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This book discusses Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) and their potential to protect and maintain critical infrastructure in a variety of global governmental settings. Critical infrastructure is defined as essential services that underpin and support the backbone of a nation's economy, security, and health. These services include the power used by homes and businesses, drinking water, transportation, stores and shops, and communications. As governmental budgets dwindle, the maintenance of critical infrastructure and the delivery of its related services are often strained. PPPs have the potential to fill the void between government accounting and capital budgeting. This volume provides a survey of PPPs in critical infrastructure, combining theory and case studies to provide a comprehensive view of possible applications. Written by a diverse group of international experts, the chapters detail PPPs across industries such as transportation, social infrastructure, healthcare, emergency services, and water across municipalities from the US to New Zealand to Hong Kong. Chapters discuss objectives and legal requirements associated with PPPs, the potential advantages and limitations of PPPs, and provide guidance as to how to structure a successful PPP for infrastructure investment. This book is of interest to researchers studying public administration, public finance, and infrastructure as well as practitioners and decision makers interested in instituting PPPs in their communities.
The European Union (EU) has reached crisis point. Populist and Nativist forces are militating against years of austerity economics, distant elites, and a rising tide of migration. Despite the EU's shortcomings, this book seeks to determine the future of the EU, outlining how the institution can learn lessons from the elements that have plunged much of Europe into social, economic and political turmoil. This book argues for reform not revolution. By interviewing politicians, economists, representatives of national bodies and EU citizens, this book provides unique insights never before disclosed and makes a major contribution to current debates on the future of the EU and the Eurozone.
The United States has one of the most unique budgeting processes of any modern government. The "powers of the purse" are enumerated under the Constitution, but they were hotly debated by the nation's founding fathers. However, the lack of a legal guide for exactly how to delegate the powers, and under what conditions, has led to a process marked by power struggles-primarily between Congress and the presidency-over the last 230 years. Still, the budget and appropriations process is central to the functioning of the federal government. This book covers the transformation of American government through the lens of shifting budgeting power, while documenting the evolution of economic policy through the federal budget. As the nation and the federal government have expanded, the budget process has entirely broken down. This book also recommends changes that would help the budget process function more effectively. The chapters are organized both chronologically and topically to help the reader think through the evolution of the budget process. With its comprehensive approach to the history of the budget process-covering the entirety of US federal existence-this book will be a go-to resource for academics and public policy professionals interested in Congressional and executive history.
What drug provides Americans with the greatest pleasure and the greatest pain? The answer, hands down, is alcohol. The pain comes not only from drunk driving and lost lives but also addiction, family strife, crime, violence, poor health, and squandered human potential. Young and old, drinkers and abstainers alike, all are affected. Every American is paying for alcohol abuse. Paying the Tab, the first comprehensive analysis of this complex policy issue, calls for broadening our approach to curbing destructive drinking. Over the last few decades, efforts to reduce the societal costs--curbing youth drinking and cracking down on drunk driving--have been somewhat effective, but woefully incomplete. In fact, American policymakers have ignored the influence of the supply side of the equation. Beer and liquor are far cheaper and more readily available today than in the 1950s and 1960s. Philip Cook's well-researched and engaging account chronicles the history of our attempts to "legislate morality," the overlooked lessons from Prohibition, and the rise of Alcoholics Anonymous. He provides a thorough account of the scientific evidence that has accumulated over the last twenty-five years of economic and public-health research, which demonstrates that higher alcohol excise taxes and other supply restrictions are effective and underutilized policy tools that can cut abuse while preserving the pleasures of moderate consumption. Paying the Tab makes a powerful case for a policy course correction. Alcohol is too cheap, and it's costing all of us.
Central to the development strategies of virtually all the sub-Saharan economies, public enterprises are nonetheless perceived as inefficient and unprofitable. Barbara Grosh examines the public enterprise system in Kenya and shows that, while average performance has indeed been poor, there has been a broad range of results - from excellent to abysmal - and many firms have performed well for long periods. Grosh uses four indicators (profitability, efficiency, prices paid to suppliers and consumer prices) to assess which firms performed well, which had problems and when and why those problems developed. Covering 1963-1988, data is provided for 17 firms in the agricultural sector, four in finance, seven in transport and communications and five in development finance. In addition, 30 publicly-owned manufacturing firms are compared with 40 private ones. She concludes that neither privatization nor policies designed to bring firms and their managers under control - approaches gaining popularity with African policymakers - is likely to solve the problems. She concludes also, however, that most of the problems are susceptible to limited and feasible reforms, and that public enterprise performance can be improved.
