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Broken down into five sections explaining how public budgets are developed, Canadian Public Finance presents a comprehensive account of the budget process of the federal, provincial, and territorial governments. With a specific focus on the public policy process, Genevi?ve Tellier walks readers through the five steps involved in the budget process including agenda-setting, formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation. Taking a close look at how much influence key decision-makers actually have over the budget process, Tellier highlights recent events that reveal the political, social, and economic constraints that impact budgetary decisions. Tellier uses key words and textboxes at the end of each chapter to reflect on current issues and new developments in the world of public finance, such as gender-sensitive budgets, performance-based budgeting, and fiscal transparency.
Monetary policies and international standards and norms on banking
regulations have, once again, come to the forefront of the policy
discussion in developed nations due to the recent crisis in the
world's financial markets. This discussion is far from new, nor
does it apply exclusively to the world's most advanced economies. A
stable monetary policy and a sound and well-enforced regulatory
regime can help developing nations channel financial resources more
efficiently into investments. For open economies it can also act as
a buffer, an important stability factor in today's shaky market
This book records the first success stories of a new form of financial intermediation, the hometown investment fund, that has become a national strategy in Japan, partly to meet the need to finance small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) after the devastating earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. The hometown investment fund has three main advantages. First, it contributes to financial market stability by lowering information asymmetry. Individual households and firms have direct access to information about the borrowing firms, mainly SMEs, that they lend to. Second, it is a stable source of risk capital. The fund is project driven. Firms and households decide to invest by getting to know the borrowers and their projects. In this way the fund distributes risk but not so that it renders risk intractable, which was the problem with the originate and distribute model. Third, it contributes to economic recovery by connecting firms and households with SMEs that are worthy of their support. It also creates employment opportunities, at the SMEs as well as for the pool of retirees from financial institutions who can help assess the projects. Introduction of the hometown investment fund has huge global implications. The world is seeking a method of financial intermediation that minimizes information asymmetry, distributes risk without making it opaque, and contributes to economic recovery. Funds similar to Japan s hometown investment fund can succeed in all three ways. After all, the majority of the world s businesses are SMEs. The first chapter explains the theory behind this method, and the following chapters relate success stories from Japan and other parts of Asia. This book should encourage policymakers, economists, lenders, and borrowers, especially in developing countries, to adopt this new form of financial intermediation, thus contributing to global economic stability.
Citizens' participation, especially participatory budgeting, has spread in both Asia and Europe, and has been a symbol of democratic renewal. These transformations are already very visible in Europe, where more than 200 municipalities have adopted participatory budgeting. By contrast, in some Asian democracies, such as Japan or South Korea, it has considerably enlarged the agenda of citizen participation, integrating new forms such as taxpayers' budgets. In other countries, especially in China, participatory budgeting represents some adaptations of opening and transparency. With a global cast of authors, this study provides an overview of the impact of these devices, such as improving the modernisation of public administration or improving the contact between citizens and politicians, and documents the latest developments of citizen participation in both continents.
The Handbook is a virtual encyclopedia of public financial management, written by topmost experts, many with a background in the IMF and World Bank. It provides the first comprehensive guide to the subject that has been published in more than ten years. The book is aimed at a broad audience of academics/students, government officials, development agencies and practitioners. It covers both bread-and-butter topics such as the macroeconomic and legal framework for budgeting, budget preparation and execution, procurement, accounting, reporting, audit and oversight, as well as specialist subjects such as government payroll systems, local government finance, fiscal transparency, the management of fiscal risks, sovereign wealth funds, the management of state-owned enterprises, and political economy aspects of budgeting. The book sets out numerous examples and case studies describing good practice in public financial management, and is highly relevant for use in both advanced and developing countries.
An in-depth analysis of the fundamental role that decentralization plays in developing countries, using detailed statistical data to examine the actual fiscal structure between tiers of government, and the effects of decentralization at the local, national and international levels.
This book outlines the considerable increase in public expenditure in the UK from around 10 per cent of GDP in the 1870s to 40 per cent and above in the21st century. Clive Leeexplores the fluctuations in state spending, highlighting theongoing political conflictover the size and extent of welfare provision.
