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CONTENTS: Urban Public Finance; An Introduction; Trends in Municipal Finances in India; The Impact of Municipal Finance & Governance on Urban Sprawl; Financing Urban Infrastructure: Innovative Financial Instruments for Cities; Unconventional Methods of Financing Urban Development: The Role of Public-Private Partnership (PPP); Expanding Local Government Resources for Capital Projects through Municipal Borrowing & other Market-Based Financing; Local Government Finance in India: Trends & Patterns of Select Municipal Corporations; Innovative Financing of Urban Infrastructure in India through Market-based Financing & Public-Private Partnership; Public Finance Challenges for Chinese Urban Development; Local Revenue Mobilization in Urban Settings in Africa.
Local Government Economics progresses on from the author's earlier book, Public Sector Economics, addressing many of the same themes but at a more advanced level, and specifically within the context of local government. Suitable for both UK and international readerships, it reflects the multidisciplinary nature of local government and is aimed at final year and postgraduate students on economic or multidisciplinary degrees.
This is a challenge to conventional thinking around money and the 'debt crisis'. By re-evaluating the source of money, Mary Mellor presents a radical alternative to austerity and privatisation: public wealth, or, money used for sustainability, sufficiency and social justice. Debt or Democracy debunks the received lessons of the financial crisis of 2007. Political elites shout about a house whose finances are in disarray; a 'yawning deficit' created by reckless spending in a bloated public sector. The answer to this 'debt crisis' has been harsh austerity measures - but this is a dangerously deceptive discourse. Turning against the prevalent narrative, with its language of 'debt' and 'deficit', Mellor takes on the familiar question - 'where does money come from?'. The real solution is a return to the notion of public wealth and the public economy; of a monetary system owned by, and operated in the interests of, the majority.
The book provides readers with a clear understanding of infrastructure challenges, how Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) can help, and their use in practice. Infrastructure bottlenecks are generally considered the most important constraint to growth in many countries worldwide. Historically, infrastructure projects have been financed and implemented by the state. However, owing to the fiscal resource crunch, time and cost over-runs, and the general poor quality of publicly provided infrastructure, many emerging market governments, including India, have increasingly adopted PPPs with billions of dollars of investment riding on them. The results have been varied - from spectacular airports like the Delhi International Airport Limited with the associated controversy over land use, to the renegotiation of contracts as in the case of Tata Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project. Illustrating concepts with relevant case studies, the book makes the challenges of PPPs understandable to industry and management practitioners as well as students of management, public policy and economics. It is useful to practitioners wishing to avoid the pitfalls in the tricky terrain of PPPs and policymakers wanting guidance in crafting proper incentives. It also helps students gain a holistic and "applied" understanding of this increasingly important and popular model. "Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in India are currently under stress. A comprehensive treatment of the subject by a long-time and erudite practitioner and a management academic, this book should be useful to students trying to learn the basics, while also being valuable to professionals and policy makers. The book suggests that the Government should hold bidders accountable to their submitted bids, thereby preserving sanctity of contract. This will discourage aggressive bidding which has become a serious and endemic problem. The book also suggests the use of better bidding criteria to mitigate traffic risk in transport projects. Policy makers should pay heed to these suggestions as they consider improvements in the PPP policy regime going forward."-Arvind Subramanian, Chief Economic Adviser, India "For a fast-growing India, infrastructure creation and operation is a great challenge and opportunity. This excellent book combines theory and practice on PPPs, and is very useful for professionals and students alike. With case studies and current developments, the authors bring out issues in India with global experiences as well. A must-read for infrastructure practitioners."-Shailesh Pathak, Chief Executive (Designate), L&T Infrastructure Development Projects Limited "India's program of private participation in infrastructure attracted worldwide attention as it became one of the largest programs in emerging markets. As well as the volumes of finance mobilized, it garnered interest because of some of the innovative approaches developed, such as Viability Gap Funding. The Indian PPP story is well captured in this book, which also makes the point that India is seeing project cancellations and failures rise. The authors analyze the factors behind this and point the way to a more robust PPP market that learns from the experiences of the past."-Clive Harris, Practice Manager, Public-Private Partnerships, World Bank
Legitimized by the arguments of efficiency gains, public housing, pensions, unemployment insurance and health care are all being gradually privatized. In many countries, even the state's `night-watchmen' role of providing security is offered by private prisons and security guards. In the face of these and other developments, this book argues that on the basis of efficiency, morality and equality there is still an overwhelming need for public intervention - the res publica. Public or Private Goods? brings together leading scholars from various disciplines including economics, sociology, political science, geography and spatial planning. The book explores core public tasks that the state has traditionally provided but which are increasingly privatized and subsumed into the private sector. For example, although the state still funds and regulates core domains, it provides fewer and fewer visible goods. The authors show how this apparent invisibility of the state presents serious challenges for both income equality and democracy. This thoughtful interdisciplinary book will appeal to advanced students and academics in political science, public sector economics and public finance. It will also provide stimulating reading for politicians, policymakers and anyone interested in the provision of public services.