The United States has once again entered into a period of large external imbalances. This time the current account deficit, at nearly 6 percent of GDP in 2004, is much larger than in the last episode, when the deficit peaked at about 3.5 percent of GDP in 1987. Moreover, the deficit is on track to become substantially larger over the next several years. This study examines whether the large and growing current account deficit is a problem, and if so, how the problem can be solved. A central policy conclusion of this study is that it is increasingly important that the United States reduce its external current account deficit. This deficit is no longer benign as it arguably was in the late 1990s when it was financing high investment instead of high consumption and large government dissaving.
Conventional wisdom dictates that a fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical. However, contrary to this conventional views, recent research has demonstrated that fiscal policy is actually procyclical in most developing countries. In this book, we attempt to propose a new interpretation of this procyclicality after reviewing theoretical and empirical evolution of the research. In particular, by incorporating the political effort behavior of private agents into a weak government model, we explore how income fluctuations affect the optimal budget deficits in a political economy. If the government can control the political behavior, normally, the optimal budget deficit should rise in a recession as a first-best case; however, interestingly, a recession does not necessarily prompt an increase in the budget deficits in a second-best political economy. The response of the budget deficits to income fluctuations mainly depends on the efficiency of political effort, which may correspond to the degree of democracy and bureaucratic efficiency of the governments. We test the prediction of the pro-cyclical fiscal policy and find it applicable for democratic countries with semi-efficient governments including Japan.
The author indicates that war expenditures have been the most important single cause of the increase in the federal debt, with government countercyclical expenditures second. Increase in state and local debts is found to be largely due to the technological revolution. Originally published in 1961. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Law and regulation are becoming increasingly important in any discourse involving the Islamic financial services industry. This important aspect comprises both the legal and Shari'ah aspects from the pre-contract stage up to the post-execution phase, and even post-contract termination phase. Emerging Issues in Islamic Finance Law and Practice in Malaysia focuses on emerging legal, Shari'ah and regulatory issues in the Islamic finance industry in Malaysia. Through the lens of the Malaysian legal framework, financial experts Umar A. Oseni, M. Kabir Hassan, and Rusni Hassan and their expert contributors raise and discuss issues that cut across borders and, as such, can be transposed to other Islamic finance jurisdictions. With the different perspectives and approaches adopted by various chapters, Emerging Issues is specifically designed to meet the needs of academics and practitioners of Islamic finance law to provide general legal and Shari'ah guidance on the emerging issues identified. In Emerging Issues, Oseni, Hassan and Hassan provide rigorous research for curious minds who seek to ascertain the position of Islamic law on certain new issues, such as the application of Fintech in Islamic finance and the regulation of digital currencies. Readers will also benefit from the case studies included, which are based on the Malaysian legal and Shari'ah framework since Malaysia is generally considered a model for other Islamic finance jurisdictions.
This book compares legally allowed dismissal conditions in employment contracts in Taiwan and Japan and then examines the possibility of introducing the Taiwan-style severance payment system into Japanese employment contracts. A significant difference exists between employment regulations of Japan and Taiwan. In Japan, dismissal of an employee on the grounds of ability is not easily upheld in a court of law, and a set rule for dismissals with severance payment does not exist. On the other hand, in Taiwan, where regulations do not allow dismissal at will, an employee can still be dismissed with severance payment, as long as due process is followed. Written by labor lawyers and labor economists from both Taiwan and Japan, this book describes the procedures that must be followed in the dismissal process in the two countries. It also shows that this difference in dismissal conditions between the two countries explains the low labor mobility in Japan and high labor mobility in Taiwan, and that this difference in labor mobility, in turn, caused the shift of IT production from Japan to Taiwan in the 1990s. The final chapter of the book elucidates the need for introducing the Taiwan-style severance payment before carrying out further deregulation in Japan.