Theoretically and empirically informed studies on the role and efficiency of the public sector, public wage and employment policy, privatization, tax policy, and fiscal sustainability. The public sector has grown substantially in the last fifty years. In the euro area, for example, total government expenditures have been around fifty percent of GDP since the early 2000s, resulting in a growing tax burden or high public debt or both. At the same time, government had intervened in all aspects of economic life, from the provision of public goods and services to product and labor market regulation. Research shows that the effect of government size on economic performance is positive in countries where the public sector is efficient but negative in countries where it is inefficient. In this book, experts from academe and central banking discuss reforms that would make the public sector more efficient and/or more equitable. After a rich review of the public sector reform policy agenda, with particular attention to the role of the public sector and how to improve the provision of public goods and services, the contributors offer theoretically and empirically informed perspectives on some specific policy topics. These include public wage and employment policy, the role of international institutions such as the World Bank in promoting public sector reforms, the optimal mix of tax policy, the measurement of public sector efficiency, and the study of fiscal sustainability. The contributors relate these topics to such deeper issues as individual incentives as well as to policy debates over privatization, and austerity. Contributors Konstantinos Angelopoulos, Stylianos Asimakopoulos, Danilo Ballanti, Roberto A. De Santis, Roberto Dispotico, George Economides, Pedro Gomes, Gabriella Legrenzi, James Malley, Costas Milas, Ilaria Petrarca, Apostolis Philippopoulos, Francesco Porcelli, Roberto Ricciuti, Lodewijk Smets, Peter Birch Sorensen, Petros Varthalitis, Francesco Vidoli
This book provides a summary and legislative history of P.L. 111-139, focusing on the features of the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Act of 2010. PAYGO establishes a process intended to enforce a rule of budget neutrality on new revenue and direct spending legislation. As a budget enforcement tool, it is aimed at preventing, or at least discouraging, net deficit increases arising from the enactment of direct spending and revenue legislation. Any costs designated as emergencies are excluded from the scorecards, and significant costs associated with four specified categories of legislation may be excluded as well. The statutory PAYGO process does not address deficit increases, stemming from changes in direct spending or revenue levels, that are projected to occur under existing law.
Nobody who has even a passing acquaintance with economics could fail to realise that Western governments are highly indebted. Current generations have been consuming at the expense of future generations. However, just how indebted are we? The government measures how much it has borrowed to meet past spending commitments, but it does not measure how much money it needs to meet all the future pensions and healthcare promises it has made to tomorrow s older generations. Furthermore, no funds have been set aside to provide for these costs. Governments are allowed to produce accounting information in such a cavalier fashion, using methods that would be illegal for private sector companies. Fortunately, though, scholars have been able to examine the detail of government policy and the financial commitments of future governments in order to determine just how indebted we are. This IEA publication brings such calculations to life by showing by how much spending will need to be cut and taxes raised in order to make the government s fiscal position sustainable. This work should be of interest to politicians, to students and teachers of economics and, indeed, all who are interested in public policy and the sustainability of Western economies.
The original chapters in this book connect the microeconomic and macroeconomic approaches to public debt. Through their thought-provoking views, leading scholars offer insights into the incentives that individuals and governments may have in resorting to public debt, thereby promoting a clearer understanding of its economic consequences. The authors explore public debt along two distinct but complementary analytical paths. One path concerns microeconomic aspects of public debt as it emerges through budgetary processes where individuals respond to the costs and gains of different courses of action. The other concerns the systemic properties of rational individuals acting within a democratic system of political economy. Within this scheme of thought, the two levels of analysis are integrated by recognition that efforts to control macro-level outcomes must address the micro-level circumstances and conditions that promote public debt as systemic budgetary outcomes. Scholars and students, as well as policy makers in public debt and political economy, will find this critical resource invaluable to understanding this vital issue.
This book analyzes the relative balance of bargaining power between governments and the banks in charge of underwriting their debt during the first financial globalization. Brazil and Mexico, both indebted countries that underwent major changes in reputation and negotiating power as they faced financial crises, provide valuable case studies of government strategies for obtaining the best possible outcomes. Previous literature has focused on bankers' perspectives and emphasized that debtors were submissive during negotiations, but Weller finds that governments' negotiating power varied over time. He presents a new analytical framework that interprets when and why officials were likely to negotiate loans more or less effectively, with newly uncovered primary sources from debtors' and creditors' archives suggesting key causes of variation: fiscal accounts, political stability, and creditors' exposure and reputation.
