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Inequality is a choice. The United States bills itself as the land of opportunity, a place where anyone can achieve success and a better life through hard work and determination. But the facts tell a different story-the U.S. today lags behind most other developed nations in measures of inequality and economic mobility. For decades, wages have stagnated for the majority of workers while economic gains have disproportionately gone to the top one percent. Education, housing and health care-essential ingredients for individual success-are growing ever more expensive. Deeply rooted structural discrimination continues to hold down women and people of colour, and more than one-fifth of all American children now live in poverty. These trends are on track to become even worse in the future. Some economists claim that today's bleak conditions are inevitable consequences of market outcomes, globalisation and technological progress. If we want greater equality, they argue, we have to sacrifice growth. This is simply not true. American inequality is the result of misguided structural rules that actually constrict economic growth. We have stripped away worker protections and family support systems, created a tax system that rewards short-term gains over long-term investment, offered a de facto public safety net to too-big-to-fail financial institutions, and chosen monetary and fiscal policies that promote wealth over full employment.
Angus Maddison has made a major contribution to our understanding of the comparative, historical and quantitative aspects of economic growth. This important collection of his work - including a number of original new essays - offers an authoritative analysis of the economic performance of nations. Drawing extensively on quantitative and qualitative evidence, Professor Maddison provides a clear view of why growth rates differ, why real income and productivity spreads are so wide, and why the pace of growth has varied over time. The first section features essays which provide an analytical framework for causal analysis of growth performance, this is followed by papers on investment and capital stock estimation, savings behaviour and measurement of economic performance levels. There are three essays on the roots of economic `backwardness' and the final section deals with the effect of economic and social policy on the performance of advanced capitalist countries. These essays offer a depth of historical and interspatial perspective which is unrivalled. In addition to focusing on the influences of institutions, ideology and colonialism, Professor Maddison's analysis makes sophisticated use of the growth accounting approach. A specially-written autobiographical essay has also been included.
This two volume set includes the most influential writings on international debt. In addition to essential early material, the editors have assembled the key contributions written during the unfolding of the modern international debt drama from the early 1970s. An introductory chapter by the editors explains the context and order in which the writings are presented. In particular, the individual contributions are grouped under sequential headings which are intended to draw out key themes and relationships between the concerns of the original authors. This collection reflects clearly the interaction between the evolution of the international policy debate and the development of major analytical insights on the debt problem and its resolution.
California has a worldwide reputation as a pioneer of innovative policies for the control of air pollution by motor vehicles. Autos, Smog and Pollution Control analyses the difficulties which have been encountered in developing and implementing these policies. Professor Grant uses an analytical framework drawn from the leading theories of public policy formation, such as policy communities, to address the issues raised by California's policy making experience. This study shows how an ambitious attempt to encourage the use of electrically powered vehicles has faced technological constraints, consumer resistance and political opposition. Other policies developed in the state such as dealing with `gross emitters', trip reduction programmes and the construction of light rail and subway systems are also critically examined. The concluding chapter relates Californian experience to the developing debate in Britain and the European Union about air pollution from motor vehicles. Autos, Smog and Pollution Control will be welcomed for its critical analysis of California's air pollution control policies as well as for the light which it sheds on contemporary theories of policy formation and the changing forces affecting environmental policymaking.
The election of the Clinton administration in the United States and the debate in the European Community about the consequences of the industrial policy clause in the Maastricht treaty have put industrial policy back on the academic and political agenda again. This volume brings together the key articles on industrial policy, ranging from general theoretical perspectives and overviews of the literature to studies of the experience of particular countries, including Japan and the newly industrialising countries of East Asia. Four articles are concerned with the industrial programmes of the European Community. This is a comprehensive and authoritative compilation of work on a theme of interest to economists and political scientists.
Transaction cost economics began to take shape about 25 years ago. Although 25 years is comparatively young in the analytical scheme of things, numerous applications have been made and more are in prospect. Originally this work was intended to comprise of only one volume - it has however, evolved into two. Volume I deals with theory and concepts and volume II deals with applications and policy. This important two volume set contains a selection of key articles on transaction cost economics by distinguished scholars including Ronald Coase, Herbert Simon, Kenneth Arrow and Richard A. Posner. As well as addressing key areas such as private ordering and credibility, contracts and organization, internal organization, vertical integration and contracting, the editors have each compiled a new introduction to accompany the set.