This book presents research on a kind of water use conflicts that is becoming more and more common and important: How to best manage moving water in times of increasing demand for electricity as well as environmental services. How should decisions be made between water use for electricity generation or for environmental and recreational benefits? The authors develop a simple general equilibrium model of a small open economy which is used to derive a cost-benefit rule that can be used to assess projects that divert water from electricity generation to recreational and other uses (or vice versa). The cost-benefit rule is then applied to the specific case of a proposed change at a Swedish hydropower plant. The book provides a manual for the evaluation of river regulations which can easily be replicated in other studies.
This upper level textbook provides a coherent introduction to the economic implications of individual and population ageing. Placing economic considerations into a wider social sciences context, this is ideal reading not only for advanced undergraduate and masters students in economics, health economics and the economics of ageing, but also policy makers, students, professionals and practitioners in gerontology, sociology, health-related sciences and social care. This volume discusses the fiscal implications of ageing, health economics and long-term care. Fiscal policy issues include generational accounting and national transfer accounts, the relationship between ageing, public expenditure and fiscal policy, the age profiles of public expenditures and taxes, and the relationship between ageing, capital and labour taxation. Health economics with regard to ageing comprises healthy and disability-free life expectancy, the relationship between health inequalities and age, the macroeconomic implications of population health, the socio-economic determinants of health, the interaction between ageing and both individual and aggregate health expenditure, and economic approaches to valuing later life. This volume closes with an exposition of the economics of formal and informal care, as well as questions around insurance, risk and the so-called `sandwich generation'.
This volume offers a collection of studies on problem of organization's efficiency, criteria for evaluating the efficiency, tools and methods for measuring the efficiency. The articles included present an interdisciplinary look at efficiency, its essence and the principles of its measurement. The contributions also identify a broad spectrum of conditions for achieving efficiency in various types of organizations and systems (e.g. public institution, non-profit organizations), representing various industries. The book collects selected papers presented at the 7th International Conference "Efficiency as a Source of the Wealth of Nations", held in Wroclaw, Poland, in May 2017.
Praise for the first edition: 'The new book by Michael Mitsopoulos and Theodore Pelagidis offers insightful analysis of the Greek drama. It makes fascinating reading and well demonstrates that the blame is widely shared.' Andre Sapir, University Professor, Universite libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and former Economic Advisor to the President of the European Commission 'Who is to blame for Greece? If I could pick just two experts on the Greek debacle to answer this question it would be Theodore Pelagidis and Michael Mitsopoulos. And thankfully they have done just that in this penetrating analysis of what has happened to Greece over the past five years. It's a timely and incisive work and no one gets off easy a must read.' Landon Thomas, Jr, Financial Reporter, New York Times, USA This expanded and enlarged second edition of Theodore Pelagidis and Michael Mitsopoulos' popular Who's to Blame for Greece? (2016) reviews Greece's economy since its accession to the Monetary Union, with new research focusing on the perils of the populist Syrizia government during the critical 'Grexit' period of 2015-2016. The authors also focus on political developments since that time and in particular propose a new form of taxation as well as explore debt sustainability in relation to Greece's economic challenges. This book will appeal to researchers, practitioners and policy makers interested in the EU and the political economy of Greece and offers valuable updates on the first edition.
This book examines how credit and finance schemes affect the financial lives of vulnerable people around the world. These schemes include payday lending, matched savings, and financial literacy in the Global North, and micro-credit and mobile banking in the Global South. Buckland sets these schemes within the context of financialization and seeks to identify strengths, weaknesses, and ways to enhance the well-being of vulnerable people. This book's coverage of a wide range of financial products and geographic regions makes for a unique and innovative perspective on this topic. It presents a balanced critique of credit and finance schemes under the assumption that reform is the most practical means to improve human well-being.
This edited collection brings together leading theoretical and applied research with the intent to design a sustainable global financial future. The contributors argue that our world cannot move toward sustainability, address climate change, reverse environmental degradation, and improve human well-being without aligning the financial system with sustainable development goals like those outlined by the United Nations. Such a system would: a) be environmentally and socially responsible; b) align with planetary boundaries; c) manage natural resources sustainably; d) avoid doing more harm than good; and e) be resilient and adaptable to changing conditions. The overarching theme in this collection of chapters is a response to the worldwide, supranational sustainable finance discussions about how we can transition to a new socio-ecological system where finance, human well-being, and planetary health are recognized as being highly intertwined.