This book offers a systematic guide to the allocation of American taxpayer dollars used to provide for the common defense. With engaging and illustrative examples like the narrative of a helicopter purchase, it reveals an unexpectedly chaotic political process that produces a conversely stable aggregate defense budget. The book explores specific attempts to control or influence these turbulent funding outcomes as Congress reviews the Presidential budget request. Containing data and sources largely unavailable to researchers without access to the Department of Defense, the book should be of interest to anyone looking for a direct, current, and methodical analysis of defense budget outcomes that preserves the informal and nuanced mechanics of a political and complicated process.
In 2008, the world was plunged into a financial and economic crash. This book explores the roots of the crash, including the build-up of global economic imbalances, the explosion in the use of novel financial instruments, the mismanagement of risk, and the specific roles played by housing and debt. It reviews the evidence that on the eve of the crash all was not well and that many political and finance industry leaders ignored the dangers. The key events of the crash are described, and the main amplification mechanisms explained. An economics lens is used to dissect the bank rescue, paying particular attention to the hidden ways in which it worked, who will ultimately bear the costs, and to what degree new risks were created. The book evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies used to rescue economies, efforts to tackle unemployment, proposals for dealing with collapsing housing markets, austerity and the battles over long-term sovereign debt, the Eurozone crash, and the risks of future economic instability. It reviews reform-of mortgage markets, monetary policy, and banking-designed to make such disasters less likely in future. Written before, during, and in the years immediately after the crash, it is an engaging chronicle and comprehensive analysis of the events and thinking of these years. The book's arguments take on added authority given that the author had identified, and called attention to, key features of the crash before it happened.
Public budgeting structure, process, legal framework and policy with examples from industrialized and developing countries
"Public Budgeting in Context" examines budgeting at all levels of U.S. government--federal, state, and local--and in a sample of governments around the world. The book assesses the context of public budgeting in these governments, especially the legal foundations for its practice and how the process and final budgets are impacted by governance structures, laws, various budget actors and different branches of government. The author presents focused attention on the influences on government budgets of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government, the bureaucracy, the public and the media. In light of worldwide fiscal malaise, especially during and since the Great Recession, this book illustrates the heightened complexity of the budgeting environment that pervades all governments today--industrialized or developing, large or small.
For those who like to dive into the details, the book presents numerous examples of public budgeting as practiced and points to the wealth of data available for analyses of the budgetary context and process, budget shares and results regarding virtually any government of interest. Chapters cover the constitutional and statutory provisions for budgeting in selected governments. Budget and policy agenda setting and executive leadership, legislative budget powers and the influence of the judiciary on modern government budgets are exposed. Budget execution requirements of the bureaucracy, the input of customers, clients and citizens to government budgets, and media influences on public budgets and agencies are highlighted. Budget mechanics--budget types, formats, timelines and reforms--are introduced and compared. Taxes and intergovernmental revenues are considered, with predominant tax choices at every level of government in the United States and those in a select, developing country represented. The book introduces an emerging method for investigating the outcomes of government spending--human rights budget analysis--and includes as an example the assessment of budget reform and results of public health spending in one selected government.
