and policy paradigms, with a sophisticated analysis of the potential effects of the marketizing of government services. Case studies explore The US Government's National Performance Review, the relocation of Britain's Inland Revenue IT services with a US multi-national, the impact of the Europeanization of government in the EU, the implausibility of reinventing government, and the applicability of new theories of analysis.
This interdisciplinary collection of essays takes a hard look at the gap between increasingly costs expectations of welfare including other social needs and available revenues. It shows that the issue is not a purely economic and certainly not a party-political one, but that it has significant ethical, some call it spiritual, components. From providing initially a broad account of welfare economics it presents contributions from political philosophers and theologians as well as accounts of successful initiatives to indicate the direction for solutions which will correspond to the complex realities of post-modern society.
Financing Decentralized Expenditures presents new original research papers on the structure of intergovernmental fiscal relations in virtually all types of countries and the design and implementation of transfer mechanisms between different levels of government. In developing, transition, and industrial countries alike, the process of decentralization of government expenditures has proceeded apace to provide better accountability and quality of services to consumers. At the same time, tax administration constraints dictate the central collection and assignment of the major sources of revenues - particularly income taxes and VAT. This generates an imbalance in favour of the central government. The manner in which this imbalance in redistributed affects the degree and nature of decentralization generating considerable debate in countries as diverse as Italy and Denmark, those in North America, as well as countries in transition, such as China and Russia. The book includes a balance of overview pieces that explore the general issues supplemented by a large number of studies of intergovernmental transfer systems in specific countries. It offers a unique source of reference by providing a wealth of information of grant systems around the world.
The nation's capital is in a fiscal and political crisis. By 1995 the District of Columbia did not have the cash to pay its bills and faced a growing operating deficit. It was effectively shut out of the capital markets and at least three of its government agencies were in receivership. On any given day, 30 percent of the police vehicles were in the shop for repairs and 25 percent of the school buses were inoperable. Nor were adequate funds coming in: property assessors were making up the rules as they were undervaluing the tax base. In April 1995 Congress, beginning to come to grips with the situation, placed the fiscal control of the city in the hands of a presidentially appointed Control Board. The survival of the nation's capital is a matter of national concern. The Control Board and the chief financial officer have outlined the path to balancing the budget by 1999. Once the District government can deliver services efficiently, the issue of how they should be financed will need to be addressed. That is the focus of this book. Carol O'Cleireacain provides background for understanding the present situation, focusing on the revenue components and offering a realistic menu of revenue options for long-term, ongoing budget balance. She addresses such questions as: What is the " norm" for a city the size of Washington? What is the appropriate sharing among the federal government, District residents, and the region? How much compensation should be paid for the huge amount of tax-exempt property and the enormous number of nonprofit organizations in the capital? What taxes can the District impose fairly, collect efficiently without distorting decisions of individuals and businessesabout where to locate? O'Cleireacain concludes that the District's fiscal crisis is the result, in part, of economic and demographic trends reflecting the dilemmas of central cities and their suburbs nationwide; in part, the historically flawed relationship between Congress and the local government. But at the heart of the District's fiscal crisis is its special status as the nation's capital. All other American cities benefit from state aid for welfare, Medicaid, prisons, higher education, juvenile justice, and a wide range of highway, infrastructure, and other capital investments. The District does not; it has to tax its residents in order to provide state-type services. Ongoing budget balance in D.C. will require a realignment of spending and revenue responsibilities by the federal government acting as the state parent to the nation's orphaned capital.
This book presents a theoretically-based comprehensive analysis of macroeconomic consequences of fiscal policy using a popular economic model: the overlapping generations growth model. A wide range of essential public finance issues is analyzed, including the effects of tax reform on dynamic efficiency, positive and normative effects of public spending, considerations of taxes on fixed assets and monetary holdings, and sustainability of deficits. A unique approach is applied in the study of public finance: one expected to generate substantial interest among current graduate students and active researchers.
Comparative study of public enterprise management in different countries around the world, pointing to historical trends and current issues and problems. Experts survey an interesting collection of countries in the Americas, Asia, the Middle/Near East, Europe, and Australia. They also discuss public enterprise management education. References with each chapter contribute to the usefulness of this assessment for political scientists, public administrators, international businessmen, and those engaged in international studies.