From Jens Nordvig--named the #1 currency strategist in the 2013 Institutional Investor survey
What does the crisis in the Eurozone mean for our markets--and how can you protect your portfolio against crises in Europe?
Little has been written about the instability of the Euro, but it's a very real threat to investors worldwide, as well as to the global economy. Swings in global asset markets have been increasingly driven by developments in Europe. This is something new: in the past, Europe was one of the most stable parts of the global economy, and its typically minor economic fluctuations would have little bearing on US equity markets.
Now, Europe's economic and political developments will be a persistent source of shocks for global financial markets.
As an investor, you need a roadmap. This book is that roadmap.
"The Fall of the Euro" describes the Eurozone's unstable equilibrium and explains why a breakup of the Eurozone is still a possibility.
Nomura's global head of currency strategy and one of the world's top experts on the Euro, Jens Nordvig gives us a detailed and fascinating explanation of this precarious situation, providing the information, insight, and authoritative analysis you need to make the wisest investment decisions possible.
A riveting analysis of one of the most important currencies in the world--certainly the most unstable of the major currencies--"The Fall of the Euro" covers: The history of the Euro--and how it differs from other global currencies The problematic origins of the Euro--which is grounded more in politics than economics How politics will affect the next crisis in the Eurozone--and what we can do about it What-if scenarios of Eurozone breakup possibilities--with insights that will surprise you
The original version of the Euro was not resilient enough to survive a major crisis. European policymakers are attempting to construct a new version of the currency, but its specific form remains highly uncertain. Will it be a hard currency? Will it be a soft currency? Or will it break up?
If the path ahead involves a disorderly breakup of the Eurozone, the instability to come will be much more intense than what we have seen to date.
Go beyond the rhetoric of the politicians and the journalists who write about them and get a financial expert's assessment of the real issues at hand. Jens Nordvig explains the state of the Euro's present position in the global economy with levels of objectivity and expertise you will find nowhere else.
"The Fall of the Euro" gives you the critical information you need to prepare your investments before the next crisis in the Eurozone--which is, in Nordvig's view, inevitable.
Praise for "The Fall of the Euro"
""Nordvig brings a keen insight into markets and economics that he ably combines with a brisk, no-nonsense narrative. This is essential reading for market players, investors, and prognosticators of the future of the eurozone."" -- Richard Clarida, C. Lowell Harriss Professor of Economics and International Affairs, Columbia University; Global Strategic Advisor, Pimco
""Jens Nordvig's book artfully combines a master economist's framework, a seasoned market participant's advice, an historian's far-reaching perspective, and a European citizen's passionate case for an open discussion of the way forward for the world's largest economic bloc."" -- Scott Bessent, Chief Investment Officer, Soros Fund Management LLC
""Jens Nordvig was one of the first to analyze the economic, legal, and political consequences of the euro splitting asunder. Whether or not you share his pessimism about the future of the euro project, Nordvig's guide to the crisis is a compelling and essential read."" -- Gavyn Davies, Chairman of Fulcrum Asset Management LLP, former Goldman Sachs Chief Economist
""In this bold, highly readable book, Jens Nordvig beautifully highlights the tensions between the politics and the economics that are at the heart of the euro crisis. A must read for anyone who cares about the future of Europe."" -- Anil Kashyap, Edward Eagle Brown Professor of Economics and Finance, University of Chicago Booth School of Business
""I learned much from The Fall of the Euro and I thoroughly recommend it."" -- Simon Wolfson, CEO of Next plc and sponsor of the Wolfson Economics Prize
""Needs to be read by all those demanding brave policy from Europe's timid elite."" -- Tom Keene, Editor at Large, Bloomberg Television & Radio; Host of Bloomberg Surveillance
Harrie de Swart is a Dutch logician and mathematician with a great and open int- est in applications of logic. After being confronted with Arrow's Theorem, Harrie became very interested in social choice theory. In 1986 he took the initiative to start up a group of Dutch scientists for the study of social choice theory. This initiative grew out to a research group and a series of colloquia, which were held approximately every month at the University of Tilburg in The Netherlands. The organization of the colloquia was in the hands of Harrie and under his guidance they became more and more internationally known. Many international scholars liked visiting the social choice colloquia in Tilburg and enjoyed giving one or more presentations about their work. They liked Harrie's kindness and hospitality, and the openness of the group for anything and everything in the eld of social choice. The Social Choice Theory Group started up by Harrie consisted, and still c- sists, of scholars from several disciplines; mostly economics, mathematics, and (mathematical) psychology. It was set up for the study of and discussion about anything that had to do with social choice theory including, and not in the least, the supervision of PhD students in the theory. Members of the group were, among o- ers, Thom Bezembinder (psychologist), Hans Peters (mathematician), Pieter Ruys (economist), Stef Tijs (mathematician and game theorist) and, of course, Harrie de Swart (logician and mathematician).
