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This book provides an overview of select programs using federal funds with a focus on: the Global Security Contingency Fund (GSCF); the history, administration and common usage of the Judgement Fund; the Crime Victims Fund; the Housing Trust Fund; background and options for reform for the Universal Service Fund; the Reclamation Fund; an overview, funding history and issues of the Land and Water Conservation Fund; the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF); and the International Species Conservation Fund.
Operations research tools are ideally suited to providing solutions and insights for the many problems health policy-maker's face. Indeed, a growing body of literature on health policy analysis, based on operations research methods, has emerged to address the problems mentioned above and several others. The research in this field is often multi-disciplinary, being conducted by teams that include not only operations researchers but also clinicians, economists and policy analysts. The research is also often very applied, focusing on a specific question driven by a decision-maker and many times yielding a tool to assist in future decisions. The goal of this volume was to bring together a group of papers by leading experts that could showcase the current state of the field of operations research applied to health-care policy. There are 18 chapters that illustrate the breadth of this field. The chapters use a variety of techniques, including classical operations research tools, such as optimization, queuing theory, and discrete event simulation, as well as statistics, epidemic models and decision-analytic models. The book spans the field and includes work that ranges from highly conceptual to highly applied. An example of the former is the chapter by Kimmel and Schackman on building policy models, and an example of the latter is the chapter by Coyle and colleagues on developing a Markov model for use by an organization in Ontario that makes recommendations about the funding of new drugs. The book also includes a mix of review chapters, such as the chapter by Hutton on public health response to influenza outbreaks, and original research, such as the paper by Blake and colleagues analyzing a decision by Canadian Blood Services to consolidate services. This volume could provide an excellent introduction to the field of operations research applied to health-care policy, and it could also serve as an introduction to new areas for researchers already familiar with the topic. The book is divided into six sections. The first section contains two chapters that describe several different applications of operations research in health policy and provide an excellent overview of the field. Sections 2 to 4 present policy models in three focused areas. Section 5 contains two chapters on conceptualizing and building policy models. The book concludes in Section 6 with two chapters describing work that was done with policy-makers and presenting insights gained from working directly with policy-makers.
The Impoundment Control Act (ICA), established a new framework for congressional notification and review of rescissions requested by a President. The 1974 law requires the President inform Congress of all proposed rescissions in a special message, containing specified information on each proposed rescission. With regard to congressional oversight of presidential rescissions, the ICA provides that the funds must be made available for obligation unless both houses of Congress take action to approve a rescission request included in the message received from the President within 45 days of "continuous session"; days in which either chamber is in recess for more than three days are not counted. This book examines the expedited rescission authority of federal funding with testimony presented during the hearing on "Enhancing the President's Authority to Eliminate Wasteful Spending and Reduce the Budget Deficit".
This book provides new interdisciplinary and comparative answers as to why banking sectors in 'liberal' and 'coordinated' market economies operated under a shared set of rules during the Global Financial Crisis. Exploring the role of complex interactions among interdependent structures, institutions and agents defines this banking behaviour.
This book presents latest research in the field of Political Economy, dealing with the integration of economics and politics and the way institutions affect social decisions. The focus is on innovative topics such as an institutional analysis based on case studies; the influence of activists on political decisions; new techniques for analyzing elections, involving game theory and empirical methods.
The study of poverty dynamics is important for effective poverty alleviation policies because the changes in income poverty are also accompanied by changes in socioeconomic factors such as literacy, gender parity in school, health care, infant mortality, and asset holdings. In order to examine the dynamics of poverty, information from 1,212 households in 32 rural villages in Bangladesh was collected in December 2004 and December 2009. This book reports the analytical results from quantitative and qualitative surveys from the same households at two points of time, which yielded the panel data for understanding the changes in situations of poverty. Efforts have been made to include the most recent research from diverse disciplines including economics, statistics, anthropology, education, health care, and vulnerability study. Specifically, findings from logistic regression analysis, polychoric principal component analysis, kernel density function, income mobility with the help of the Markov chain model, and child nutrition status from anthropometric measures have been presented. Asset holdings and liabilities of the chronically poor as well as those of three other economic groups (the descending non-poor, the ascending poor, and the non-poor) are analyzed statistically. The degrees of vulnerability to poverty are examined by years of schooling, landholding size, gender of household head, social capital, and occupation. The multiple logistic regression model was used to identify important risk factors for a household's vulnerability. In 2009, some of the basic characteristics of the chronically poor were: higher percentage and number of female-headed households, higher dependency ratio, lower levels of education, fewer years of schooling, and limited employment. There was a low degree of mobility of households from one poverty status to another in the period 2004-2009, implying that the process of economic development and high economic growth in the macroeconomy during this time failed to improve the poverty situation in rural Bangladesh.
The federal budget has been in deficit since 2002, but became significantly larger in 2009. That year, the deficit topped $1 trillion for the first time ever. Relative to the overall size of the economy, budget deficits from 2009 to 2011 have been significantly larger than in any other year since World War II. This book examines and discusses the size of the projected budget deficit; how much the deficit would need to be reduced to return to long-term sustainability; President Obama's fiscal commission and other initiatives; and business investment and employment tax incentives to stimulate the economy.
In a challenge to conventional views on modern monetary and fiscal policy, this book presents a coherent analysis of how money is created, how it functions in global exchange rate regimes, and how the mystification of the nature of money has constrained governments, and prevented states from acting in the public interest.