Highlights of "Public Budgeting in Context"Offers a comprehensive text for understanding public budgeting in governments of a variety of contexts and capacities and across different levelsWritten by a noted expert in the field of public budgeting and financial managementContains illustrative examples from industrialized and developing countriesGuides to innumerable datasets with information about governments and their budgetsIncludes a companion website filled with templates for budget and fiscal analysis
Unravel the complex issues of modern public budgeting using this unique presentation of its practice in a variety of governments in the U.S. and a select sample from around the world.
The introduction of market mechanisms and a new public management are transforming government and public service throughout the world. Drawing on the experience of a number of countries but focusing, in particular, on the UK where change has progressed furthest and on the broadest front, this is the first comprehensive account of the impact of a whole range of innovations such as charging, contracting, internal markets and the creation of devolved agencies.
Fiscal Therapy shows how to make America's economy stronger and fairer by meeting long-term budget challenges while also addressing its short-term need for more investment and better social policy. America is facing a double-edged sword of budget challenges. In the coming decades, rising public debt will hurt our economy, threaten our global leadership, and reduce the living standards of our people. It will require tax increases and spending cuts to bring about a sustainable outcome. At the same time, however, America has pressing needs - from improving our schools and making child care more available to rebuilding our infrastructure and investing more in scientific research - all of which require upfront investments right now. In Fiscal Therapy, William Gale diagnoses these two set of challenges and explains why we must address them simultaneously. Fiscal Therapy shows that we can address our long-term budget challenges in ways that also help us meet our short-term needs, and we can do so without radically transforming our current institutions and existing programs. Gale draws lessons from the nation's history; takes guidance from the experiences of other advanced nations; reconciles the twin demands of economic growth and social fairness; and addresses the obstacles that America's poisonous politics and fickle public opinion present. Fiscal Therapy provides a clear, comprehensive, and optimistic approach around which liberals and conservatives can rally. One that will leave the United States a stronger, more prosperous, and fairer nation.
The global financial crisis had a dramatic short-term effect on federal relations and, as the twelve case studies in this illuminating book show, set in place a new set of socio-political factors that are shaping the longer-run process of institutional change in federal systems. The Future of Federalism illustrates how an understanding of these complex dynamics is crucial to the development of policies needed for effective and sustainable federal governance in the twenty-first century. The book finds that growing fiscal pressures are interacting with domestic political variables to produce country-specific federal dynamics. Arguably the first detailed study of the medium-term impact of the financial crisis and its aftermath on federal governance, this book highlights how growing budget pressures are contributing to increased centralization in many federations, while in others national governments are devolving power to appease regional grievances and preserve the federal union. Contributions from leading federalism and public finance scholars test recent theoretical explanations of change in federal systems against the experiences of a diverse cross-section of federal jurisdictions. The case studies include both established federations and `federalizing' jurisdictions, such as the UK and China, and highlight the complex dynamics which shape the evolution of federal governance. Comprehensive and interdisciplinary, this timely book will appeal to students and scholars - from political science, economics and law - studying federalism, governance studies and comparative political economy. It is essential reading for public officials and policy-makers interested in intergovernmental relations, public finance and budgeting and tax policy.
This book is a quarterly forecast and analysis report on the Chinese economy. It is published twice a year and presents ongoing results from the "China Quarterly Macroeconomic Model (CQMM)," a research project at the Center for Macroeconomic Research (CMR) at Xiamen University. Based on the CQMM model, the research team forecast major macroeconomic indicators for the next 8 quarters, including the rate of GDP growth, the CPI, fixed-asset investment, resident consumption and foreign trade. At the same time it focuses on simulation of current macroeconomic policies in China. In addition to helping readers understand China's economic trend and policy guide, this book has three main goals: to help readers understand China's economic performance; to forecast the main macroeconomic indicators for the next 8 quarters; and to simulate the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies.