This volume provides a comprehensive account of Wilhelm Roepke as a liberal political economist and social philosopher. Wilhelm Roepke (1899-1966) was a key protagonist of transatlantic neoliberalism, a prominent public intellectual and a gifted international networker. As an original thinker, he always positioned himself at the interface between political economy and social philosophy, as well as between liberalism and conservatism. Roepke's endeavors to combine these elements into a coherent whole, as well as his embeddedness in European and American intellectual networks of liberal and conservative thinkers, are a central theme throughout the book. The volume includes papers by international experts from a conference in Geneva on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Roepke's passing. The first part focuses on new biographical insights into his exile years in Istanbul and Geneva, while the second part discusses his business cycle theory in the context of the Great Depression, and the third part elaborates on his multifaceted social philosophy. Wilhelm Roepke was among the most important thinkers within the classical liberal revival post-WWII, with intriguing tensions between liberalism and conservatism. A highly recommended volume. -- Peter J. Boettke, 2016-2018 President of the Mont Pelerin Society and Professor of Economics and Philosophy, George Mason University This important collection of papers provides an in-depth assessment of Wilhelm Roepke's contributions, placing him in the context of his time. A fine contribution. -- Bruce J. Caldwell, Director of the Center for the History of Political Economy and Research Professor of Economics, Duke University
Research in Finance seeks to provide a collection of quality research articles that reflect the current and primary issues in financial markets. Contributions include finance theory and financial practice, plus accounting issues such as reporting derivatives positions, reflecting intangible holdings, or predicting financial distress. The volume starts with empirical investigations of the impact from macroeconomic variables upon equity values in emerging economies compared with developed economies. Next is an empirical affirmation of the efficiency of the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) electricity exchange. Next we find several investigations into the efficacy of efforts to stimulate the arousal of emerging nations around the world.
This book offers a comprehensive overview and critique of the most important political and philosophical interpretations of the basic results of social choice, assessing their plausibility and seeking to identify the links between the theory of social choice and the more traditional issues of political theory and philosophy. In this regard, the author eschews a strong methodological commitment or technical formalism; the approach is instead based on the presentation of political facts and illustrated via numerous real-life examples. This allows the reader to get acquainted with the philosophical and political dispute surrounding voting and collective decision-making and its links to social choice theory.
This book analyses the role of public sector accounting, and the relevance of accounting frameworks, in assisting financially sustainable policy making. Focussing on the European context, the book examines financial reporting, management accounting, budgeting and other reporting requirements, for example, Government Finance Statistics. It also analyses emerging forms of reporting, such as popular reporting and integrated reporting, which may also be considered by policy makers, standard setters, and managers of public sector entities.
In "Honest Numbers and Democracy," Walter Williams offers a revealing history of policy analysis in the federal government and a scorching critique of what's wrong with social policy analysis today. Williams, a policy insider who witnessed the birth of domestic policy analysis during the Johnson administration, contends that the increasingly partisan U.S. political environment is vitiating both "honest numbers" -- the data used to direct public policy -- and, more importantly, honest analysts, particularly in the White House.
Drawing heavily on candid off-the-record interviews with political executives, career civil servants, elected officials and Washington-based journalists, Williams documents the steady deformation of social policy analysis under the pressure of ideological politics waged by both the executive and legislative branches. Beginning with the Reagan era and continuing into Clinton's tenure, Williams focuses on the presidents' growing penchant to misuse and hide numbers provided by their own analysts to assist in major policy decisions.
"Honest Numbers and Democracy" is the first book to examine in-depth the impact of the electronic revolution, its information overload, and rampant public distrust of the federal government's data on the practice of policy analysis.
A hard-hitting account of the factors threatening the credibility of the policymaking process, this book will be required reading for policy professionals, presidential watchers, and anyone interested in the future of U.S. democracy.
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