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This book focuses on the accounting change processes that drive integrated reporting in the public sector. The Integrated Report is a tool that allows public sector entities to quantify and convey those aspects of their organization, strategy, governance and performance that lead to the creation of public value over time. To be successfully introduced, integrated reporting must follow a specific path of accounting change. The context in which public sector entities operate, and the unique relationship between the public sector and the environment, redefine the accounting process of change to deliver an integrated report. The authors provide a fresh look at integrated reporting on the basis of the accounting change processes that drive it, helping academics and practitioners to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges and benefits in terms of public value creation.
he financial consequences of the recession that spanned from December 2007 through June of 2009 has increased congressional interest in the financial health of state and local governments. State and local tax revenues declined, expenditures climbed, and debt increased. Even though tax revenue has begun to rebound, expenditures for unemployment benefits and other social programs remain elevated. In response to these state and local government fiscal headwinds, several hearings have been held early in the 112th Congress to examine the health of state and local government finances and the potential effects on the economic recovery. This book provides an overview of state and local government finances and how these governments incorporate borrowing into their budget and the debt parameters of each state.
Conventional wisdom dictates that a fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical. However, contrary to this conventional views, recent research has demonstrated that fiscal policy is actually procyclical in most developing countries. In this book, we attempt to propose a new interpretation of this procyclicality after reviewing theoretical and empirical evolution of the research. In particular, by incorporating the political effort behavior of private agents into a weak government model, we explore how income fluctuations affect the optimal budget deficits in a political economy. If the government can control the political behavior, normally, the optimal budget deficit should rise in a recession as a first-best case; however, interestingly, a recession does not necessarily prompt an increase in the budget deficits in a second-best political economy. The response of the budget deficits to income fluctuations mainly depends on the efficiency of political effort, which may correspond to the degree of democracy and bureaucratic efficiency of the governments. We test the prediction of the pro-cyclical fiscal policy and find it applicable for democratic countries with semi-efficient governments including Japan.
This first major book on Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in Nigeria explores the legal, policy and strategic issues involved in the structuring and execution of PPP projects in Nigeria. The book goes beyond the toolkit approach of other available resources to blend the theoretical analysis of concepts with practical step-by-step guides for consummating projects. The book adopts a multidisciplinary approach by integrating law, economics, finance and project management literature, relying on the author's extensive experience in the field to give clear insights on the PPP concept. The case study methodology employed in the book produces rich and compelling empirical results. This book is suitable for beginners wishing to develop an understanding of the concept, as well as practitioners advising on PPPs. Students and academics wishing to carry out further research on PPPs will also benefit from the book.
The book reports on the development of household finances in rural China. It is based on the results of an on-site survey conducted door to door by a research team from the Survey and Research Center for China Household Finance, the largest survey center in China - and perhaps the world - that specializes in Chinese household finances. Directed by financial experts that enjoy the highest honors in their field and the largest interviewer group in China, it reveals the most realistic picture of rural China available today and highlights a topic about which people worry most: household finances. By reading this inspiring report, readers will be able to better understand China from a household finance perspective.
This book revisits an important chapter of financial history in the Middle East and the Balkans from 1870 1914. During this period, capital flows in the form of sovereign debt increased rapidly throughout the region. The spiral of heavy government borrowing eventually culminated in defaults on foreign obligations in the Ottoman Empire (1875), Egypt (1876), Greece (1893) and Serbia (1895). In all four cases, introducing international financial control over the finances of the debtor states became the prevalent form of dealing with defaults. The different cases of international financial control became increasingly refined and they marked important milestones in the evolution of the global governance of sovereign debt before 1914. For the defaulting states however, the immediate impact of international financial control was infringement of sovereignty. The extent of international financial control and the borrowing capacity of debtor states varied in each case as well as the degree of resistance towards it. This book documents the characteristics of international financial control in a comparative perspective. It relates sovereign debt, default and international financial control to political and fiscal systems, and raises questions about the tension between national sovereignty and global capital. It sheds light on the impact of international financial control on the long-term credibility and fiscal capacity of the debtor states in question. The author demonstrates that the governments' decisions to borrow internationally, and their attitudes towards international financial control, were heavily influenced by domestic political and fiscal factors.
Individuals make decisions but they do not do so in a social vacuum. The goods they buy are frequently status-symbols in a zero-sum game which some will win and some must lose. Their consumption of commodities is subject to the constraint that what one can do, all cannot. The pressure of coalitions and interest groups, the self- interest of politicians and bureaucrats may all work against a solution being found for some of the most urgent social and economic problems of our times. These problems form the centrepiece of the economic approach to social interaction that has been pioneered by Anthony Downs, Mancur Olson and Fred Hirsch. This book seeks to examine and evaluate their important theories of collective action.
This is a unique insider account of the new world of unfettered finance. The author, an Asian regulator, examines how old mindsets, market fundamentalism, loose monetary policy, carry trade, lax supervision, greed, cronyism, and financial engineering caused both the Asian crisis of the late 1990s and the current global crisis of 2008 2009. This book shows how the Japanese zero interest rate policy to fight deflation helped create the carry trade that generated bubbles in Asia whose effects brought Asian economies down. The study s main purpose is to demonstrate that global finance is so interlinked and interactive that our current tools and institutional structure to deal with critical episodes are completely outdated. The book explains how current financial policies and regulation failed to deal with a global bubble and makes recommendations on what must change.