This book develops new, original methods of welfare comparison and comparative dynamics between distinct and discretely positioned (rather than continuously related) socioeconomic situations. These methods are not only realistic but also extremely relevant to serious economic problems. Using them, the book sheds illuminating new light on the theoretical analysis of Keynesian economics and other important issues of political economy. For instance, it shows that the principle of effective demand applies exactly as Keynes put it to the unemployment equilibrium in the short run. It also shows that the equilibrium may change along the expansion path as the government chooses to vary its expenditure to maximize national welfare. The same methods are effectively employed theoretically to investigate modern trade policy issues such as gains from trade, the theory of tariffs, free trade agreements, and the role of the WTO. Those methods are also used to study the welfare and efficiency of various socioeconomic situations.
This monograph highlights the benefits of public-private partnerships (PPP) for Sub-Saharan Africa. By studying the intertwinement of mainstream and Islamic finance, the author shows how PPPs have emerged as a viable and efficient organizational vehicle for fair rules of economic cooperation where the trade-offs between profit maximization and social justice values required by Islamic finance occur within the organization. The book shows the assumptions under which such compromise is beneficial to all parties, including public entities, multicultural societies and private Islamic and conventional investors. It places particular emphasis on changing the principle of allocating public resources in the uncertain legal and economic environment of the region discussed. Given the cultural idiosyncrasies, political instability, and socio-economic turmoil but high development potential in Sub-Saharan Africa, PPPs with a heterodox approach may prove to be a game-changer in the region and a platform to find a compromise between the interests of various types of investors.
This book provides a historical understanding of current debates over tax reform and offers a comparative framework for discussing the relationship between fiscal policy and the distribution of income and wealth. Topics covered include the evolution of income taxation since World War II; the turn toward value added taxation; the relationship between tax reform and the construction of welfare states; the impact of globalization on tax and fiscal policy; the social forces shaping tax consent; and the political economy of tax and fiscal reform. These topics are covered in case studies that focus on significant episodes in the fiscal history of Denmark, Sweden, France, Greece, the United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, the United States, and Japan.
This book presents state-of-the-art research in political economy dealing with the decision making process under different political institutions. It focuses on the role that states and governments have on political outcomes and on the well-being of individuals, taking into account the differences that arise across autocracies and democracies and within political regimes. The research in this book is embedded with the political economy and social choice traditions and uses the rigorous frameworks of economics, political science and social choice theory to show how institutional settings shape social choices of a group of individuals or a nation. The contributions in this volume use a variety of cutting-edge game theory and mathematical tools as well as data and simulations that coupled with statistical techniques help us gain greater insights into these issues.
The demand for high quality detailed public finance statistics covering a globally representative sample of countries has increased dramatically during the recent financial crisis. Due to the complexity of public finance statistics, however, such data tend to be either available in oversimplified high level aggregates and lacking in methodological transparency, or, available with a great level of detail and a unified methodological approach yet overly complicated to understand. The IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook shows fiscal data of around 140 countries following the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 framework. The associated database includes data series covering over an almost 40 year period. The IMF's Statistics Department embarked on several initiatives to improve its accessibility
This book introduces recent developments in both theoretical and empirical analyses of local public economics. Theories of those economics as well as empirical analyses have been developed dramatically in various directions in recent years. One direction has been to reflect real economic circumstances, especially in Japan. In the early 2000s, Japan experienced the so-called great merger (or consolidation) of municipalities in the Heisei era (1999 through the present), with the number of municipalities shrinking from 3,232 to 1,821 for increasing administrative and financial efficiency. This phenomenon is mainly due to a drastic change in demography in Japan: the dimishing birthrate and aging population. Following the consolidation, regional coordination has been undertaken to raise overall administrative and financial efficiency. In sum, various types of public policies for tackling the decreasing birthrate and aging population have been carried out. Urban sprawl and the timing of municipal mergers are dealt with from a broad point of view, and public child care services and tax competition are investigated from a policy standpoint. Another direction has been to incorporate new ideas for forming theoretical frameworks for local public finance, most of which have been based on static situations. In the recent trend toward globalization, local governments have attended not only to the welfare of residents but also to the interests of regional economic development. In addition, decision making by local governments has tended to be affected by political activities. Thus, the endogenous growth setting and lobbying activities for the activities of local governments are discussed in the book. With these new directions for analyses, the author tackles the topics of tax competition, cross-border shopping, local provision of public goods, and soft budgets, thus covering a broad range of aspects of local public finance.
