Your cart is empty
Denmark and Switzerland are small and successful countries with exceptionally content populations. However, they have very different political institutions and economic models. They have followed the general tendency in the West toward economic convergence, but both countries have managed to stay on top. They both have a strong liberal tradition, but otherwise their economic strategies are a welfare state model for Denmark and a safe haven model for Switzerland. The Danish welfare state is tax-based, while the expenditures for social welfare are insurance-based in Switzerland. The political institutions are a multiparty unicameral system in Denmark, and a permanent coalition system with many referenda and strong local government in Switzerland. Both approaches have managed to ensure smoothly working political power-sharing and economic systems that allocate resources in a fairly efficient way. To date, they have also managed to adapt the economies to changes in the external environment with a combination of stability and flexibility.
Public spending on infrastructure plays an important role in promoting economic growth and poverty alleviation. Empirical studies unequivocally show that under-investment in infrastructure limit economic growth. At the same time, numerous other studies have shown that investment in infrastructure can be a highly effective tool in fighting poverty reduction1. In that context, the financing of infrastructure has been a critical element of most economic growth and poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, since the start of this millennium. This book provides a comparative analysis of the aggregate and sectoral implications of higher spending on infrastructure in three very different Asian countries: China, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Particular attention is paid to the role of alternative financing mechanisms for increasing public infrastructure investment, namely distortionary and non-distortionary means of financing. The book will be of interest to scholars and policy-makers concerned with economic growth in developing countries.
As a result of the financial crisis, the weaknesses of the Eurozone, including the public debt crisis, materialized in severe depressions in certain of its country members. In this monograph, the author analyzes structural weaknesses of the Eurozone and argues that they can be traced to (i) institutional differences, (ii) differences in the economic structures, (iii) the fundamental inability of European Bureaucracy to deal with crises, and (iv) the extreme rigidity of markets which prevents a general equilibrium in product and credit markets. He concludes that whether the Eurozone is sustainable, depends on future monetary and credit policies, and discusses the implications of reforming it in the best interest of the international banking and financial system. The recent policies of the ECB of "cheap" credit expansion are examined in detail. The approach of the work is along the lines of von Mises' and Hayek's Austrian tradition; additionally, substantive international empirical evidence supporting this Austrian approach is presented.
The European economy is still in recession, even though there are some weak indications of stabilization. This book examines important aspects of the crisis in selected countries of Southern Europe, the Balkans and Eastern Europe. The intensity of the crisis and its economic and social repercussions have varied from country to country, generally impacting the core countries less than those on the periphery. The countries in the latter group currently face significant structural challenges with regard to improving productivity and competitiveness, including the areas of investment, climate, the labour market, and the public sector. The book not only illustrates the scope of the problem, but also informs readers on the policies implemented to address it, and discusses the progress some of the economies have already made. Special topics include the convergence hypothesis, agriculture and growth, Public-Private Partnership in Infrastructure (PPPI), and the labour market.
Ever since newspaper companies first turned to their governments for support in the 1950s, print media has been supported by state aid in many parts of the world. Today, the principles and practicalities of these subsidies have been called into question, endangering the secure funding of expensive high-quality press output. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of today's global challenges in the print news media's struggle for survival. It presents current practices concerning government subsidies to newspapers for political, economic, and socio-cultural purposes against the background of declining readership and revenues, increased inter-media competition, austerity budgets imposed on national economies and shifting audience tastes. Using the insights of theoretical debates in the fields of media economics, media governance, and modern management theory, the book analyses these issues by investigating the power of government subsidies to shape and control newspaper markets. It brings together experts in these fields to combine theory with industry practices, aiming to help all parties involved to understand the complexity of issues and requirements necessary to preserve the social benefits of print media.
Fiscal federalism deals with financial arrangements and their working in a federal polity. In India, federalism is not only a unifying but also a levelling up force because considerable economic inequalities exist among different States of India. This work provides broad contours -- including historical evolution -- of fiscal relations between the Central and State Governments in India. It explains operational aspects of fiscal federalism in India. More importantly, it empirically examines the effects of federal transfers on tax efforts of 14 major Indian States, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The analysis has been done in the context of the use of tax effort as a criterion for inter-se distribution of States share of Central revenues by various Finance Commissions. The book provides an in-depth understanding of the two vital concepts of tax effort and tax capacity and the alternative quantitative techniques that can be employed to estimate them.