The global financial crisis triggered severe shocks for developing countries, whose embrace of greater commercial and financial openness has increased their exposure to external shocks, both real and financial. This new edition of Development Macroeconomics has been fully revised to address the more open and less stable environment in which developing countries operate today. Describing the latest advances in this rapidly changing field, the book features expanded coverage of public debt and the management of capital inflows as well as new material on fiscal discipline, monetary policy regimes, currency, banking and sovereign debt crises, currency unions, and the choice of an exchange-rate regime. A new chapter on dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models with financial frictions has been added to reflect how the financial crisis has reshaped our thinking on the role of such frictions in generating and propagating real and financial shocks. The book also discusses the role of macroprudential regulation, both independently and through its interactions with monetary policy, in preserving financial and macroeconomic stability. Now in its fourth edition, Development Macroeconomics remains the definitive textbook on the macroeconomics of developing countries. * The most authoritative book on the subject--now fully revised and expanded* Features new material on fiscal discipline, monetary policy regimes, currency, banking and sovereign debt crises, and much more* Comes with online supplements on informal financial markets, stabilization programs, the solution of DSGE models with financial frictions, and exchange rate crises
Budgets in the United States follow rules of presentation and use terms that make sense to few outside the world of government finance. Moreover, practices vary widely among the thousands of governments in the country, between federal, state, and local levels. Understanding Government Budgets offers detailed explanations of each of the different types of information found in budgets, featuring annotated examples from both state and local budgets, as well as the budget of the federal government. It stresses that the choices made about format and organization influence the story a budget tells about government.
The goal of the book is to make the format of budgets and the information they contain accessible and understandable, helping users make better sense of government and its performance. Perfect for undergraduate or graduate level courses in budgeting and public administration, Understanding Government Budgets also makes a useful guide to budgets for the average citizen with an interest in how government operates.
R. Mark Musell teaches graduate courses in public budgeting and finance at the City College of New York, where he is also Director of Experiential Education for the Charles B. Rangel Center for Public Service. He has taught government budgeting at the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University and the Metropolitan College of New York. Professor Musell is the author of studies on government management, public employee compensation, government performance, and federal budgeting. He spent 25 years at the Congressional Budget Office studying the federal budget and providing Members of Congress and their staff with budgetary informationand analysis.
Discussions about the appropriate levels of spending for various policy objectives of the federal government have played an important role in congressional deliberations over funding measures for FY2011, and are expected to play a central role as Congress considers decisions affecting the FY2012 budget. This book provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from 1976-2010, with estimates for 2011 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for 2012-2016.
Damage from hurricanes is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades because of the effects of climate change and coastal development. In turn, potential requests for federal relief and recovery efforts will increase as well. The Congressional Budget Office has estimated the magnitude of the increases in hurricane damage and the associated amounts of federal aid if historical patterns hold. This book provides a detailed discussion on the implications of increased risk on the federal budget of hurricane damage in the upcoming years.
Revised and Updated to Include the Probable Effects of the Great Recession, the Government Stimulus, and President Obama's Health Care Overhaul
Federal debt will affect your savings, your retirement, your mortgage, your health care, and your children. How well do you understand the government decisions that will end up coming out of your pocket?
Here is essential information that every American citizen needs--and has the right--to know. This guide to deciphering the jargon of the country's budget problem breaks down into plain English exactly what the fat cats in Washington are arguing about. Where Does the Money Go? covers everything from the country's exploding federal debt to the fact that, for thirty-one out of the last thirty-five years, the country has spent more on government programs and services than it has collected in taxes. It also explores why elected leaders on both sides of the fence have so far failed to address this issue effectively and explains what you can do to protect your future.
This book collects high-quality papers on issues related to the rebalancing strategy in China, new clean cities as "hubs'', liability management, and involving the private sector, including through PPPs, with specific examples from Guangdong. Guangdong has been at the forefront of economic reforms in China since the advent of the Responsibility System in the late 1970s, and its successes and challenges reflect those of China as a whole. The need for rebalancing towards a more inclusive and sustainable path is also critical in Guangdong, just as it is in China. Strengthening the fiscal underpinnings and the next stages of tax reforms are critical drivers to accomplishing the requisite structural changes.