This collection of essays is a state-of-the-art analysis of key issues confronting the European Union. Identifying European economic integration as one of the defining features of modern international economics, the authors examine many aspects and consequences of this integration which remain as yet obscure and unexplored. In this book, after addressing general issues concerned with European integration, the authors include empirical and theoretical analyses of the monetary union, social policy reform and social union, public finance in the EU, the EU's agriculture and technology policies, and direct foreign investment into the EU. In particular, the volume includes detailed discussion of Greek membership of the EU, supplying a context in which many of the general issues of industrial adjustment, investment and politics can be examined. Using a wide range of topics, methodologies and perspectives, Economic Integration and Public Policy in the European Union offers a stimulating and wide-ranging presentation which will be of interest to economic theorists, empirical social scientists, policymakers and the informed general reader.
This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole. This important book examines elements of financial integration and capital mobility in North America and addresses in turn the effects of the North American Free Trade Association on Mexico, comparisons between NAFTA and the European Union, the impact of NAFTA on issues such as social protection, migration and Canadian agricultural policy, and finally, regionalism and multilateralism in the Western hemisphere. While drawing on the experience of European integration, the authors recognize that new, broader analyses are required in the Western hemisphere to allow for the ranges of country size, natural resource endowments and per capita incomes. Sensitive to the political interests involved in economic integration between unequal partners, Economic Integration in the Americas offers students, researchers and policymakers a better understanding of policy at both national and supranational levels.
The four dragons of Asia - Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea - have achieved remarkable progress over the past decades. These newly industrialising countries (NICs) have emerged as major actors on the world economic scene. Their success can be attributed to a number of factors related to historical background, relationship with China, pattern of governance and performance of administrative, political and economic institutions. This book examines the role of public administration in the accomplishments of the NICs and identifies potential areas of challenge for the dragons.
Economics for a Civilized Society incorporates both self-interest and civic value motivations to provide an understanding of how our economic system works and how we can develop economic policies that assures a prosperous and civil society. Conventional economics policies involving inflation, the money supply, unemployment, international trade and payments, require that some people suffer so that others thrive in a zero sum game context. Civilized economic policies will employ all of society's resources to work for the betterment of both individuals, families, and the community. From taxes to international trade, the Davidsons show how to surmount today's seemingly intractable economic problems with civilized programmes.
The book examines the effect of various public policies on economic performance in Japan. Various public policies include tax policy, regulation, macroeconomic policy, labour policy and some others. Many fields regarding economic performance are covered in this book: savings, portfolio choice, housings, investments, cost of capital, taxes, unemployment, wages, inequality, etc. Emphasis is placed on the examination of the two factor markets, namely, the capital and labour markets in Japan.
Local communities in all countries are increasingly aware of resource scarcity and are pressing for more say in how funds are used. Developments in Local Government Finance examines key issues for economists interested in local government and, in particular, the functioning of institutions at regional and local levels. Local government organization and finance are addressed from a variety of approaches by the authors who critically examine the current intergovernmental distribution of responsibility for service provision and revenue raising. Adopting a multilateral approach to theory and policy, this major book stresses the need for real, and not just formal, devolution and greater local accountability. The contributors highlight how instruments for financing local government and for pursuing interpersonal and geographical equity can vary considerably between countries with broadly similar systems, yet be surprisingly similar for countries with quite different institutional arrangements. Particular reference is made to emerging problems in the European Union and the experience of Switzerland, a country where fiscal federalism and tax harmonization are living together in a unique equilibrium of forces. Developments in Local Government Finance presents a major contribution to the understanding of local government and finance for both students and practitioners.
Bureaucracy and Public Economics brings together in one volume the classic book and related articles which put forward the first formal economic theory of the behaviour of bureaucracies. William Niskanen Jr. has consistently argued that bureaucrats have personal objectives - that differ from those of both their political supervisors and the general public - which they further by use of their monopoly power. He develops his argument to contend that government budgets have become too large and should be curtailed. All of Professor Niskanen's major contributions to this field have been brought together in this one volume including his pioneering article on `The Peculiar Economics of Bureaucracy', the full text of the book `Bureaucracy and Representative Government' and his recent reassessment of the larger body of scholarship on the economics of bureaucracy. Scholars, students and teachers of public economics will welcome this volume which, by making some of the key contributions in the field more widely accessible, will provoke discussion, debate and further research.
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