This book provides a thorough legal analysis of sovereign indebtedness, examining four typologies of sovereign debt - bilateral debt, multilateral debt, syndicated debt and bonded debt - in relation to three crucial contexts: genesis, restructuring and litigation. Its treatise-style approach makes it possible to capture in a systematic manner a phenomenon characterized by high complexity and unclear boundaries. Though the analysis is mainly conducted on the basis of international law, the breadth of this topical subject has made it necessary to include other sources, such as private international law, domestic law and financial practice; moreover, references are made to international financial relations and international financial history so as to provide a more complete understanding. Although it follows the structure of a continental tractatus, the work strikes a balance between consideration of doctrinal and jurisprudential sources, making it a valuable reference work for scholars and practitioners alike.
Today's financial system is considerably more complex than in years past, as new financial instruments have been introduced that are not well understood even by the people and institutions that invest in them. Numerous high-risk opportunities are available, and the number of people who unwittingly wander into such ventures seems to grow daily. There is also the realization that people's lives are affected by the financial system without their overt participation in it. Despite no active participation, pensions can be emasculated by a sudden decline in interest rates, or a rise in rates can increase the monthly payments on a mortgage, credit cards or other debt. This book looks at the history of the American banking system, including the passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913, the implementation of deposit insurance, along with certain other provisions of the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, the Bretton-Woods agreements, the forces of technological innovation and the Dodd-Frank Act, passed by Congress in 2010 for regulatory reform. This book will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate level students that want to gain a broad understanding of how the financial system works, why it is important to the economy as a whole, and what its strengths and weaknesses are. Also, readers should gain an understanding of what the Federal Reserve, other regulators and other central banks are doing, and will be in a position to critique their actions and say with some depth of understanding why they agree or disagree with them.
Public housing was once an important strand in western housing policies, but is seldom seen as a mainstream policy instrument for the future. In contrast, in many East Asian countries large public housing programs are underway. Behind these generalizations, there are exceptions, too. By including perspectives of scholars from across the world, this book provides new insights into public housing in its various forms. It contains in-depth chapters on public housing in five East Asian countries and six Western countries, together with three comparative overview chapters.
This book investigates the reasons for persistent public deficits and delayed fiscal reform in Japan, placing a special emphasis on political economy aspects. Japan is confronted with the need to pursue fiscal discipline for fiscal consolidation and implement structural reforms for reorganizing fiscal expenditures. Focusing on particular policy fields including social security, female labor supply, public works, and intergovernmental transfer schemes, the book clarifies economic and political elements that have hindered effective steps toward these two goals. Facing population aging and a business downturn, the Japanese government was urged to increase social security expenditures and the budget for Keynesian stimulus policies. As elucidated in the book, the institutional design has worked to over-represent the demands of elderly generations and local interest groups and to expand these expenditures. Rigorous theoretical and numerical analyses reported throughout the book consequently provide readers with insights into incentive designs and institutional reforms necessary for fiscal consolidation, also presenting points of view for public policy and public debate.
This book describes a system of mathematical models and methods that can be used to analyze real economic and managerial decisions and to improve their effectiveness. Application areas include: management of development and operation budgets, assessment and management of economic systems using an energy entropy approach, equation of exchange rates and forecasting foreign exchange operations, evaluation of innovative projects, monitoring of governmental programs, risk management of investment processes, decisions on the allocation of resources, and identification of competitive industrial clusters. The proposed methods and models were tested on the example of Kazakhstan's economy, but the generated solutions will be useful for applications at other levels and in other countries. Regarding your book "Mathematical Methods and Models in Economics", I am impressed because now it is time when "econometrics" is becoming more appreciated by economists and by schools that are the hosts or employers of modern economists. ... Your presented results really impressed me. John F. Nash, Jr., Princeton University, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences The book is within my scope of interest because of its novelty and practicality. First, there is a need for realistic modeling of complex systems, both natural and artificial that conclude computer and economic systems. There has been an ongoing effort in developing models dealing with complexity and incomplete knowledge. Consequently, it is clear to recognize the contribution of Mutanov to encapsulate economic modeling with emphasis on budgeting and innovation. Secondly, the method proposed by Mutanov has been verified by applying to the case of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with her vibrant emerging economy. Thirdly, Chapter 5 of the book is of particular interest for the computer technology community because it deals with innovation. In summary, the book of Mutanov should become one of the outstanding recognized pragmatic guides for dealing with innovative systems. Andrzej Rucinski, University of New Hampshire This book is unique in its theoretical findings and practical applicability. The book is an illuminating study based on an applied mathematical model which uses methods such as linear programming and input-output analysis. Moreover, this work demonstrates the author's great insight and academic brilliance in the fields of finance, technological innovations and marketing vis-a-vis the market economy. From both theoretical and practical standpoint, this work is indeed a great achievement. Yeon Cheon Oh, President of Seoul National University
This book investigates the causes of inequalities that have developed in the European Union, analyzes their social and economic consequences, and assesses the political measures taken to address these issues - also on the basis of public survey results.