This volume provides the most important essays and papers on urban and regional policy, making it a convenient summary of the key theories, approaches and research results. The study of sub-national politics is no longer mainly concerned with the urban political decision-making process and now focuses on the political, economic and social preconditions for urban policy. As the articles and papers reprinted in this volume demonstrate, local and regional politics are increasingly important features of most Western democracies. Economic and political life are more and more determined by changes occurring at the local, regional and global levels rather than at the national level. This volume seeks to cover the most important elements of research on local government with a particular emphasis on different approaches and theories of urban political economy. The volume covers, in turn, the study of urban politics and government, theories of local government, central-local relationships and local autonomy, local politics, the political economy of local government and regional policy.
Recent Developments in the Economics of Education collects together the most important contributions in this rapidly developing field. Themes covered in this book include: efficiency and equity, externalities and the role of the government in providing education, the relationship between the markets for labour and education, cost functions in the education sector, the market for educators, and the economics of school choice. This volume complements an earlier volume in the series, The Economic Value of Education, edited by Mark Blaug.
The period between 1767 and 1873 shaped public finance in Britain (and, by extension, many other countries) as we know it today, with the major economists of the time providing influential contributions. Until now, no book has examined and compared the thought of these 'classical economists' from the perspective of public finance rather than that of pure theory.
This groundbreaking volume critically analyzes and compares the writings on government expenditure, taxation and public debt of thinkers such as Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus. These key figures are united by their struggles with fiscal theory - an important feature in the formation and development of political economy.
An original and intriguing read, this book breathes fresh life into the history of economic thought. Dome's clear and exciting arguments will make for essential reading for historians of economic thought, economic historians and those with an interest in public finance.
The Public Choice Approach to Politics presents some of Dennis Mueller's most important contributions to public choice and public economics. Employing the contractarian-constitutional methodology of public choice, Professor Mueller examines the properties of several voting methods and representation systems as well as questions of equity and justice. Constitutional issues, such as the nature of constitutional rights and the elements for an ideal constitution, are also addressed. The essays in this collection include discussions of Pareto optimal redistribution, the redistribution over time of the benefits from collective action, Rawls's social contract, the social discount rate, and the relationship between contractarianism and different concepts of morality. The volume also includes chapters on the methodology of public choice, the work of James Buchanan and the Virginia School and a survey of the public choice literature. This book brings together in one place Dennis Mueller's key articles and papers on public choice, making it of interest to all economists and political scientists working in this area, as well as to sociologists, philosophers and lawyers.
Financial regulation has dramatically evolved and strengthened since the crisis on both sides of the Atlantic, with enhanced international coordination through the G-20 and the Financial Stability Board and, at the regional level, a definite contribution from the European Union. However the new regulatory environment has its critics, with many divergent voices arguing that over-regulation has become a root cause of our current economic stagnation. This book provides a bigger picture view of the impact and future of financial regulation in the EU, exploring the relationship between microeconomic incentives and macroeconomic growth, regulation and financial integration, and the changes required in economic policy to further European integration. Bringing together contributions from law, economics and management science, it offers readers an accessible but rigorous understanding of the current state of play of the regulatory environment, and on the future challenges. Coverage will include: * A review of the recent regulatory changes from a legal and economic perspective * Analysis of how the economic model of financial institutions and entities is impacted by the new frameworks * How to improve securitization and new instruments under MIFID II * Issues in the enhanced supervision under delegated acts for AIFMD, CRR-CRD IV and Solvency II * How long term funding can be supplied in lieu of the non-conventional monetary policies * A new architecture for a safer and more efficient European financial system Financial Regulation in the EU provides much needed clarity on the impact of new financial regulation and the future of the economy, and will prove a must have reference for all those working in, researching and affected by these changes.
The aim of this book is to document, on a solid and convincing foundation, two public policy mistakes of the United States Government that have been extremely costly. First, the failure to combine stocks with long-term government bonds in the Social Security Trust Fund, the way other nations do, has resulted not only in an investment shortfall well into the trillions of dollars, but has also reduced US and global economic growth and increased the national debt. Second, by employing the Unified Budget concept beginning in 1970, the US Government has since then understated its financial deficits by more than $4 trillion and in doing so it has shielded the increase in the debt owed to the public by roughly half.This study puts forth the notion of Social Security as a minimal safety net is consistent with the views of both Adam Smith and Friedrich Hayek and that private social security accounts are inefficient and subject to moral hazard and huge productivity losses. It also introduces a novel approach to long-term investing suitable for perpetual funds consistent with the empirical phenomena of risk premia and mean reversion, including no asset sales and the use of short-term borrowing on a rollover basis to cover negative net inflows.The study also proposes that payroll taxes be re-labeled Social Security Contributions and that the Social Security System be made independent and professionally managed based on the Federal Reserve System model.