Recent innovations in finance, while increasing the capacity to borrow and lend, resulted in a large volume of banking transactions occurring outside of traditional banking institutions. Also, even though existing regulators supervise individual banks for safety and soundness, there are risks that do not reside with those institutions but may still adversely affect the banking system as a whole. Macroprudential policy refers to a variety of tasks designed to defend the broad financial system against threats to its stability. This book provides background and discusses the potential benefits and limitations of macroprudential policy efforts with a focus on systemic risk oversight and reform considerations.
This book examines how credit and finance schemes affect the financial lives of vulnerable people around the world. These schemes include payday lending, matched savings, and financial literacy in the Global North, and micro-credit and mobile banking in the Global South. Buckland sets these schemes within the context of financialization and seeks to identify strengths, weaknesses, and ways to enhance the well-being of vulnerable people. This book's coverage of a wide range of financial products and geographic regions makes for a unique and innovative perspective on this topic. It presents a balanced critique of credit and finance schemes under the assumption that reform is the most practical means to improve human well-being.
Contributors discuss the Alaska Permanent Fund (APF) and Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) as a model both for resource policy and for social policy. This book explores whether other states, nations, or regions would benefit from an Alaskan-style dividend. The book also looks at possible ways that the model might be altered and improved.
This book presents a new approach to the public sector of the economy through the presentation of various issues relating to public-private partnerships in different economic systems.
This book presents research on a kind of water use conflicts that is becoming more and more common and important: How to best manage moving water in times of increasing demand for electricity as well as environmental services. How should decisions be made between water use for electricity generation or for environmental and recreational benefits? The authors develop a simple general equilibrium model of a small open economy which is used to derive a cost-benefit rule that can be used to assess projects that divert water from electricity generation to recreational and other uses (or vice versa). The cost-benefit rule is then applied to the specific case of a proposed change at a Swedish hydropower plant. The book provides a manual for the evaluation of river regulations which can easily be replicated in other studies.
Basic income is one the most innovative, powerful and controversial proposals for addressing poverty and growing inequalities. This book examines the arguments for and against basic income from the point of view of economic and social justice.
This book examines the Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Resolution proposed by Chairman Paul Ryan of Wisconsin and the House Committee on the Budget. The Congressional Budget Office provides a long-term analysis of the budget proposal and the Congressional Research Service explores the health care changes offered by this budget.
The book reveals how the Global Credit Bubble and Bust of 2003-10 stemmed from giant monetary disequilibrium created by the Federal Reserve. Almost continually that institution has pursued flawed monetary practice and principle which has mutated into Bernanke-ism. The book dissects this and shows how it threatens the return of economic prosperity.
Restructuring the balance sheets of Western governments, banks and households is an important issue in the recovery after the recent crisis. Chorafas' latest book focuses on sovereign debt, sovereign risk and the developing economic and financial business climate and explains why the year of the big crisis may fall in the middle of this decade.
The annual federal budget deficit is the amount by which federal government outlays exceed revenues for a given fiscal year, with surpluses generated when revenues exceed outlays. Budget deficits or surpluses are often used to gauge national fiscal health, as budget balances over time determine levels of federal debt held by the public, and corresponding net interest payments required for debt service. During an economic downturn, budget deficits could be viewed as effective fiscal policy, with lawmakers enacting tax cuts and increasing federal spending to simulate economic activity. This book examines to what extent major legislative changes from 2001 to 2009 caused the budget to move from surplus to deficit.
This book is the first comprehensive political and economic account
of the birth and development of the Euro. Today the Euro is the
supranational currency for sixteen European countries and the
world's second-largest reserve currency. David Marsh tells the
story of the rivalries, intrigues, and deal making that brought
about a currency for Europe, and he analyzes the achievements and
shortcomings of its first decade of existence.
The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to assert its "power of the purse". Federal budget decisions express Congress's priorities among competing aims and reinforce Congress's influence on federal policies. The budget also affects, and is affected by, the national economy as a whole. The federal budget over the next few fiscal years will likely face significant challenges to both revenues and outlays as a result of recent turmoil in the economy and financial markets. This new book explores the federal budget outlook and economic implications as concerns remain about the federal government's long-term fiscal situation. The rising costs of federal health care programs and the effects of the baby boom generation's retirement present serious challenges to fiscal stability.
This volume deals with both a new theoretical framework and the application of new economics in a number of issues that test the capability of new economics to tackle a number of economic problems. It offers detailed analysis and informed comment on the type of new economics in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the '"great recession."
This book presents the latest research in the field of Political Economy, dealing with the integration of economics and politics and the way institutions affect social decisions. The authors are eminent scholars from the U.S., Canada, Britain, Spain, Italy, Mexico and the Philippines. Many of them have been influenced by Nobel laureate Douglass North, who pioneered the new institutional social sciences, or by William H. Riker who contributed to the field of positive political theory.
The book focuses on topics such as: case studies in institutional analysis; research on war and the formation of states; the analysis of corruption; new techniques for analyzing elections, involving game theory and empirical methods; comparing elections under plurality and proportional rule, and in developed and new democracies.
This book on the different aspects of international economic policy covers financial crises, reserve accumulation, capital flows and currency wars as well as issues relating to foreign direct investment and developments in China and India.
"This book analyses privatisation in Ireland, a European economy that has experienced rapidly changing fortunes over the last 30 years. It examines the effects of privatisation in terms of corporate performance, public finances and the distributional aspects of privatisation including the impact on employment and share ownership"--
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of asset price movement. It examines different aspects of stock return predictability, the interaction between stock return and dividend growth predictability, the relationship between stocks and bonds, and the resulting implications for asset price movement. By contributing to our understanding of the factors that cause price movement, this book will be of benefit to researchers, practitioners and policy makers alike.
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