The detailed analyses presented focus on structures of inequality to be found in the areas education, culture, labor market, Internet access, families and children, gender, and the regions of the EU. The book also critically examines both the legal framework conditions and financial / taxation policy as instruments that can be used to either produce or combat inequality.
For effective program evaluation, it is necessary to specify a counterfactual state, i.e., what would have happened without the program. Conventional approaches to program evaluation, preoccupied with technical and value issues, fail to address directly the need for counterfactual arguments. They also fail to recognize the indispensable role of positive theories of technical and behavioral processes in making these arguments. In order to understand the impact of the General Revenue Sharing (GRS) program on the fiscal behavior of municipal governments, Patrick Larkey develops and demonstrates an unconventional approach to program evaluation that overcomes these failures. Drawing on the positive theories of budgetary decisionmaking processes as well as longitudinal revenue and expenditure data from primary sources, the author specifies, estimates, and tests four "bureaucratic process" models for each of five city governments receiving GRS funds. Using these models to generate complex, counterfactual hypotheses, he then compares the counterfactual patterns with observed patterns to understand the fiscal effects of GRS. Originally published in 1979. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Federal debt management, narrowly defined, concerns Treasury's decisions about sales of Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which affect the term structure of the privately held interest-bearing federal debt. Financial economists have different theories concerning the causes of the term structure of interest rates and the changes in the term structure over the business cycle. The four primary theories are the expectations theory, the risk averse theory, the segmented market theory and the preferred habitat theory. This book provides a broad overview of Treasury debt management and examines changes in debt sales implemented by the Clinton and Bush Administrations.
Over the past 40 years, many countries have replaced lower-denomination notes with coins as a means of providing a financial benefit to their governments. Replacing the $1 note with a $1 coin would provide a net benefit to the U.S. government of hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Most recently, in 2000, the Government Accountability Office estimated a net benefit to the government of about $522 million annually. Additionally, there have been several attempts to pass legislation that would place the likeness of President Reagan on U.S. coin or currency, as has been done with other deceased Presidents. This book examines the societal effects such replacements would have, as well as the history of the current design of circulating coins and currency and the statutory requirements for designs and portrait changes, and possible issues raised by legislation.
Since the end of the recession, the gross domestic product has grown slowly and unemployment has remained at a high level. While the economy is still recovering and in need of careful attention, there is widespread agreement on the need to look not only at the near term but also at steps that begin to change the long-term fiscal path as soon as possible without slowing the recovery. With the passage of time, the window to address the challenge narrows and the magnitude of the required changes grows. This book examines and identifies federal programs, agencies, offices, and initiatives which have duplicative goals or activities that may save tax dollars, enhance revenue and reduce the rapidly building fiscal pressures facing our national government.
Earmark disclosure rules in both the House and Senate were implemented with the stated intention of bringing more transparency to congressionally directed spending. The administrative responsibilities associated with these rules vary by chamber. This book outlines the major administrative responsibilities of Members and committees of the House of Representative and the Senate associated with the chamber's earmark disclosure rules.
Recently, the federal government has been recording the largest budget deficits, as a share of the economy, since the end of World War II. As a result of those deficits, the amount of federal debt held by the public has surged. At the end of 2008, that debt equalled 40 percent of the nation's annual economic output, as measured by GDP, a little above the 40 year average of 36 percent. Since then, large budget deficits have caused debt held by the public to shoot upward. As the economy recovers and the policies adopted to counteract the recession and the financial turmoil phase out, budget deficits will probably decline markedly in the next few years. But over the long term, the budget outlook is daunting. This book examines the long-term budget outlook with a focus on federal budget spending and revenue scenarios.