Is a Universal Basic Income the answer to an increasingly precarious job landscape? Could it bring greater financial freedom for women, tackle the issue of unpaid but essential work, cut poverty and promote greater choice? Or is it a dead-end utopian ideal that distracts from more practical and cost-effective solutions? Contributors from musician Brian Eno, think tank Demos Helsinki, innovators such as California's Y Combinator Research and prominent academics such as Peter Beresford OBE offer a variety of perspectives from across the globe on the politics and feasibility of basic income. Sharing research and insights from a variety of nations - including India, Finland, Uganda, Brazil and Canada - the collection provides a comprehensive guide to the impact this innovative idea could have on work, welfare and inequality in the 21st century.
There is no magic formula for balancing fiscal policy and economic performance. As a scholar and policy advisor, Vito Tanzi has made a major contribution to identifying links between public finance and macro- and microeconomic consequences. His findings bear relevance in both developing and industrialized economies. The essays in this volume and its companion, Fiscal Policy and Economic Reforms, highlight many of these interconnected issues, for instance the interaction between budgetary policy and economic aggregates, such as employment, inflation and growth, and the implication of economic linkages for designing fiscal policies. Further areas of interconnection include expenditure policies and alternative deficit financing strategies, and the trade-offs between macro- and microeconomic objectives. The list of contributors includes Max Corden, John Makin, Ronald McKinnon and Richard Musgrave.
Examining various methods of debt management used in the US., Handbook of Debt Management, provides a comprehensive analysis of securities offered for sale by municipalities, states, and the federal government. The book covers laws regarding municipal bonds, the economic choice between debt and taxes and the tax-exempt status of municipal bond owners, capital budgeting, including state and local government practices, developing governmental and intergovernmental debt policies, pay-as-you-go with debt financing for capital projects, US Internal Revenue Service regulations on arbitrage in state and local government debt proceeds investment, US treasury auctions, and more.
From the mid-1980s to the early 2000s, images of crisis and reform dominated talk of Cameroon's economy. Doing Business in Cameroon examines the aftermath of that period of turbulence and unpredictability in the northern city of Ngaoundere. Taking the everyday encounters between business actors and state bureaucrats as its point of departure, the book vividly illustrates the backstage and interconnected dynamics of four different sectors (cattle trade, trucking, public contracting, and NGO work). Drawing on his training in law and social anthropology, the author is able to clarify intricate policy dynamics and abstruse legal developments for readers. A widespread picture emerges of actors grappling with the long-term implications of selective or suspended enforcement of legal rules. The book deftly illuminates a set of shifting configurations in which economic outcomes like monetary gains or the circulation of goods are achieved by foregoing the possibility of relying on or complying with the law.
Globalization is triggering a 'revenue shock' in developing economies. International trade taxes - once the primary source of government revenue - have been cut drastically in response to trade liberalization. Bastiaens and Rudra make the novel argument that regime type is a major determinant of revenue-raising capacity once free trade policies have been adopted. Specifically, policymakers in democracies confront greater challenges than their authoritarian counterparts when implementing tax reforms to offset liberalization's revenue shocks. The repercussions are significant: while the poor bear the brunt of this revenue shortfall in democracies, authoritarian regimes are better-off overall. Paradoxically, then, citizens of democracies suffer precisely because their freer political culture constrains governmental ability to tax and redistribute under globalization. This important contribution on the battle between open societies and the ability of governments to help their people prosper under globalization is essential reading for students and scholars of political economy, development studies and comparative politics.
This book addresses topical development issues in India, ranging from land acquisition, poverty alleviation programs, labor market issues, the public-private partnership (PPP) model and fiscal federalism. It offers an Indian perspective on the dynamics of economic development and the impact the country's legal and public policies have on it. Economic development is a dynamic concept - old problems are solved, while at the same time new issues come to the fore. The emergence of these issues is unique to the development experience of an economy. The book includes sixteen recent contributions and is divided into four sections: law and contract; trade and foreign aid; issues in public economics; and the social sector and poverty alleviation. The chapters reflect on a number of development issues which were of concern for India in the recent past and will be important in her future development initiatives such as land acquisition, agricultural productivity, employment, protection of intellectual property rights, corruption, public-private partnership, regional development, poverty alleviations programs like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) and the training of self-help group members, health and education of women, to name a few. The book is a valuable reference resource for policy practitioners and researchers working on the economics of development with special focus on developing economies.