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) continued to make progress in addressing information security control weaknesses and improving its internal control over financial reporting; however, weaknesses remain that could affect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of financial and sensitive taxpayer data. During fiscal year 2013, IRS management devoted attention and resources to addressing information security controls, and resolved a number of the information security control deficiencies that were previously reported by GAO. This book discusses weaknesses that place financial and taxpayer data at risk. It also examines the growing imbalance between the demand for services and resources; the IRS ability to improve examinations by adopting certain research program practices; and long-term strategy needed to improve interactive services.
This book discusses various dimensions of Indian fiscal federalism, focusing on the current fiscal imbalances - both vertical and horizontal - and their correction. Throwing light on different angles of this subject, it presents well-researched papers, which are divided into three sections. The first section, `Fiscal federalism and resolving the fiscal imbalances', includes five chapters that discuss this theme and also explain the various strategies to remove the existing imbalances in India. `Fiscal decentralization for high growth' which is the second section, explains how decentralisation leads to high economic growth and showcases empirical evidence from a few Indian states that are flourishing due to this policy. The third section, `Emerging issues' offers six chapters describing several existing key concerns in fiscal federalism that have a major impact on achieving India's development goals. Including contributions from leading academics in this field, the book will be of great interest to research scholars and policy makers alike. "Besides addressing the core issue of fiscal imbalances and ways to correct them, the [chapters] touch on several issues confronting the Indian fiscal system at the centre , state and local levels. The [chapters] are well researched and well argued. The book is a valuable addition to the literature on Fiscal Federalism." - Dr. C. Rangarajan, Ex-Governor of Reserve Bank of India; Chairman, Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India.
This book employs a qualitative analysis of China's publicly financed construction sector, taking the system design as its point of departure and applying comprehensive evaluation techniques to create an index system for this type of construction - which in turn serves as a basis for quantitatively evaluating China's publicly financed construction sector. Given the fact that China's publicly financed construction sector is a very complex field of systems engineering involving multiple subsystems, as an important indicator of China's fiscal innovations since its reform and opening, publicly financed construction is now shifting from theory to practice, demonstrating that China has entered an era of fully publicly financed construction.
This book examines the role of uncertainty on financial decisions - and, consequently, on financial markets - in the buildup to and aftermath of the Great Recession. It tracks the significant growth and important structural changes in the financial sector during the past few decades, both of which made the economy more vulnerable to perceptions of risk in the markets. Halperin argues that conventional economic models have lost relevance by failing to take these developments into account appropriately, and also explains that because of financial globalization we can no longer understand what happens in the economies of major countries by relying on "closed-economy" thinking. The book concludes with a list of policy recommendations designed to increase the resilience of the financial markets to negative economic developments and to reduce incentives for risk taking, including a proposal to eliminate the double taxation of dividends.
Over the past few decades, economists have witnessed with growing uneasiness their failure to explain the ballooning of public debt in most countries. Using methodological individualism and micro-economics, this book overcomes flaws inherent in the standard macro approach, according to which governments manipulate public debt to promote systemic stability. This unique analysis is grounded in the writings of Antonio de Viti de Marco, injecting current analytical contributions and formulations into the framework to offer a forthright insight into public debt and political economy. Public Debt provides an alternative orientation that explains why concepts of public debt that are relevant for authoritarian regimes are not relevant for democratic regimes. It examines public debt in cooperative and monopolistic democracies as well as the corrupting quality of public debt in democracy. Including topics such as macro guidance within a Machiavellian approach, public debt as systemic lying and as a shell game, economy as an ecology vs. economy as an engine, individual vs. group action and cooperative state as ideal type, this book is a unique and refreshing approach to the material. This comprehensive and cohesive sourcebook will serve as a critical resource for academics interested in public debt and political economy.
This book presents overwhelming evidence that US government stimulus programs over the past fifty years have not worked. Using the best and most modern econometric testing models, it applies 228 separate hard science tests to examine the effects of different stimulus models that should, in theory, have shown positive results. By testing every possible alternative interpretation, starting with one time period and then retesting in three additional time periods, this definitive study finds that even when favoring pro-stimulus Keynesian models, public financing through government tax cuts and spending increase programs is more likely to drive down - or "crowd out" - as much private sector spending as it stimulates in the public sector.
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