When the global financial crisis broke, central banks in both the US and the UK undertook massive asset purchase programmes which resulted in considerable increase in assets. Cross-border spillover effects were noted across global economies. Balance sheet adjustments may eventually gnaw at the profit-earning capacities of central banks, and in extreme cases, negative equity can manifest. This study investigates a benchmark for comparing central banks. The author employs a unique and large set of metrics to gauge the quality of central banks and presents an argument to reflect upon international best practices. The study uses different criteria including the accounting body, research, presence of stress-testing exercises, inflation-targeting frameworks, staff efficiency, and languages of communication with the public, amongst others. The book begins by providing an overview of central banking, before exploring some stylized facts about central banks in unique detail. It then presents a ratings methodology for worldwide central banks to analyse the results. A backtesting exercise is included to validate the quality of the ratings obtained. The book concludes by offering insights into the comparison of central banks.
Whatever happened to the money supply? This book explains how the analysis of monetary and credit aggregates is undertaken at the Bank of England, the European Central Bank and (as an example of a developing country) the Bank of Tanzania. The book also explores how this analysis relates to these central banks' monetary policy strategies and how it feeds into policymaking. An editorial introduction provides the intellectual and historical background - from the contributions of key economists such as Milton Friedman and Jacques Polak, to monetary targeting and inflation targeting - and argues that central banks and policy analysts would be foolish to neglect the insights monetary analysis can offer. The papers compiled in Monetary Analysis at Central Banks demonstrate just how useful and varied those insights are.
Since the opening of the Ottoman Archives, research on the history of the Ottoman Empire prior to 1800 has resulted primarily in the publication of individual financial and administrative records, sometimes with analysis. Dr. Shaw's study is the first effort to use all the available records concerning an individual province, synthesizing them into an exhaustive study of Egypt's administration under Ottoman rule, from its conquest in 1517 until the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. A unique work of scholarship, the book shows in detail the changes made over the centuries, and is based both on the local archives and on the Imperial Ottoman archives located in Istanbul. Originally published in 1962. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
This book explains the different measures of the U.S. government debt, discusses the historical growth in the debt, identifies the current owners of the debt, presents comparisons with government debt in other countries, and examines the potential economic risks associated with a growing federal debt.
Central banks have a profound impact on financial markets, and investors struggle to keep informed about their complex policy decisions. Technological and financial developments have transformed the US Federal Reserve Bank from a financial black box into a vocal, increasingly transparent institution-and the result is such a wealth of textual data that clues to future policy decisions may be lost among the details. This book presents a solution to this problem by keeping track of those details. Schnidman and MacMillan demonstrate how the latest advances in automated text analysis, combined with the precision of domain expertise, are the keys to understanding how central banks move markets with their words. The authors outline a method to not only examine every piece of every central bank communication, but to do it in a way that is completely comprehensive and unbiased while quickly yielding hard, quantitative data that can be put to work in modern financial models.
The Government Finance Statistics Yearbook delivers statistical data on government financial operations for 133 IMF member countries in one definitive volume. Detailed annual data are presented on revenue, expense, net acquisition of nonfinancial assets, financing transactions, other economic flows as well as, balance sheet information; budgetary operations, extra- budgetary operations, social security, and consolidated financial operations of central governments; state governments, local governments, and the consolidated general government when available. All data conform to standards set forth in the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001, and are comparable from country to country. Institutional tables list information on government units. A section of the Government Finance Statistics Yearbook is devoted to a cross-country comparison of data.
In the US, retirement savings are low while risk exposure is high, thus dooming many retirees to a low standard of living. This book offers straightforward solutions to build real retirement security for American families.
You may like...
Doing Business in Cameroon - An Anatomy…
Jose Maria Munoz Hardcover
Handbook of Debt Management
Gerald J. Miller Hardcover R7,319 Discovery Miles 73 190
Master Your Finances - The Art Of…
Caroline Marwisa Paperback R302 Discovery Miles 3 020
Why Not Default? - The Political Economy…
Jerome E. Roos Hardcover
Financial Mathematics - A Computational…
K. Pereira, N. Modhien, … Paperback
Smart Woman - How To Gain Financial…
Sylvia Walker Paperback (5)
My Money - A Financial Planning Guide…
Gerald C. Mwandiambira Paperback (3)
Manage Your Money Like A F*cking Grownup…
Sam Beckbessinger Paperback (3)
E. Calitz, T. Steenekamp, … Paperback
Philip Black, Estian Calitz, … Paperback