This book expands on issues like fiscal sustainability, state enterprises and the variety of subsidies, with a multi-country focus. Drawing examples from numerous countries, it presents issues in contemporary finance and especially fiscal policy that can benefit researchers and civil servants from both developed, as well as developing worlds and emerging market economies.
Written in a simple and accessible manner, this book will be of interest to civil servants and practitioners. It also serves as a reference source for students and academics, and can be used as a text book for advanced courses on public finance.
Triggered by the US subprime mortgage crisis in 2007, the Financial Tsunami is the most serious global financial crisis since the Great Depression. This book studies financial stability in terms of its determining factors, causal mechanisms and institutional requirements. It aims at understanding how to construct a mechanism for maintaining long-term financial stability.The book focuses on economic analysis of the understanding what China can and should do to safeguard its economic and financial stability. In its assessment and discussion of financial stability in China, this book takes full account of China's specific conditions and constructs an index system for the country. It also reflects on the country's monetary policy, government functions and behavior, fluctuations in real estate prices, and financial security network design.The book contributes to better understanding of financial stability in transition economies. It proposes a systematic solution to financial instability in China and strategies for building a mechanism to maintain financial stability in the country.
Who are the political barbarians bankrupting America -- Democrats or Republicans? Where are taxpayers' dollars really going? Joe Scarborough gives you the inside scoop on how Washington really works and on the out-of-control deficit spending that takes place in our nation's capital each and every day.
Joe Scarborough, former Republican congressman and current host of MSNBC's top-rated Scarborough Country, takes you behind the closed doors of Congress and wittily presents the reasons why Democrats and Republicans are alike when it comes to squandering taxpayer dollars.
As part of the Gingrich Republican Revolution, he witnessed the principles of fiscal responsibility get buried in the political swamp of Washington. Now Scarborough offers profound solutions on how excessive government spending by politicians of all stripes can be minimized, and how the Repub-lican Party can be called back to the principles that President Ronald Reagan made famous.
This classic introduction to public finance remains the best advanced-level textbook on the subject ever written. First published in 1980, Lectures on Public Economics still tops reading lists at many leading universities despite the fact that the book has been out of print for years. This new edition makes it readily available again to a new generation of students and practitioners in public economics. The lectures presented here examine the behavioral responses of households and firms to tax changes. Topics include the effects of taxation on labor supply, savings, risk-taking, the firm, debt, and economic growth. The book then delves into normative questions such as the design of tax systems, optimal taxation, public sector pricing, and public goods, including local public goods. Written by two of the world's preeminent economists, this edition of Lectures on Public Economics features a new introduction by Anthony Atkinson and Joseph Stiglitz that discusses the latest developments in the field and areas for future research. * The definitive advanced-level textbook on public economics* Examines the effects of taxation on households and firms* Covers tax system design, optimal taxation, public sector pricing, and more* Includes suggestions for further reading* Additional resources available online
FISCAL ADMINISTRATION, Tenth Edition, gives you the power to understand public finances as a participant who can put the process together, not just as a bystander. With U.S. federal, state, and local budgets, financial reports, and other documents, you can see how policymakers and administrators operate and learn skills needed to function in those systems. Chapters illustrate concepts and issues with case studies from the private and nonprofit sector as well as from government finance.
This book is a quarterly forecast and analysis report on the Chinese economy. It is published twice a year and presents ongoing results from the "China Quarterly Macroeconomic Model (CQMM)," a research project at the Center for Macroeconomic Research (CMR) at Xiamen University. Based on the CQMM model, the research team forecast major macroeconomic indicators for the next 8 quarters, including the rate of GDP growth, the CPI, fixed-asset investment, resident consumption and foreign trade. At the same time it focuses on simulation of current macroeconomic policies in China. In addition to helping readers understand China's economic trend and policy guide, this book has three main goals: to help readers understand China's economic performance; to forecast the main macroeconomic indicators for the next 8 quarters; and to simulate the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies.
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