International debt is a major concern both for the countries involved and for the economies financing it. What are the consequences for those involved and how can they tackle this problem? This 4-volume set presents 88 articles and provides a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of the global issue of international debt. The origins and development of the debt crisis are followed by regional studies concerning Latin America, Africa and the Pacific. The involvement of banks and financial institutions is then explored, with competing explanations for the crisis. There follows an extensive analysis of more than 30 articles on dealing with debt. The final volume looks at the legacies and lessons of the debt crisis and includes a section on the recent problems in Asia.
All too often government lacks the skill, the will, and the wallet to meet its missions. Schools fall short of the mark while roads and bridges fall into disrepair. Health care costs too much and delivers too little. Budgets bleed red ink as the cost of services citizens want outstrips the taxes they are willing to pay. "Collaborative Governance" is the first book to offer solutions by demonstrating how government at every level can engage the private sector to overcome seemingly insurmountable problems and achieve public goals more effectively.
John Donahue and Richard Zeckhauser show how the public sector can harness private expertise to bolster productivity, capture information, and augment resources. The authors explain how private engagement in public missions--rightly structured and skillfully managed--is not so much an alternative to government as the way smart government ought to operate. The key is to carefully and strategically grant discretion to private entities, whether for-profit or nonprofit, in ways that simultaneously motivate and empower them to create public value. Drawing on a host of real-world examples-including charter schools, job training, and the resurrection of New York's Central Park--they show how, when, and why collaboration works, and also under what circumstances it doesn't.
"Collaborative Governance" reveals how the collaborative approach can be used to tap the resourcefulness and entrepreneurship of the private sector, and improvise fresh, flexible solutions to today's most pressing public challenges.
This book analyzes the consequences that would arise if Germany's means-tested unemployment benefits were replaced with an unconditional basic income. The basic income scheme introduced is based on a negative income tax and calibrated to be both financially feasible and compatible with current constitutional legislation. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) the author examines the impact of the reform on the household labor supply as well as on both poverty and inequality measures. It is shown that by applying reasonable values for both the basic income and the implied marginal tax rate imposed on earned incomes, efficiency gains can be reconciled with generally accepted value statements. Furthermore, as the proposal includes a universal basic income for families, child poverty could be reduced considerably. The estimates are based on the discrete choice approach to labor supply.
This volume sheds new light on economic developments in several countries of Southeast Europe. The European Union and especially the eurozone continue to experience rhythms of fiscal crisis, as can most clearly be seen in the debt crisis in the South Periphery. Despite the fact that several measures and decisions have been taken to deal with the crisis (banking union, liquidity support from the European Central Bank), proposals to reform Europe's strategic policy in order to find a way out of the crisis have been put forward. This book explores the respective roles that specific sectors, e.g. the agricultural sector, social capital, tax policies and labour immigration, can play in this regard. The importance of international economic relations (exports, imports, FDI, exchange rates) is analysed, in order to illustrate the nature of the economic developments and the major economic difficulties these countries face.
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