Addressing the chronic underestimation of capital and operating costs in urban transportation projects, this book provides a detailed analysis of the cost estimating process using case studies from three U.S. cities and outlines a practical framework for this process. The work goes beyond a simple quantitative approach to explaining cost underestimation and looks at the planning process as a tool for both argumentation and structuring the argumentation. This approach highlights the difficulties in several components of the estimating process and suggests specific and practical actions to address these problems. The proposed framework will strengthen the estimating function and the link between analysis and decision in urban transportation planning. This work will be of interest to scholars and practitioners in transportation planning, urban planning, and transportation engineering.
A critical analysis of public policy decisions requires a far greater depth of knowledge than can be received from news reports and political speeches. Issues such as how best to reduce traffic congestion, reduce acid rain, improve airline safety or develop a parcel of land are better understood by organizing, measuring and weighing the effects of alternative policies. The Economic Analysis of Public Policy, now in its second edition, is the ideal introduction to benefit-cost analysis, the economics of efficiency, risk analysis and present value, and is suitable for those with only a modest background in mathematics and economics. This brand new edition of the book has been rigorously updated throughout in terms of examples and data references, issues covered, and layout and pedagogical features. Key concepts are reinforced through multiple problems and discussion questions within each chapter. This latest edition contains extra material on loss aversion, global warming, technology, and US health care reform, as well as a wider range of international examples. Extra tables have been included in order to clarify more complicated issues. Instructors will also benefit from the new companion website, which will offer power point presentations, answers to end of chapter questions, and a test bank. This textbook encourages its readers to understand and apply key concepts whilst also learning to appreciate policy analysis as part of an interdisciplinary, analytical, and political process that can lead to better government policy decisions. It is an ideal teaching tool for undergraduate and postgraduate students engaged in Public Administration, Public Economics, and Public Policy.
The proceedings of the 1st AAGBS International Conference on Business Management 2014 (AiCoBM 2014), held in Penang, Malaysia, gathers 57 refereed papers. They cover areas relating to various aspects of business management and reflect the conference's three main themes (management and marketing, economics and finance, and entrepreneurship) and present original papers contributed by researchers, scholars, professionals and postgraduate students. They address a range of disciplines that encompass each of the main themes. Using basic and applied research findings together with case studies they provide valuable information on current research trends in business management, international business, marketing, economics, finance, Islamic finance and economics, and entrepreneurship.
Mareike Schad examines how redistributive policy measures influence intergenerational income mobility, taking into account various facets of the parent-child connection. In the first part, the author investigates the impact of education and education policy on income mobility both theoretically and empirically. The second part addresses individual beliefs regarding the determinants of personal economic success and their effect on income mobility within a society.
Using a comparative framework, this volume presents case studies of issues of public procurement and discusses how procurement professionals and policy makers in different regions are responding to these challenges. This book discusses current issues in public procurement. Over the past few decades, public procurement has had to evolve conceptually and organizationally in the face of unrelenting budget constraints, government downsizing, public demand for increased transparency in public procurement, as well as greater concerns about efficiency, fairness and equity. Procurement professionals have also had to deal with a changeable climate produced by emerging technology, environmental concerns, and ongoing tension between complex regional trade agreements and national socioeconomic goals. The first section discusses innovation and reforms in public procurement and how practitioners are adapting to and making use of new technologies. The second section addresses the challenges of maintaining transparency, equity, and fairness in public procurement. The final section discusses preferential public procurement and introduces strategies for building sustainable public procurement systems. By combining theory and analysis with evidence from the real world, this book is of equal use to academics, policy makers, and procurement professionals.
Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) was a leading figure in the British classical school of economics, best-known for extending the insights of Adam Smith at a time of revolutionary improvements in agriculture and industry. This book explores the way in which he accounted for the tendency to overpopulation, the exhaustion of arable land and the deficiency of effective demand. Malthus relied on historical and empirical evidence in the spirit of Bacon and Hume, but also backed up his data with a priori hypotheses that link him to his contemporary, David Ricardo. Malthus was strongly in favour of free trade, the minimal State, the gold standard and the abolition of poverty relief. Always a pragmatist, however, he was just as much in favour of public education, contra-cyclical public works and a safety net of tariffs and bounties to encourage national self-sufficiency with regard to food. He was both an economist and a clergyman and saw the two roles as interconnected. Malthus believed that a benevolent Deity had created vice and misery in order to shake human beings out of their natural indolence that would otherwise have condemned them to still greater distress. This title provides a clear and comprehensive examination of Malthus's economic and social thought. It will be of interest to students and scholars alike.
This book provides a complete analysis of educational production and costs using the nonparametric technique known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The book focuses on estimation of technical, allocative and scale efficiency in the public sector characterized by the influence of exogenous socio-economic variables. State of the art DEA models will be presented and fully discussed. Specific education topics important to policy makers including adequacy, efficiency, productivity, environmental costs and equity will be analyzed. To illustrate how these techniques can be applied to school systems worldwide, the authors use data on Australian elementary and high schools to develop nonparametric measures that will help inform current policy debate in Australia. They also discuss the applicability of these analysis techniques and methodologies to certain related scenarios.
The purpose of the book is to provide a comprehensive analysis of educational production using numerous DEA models that have been developed. Chapters 3 7 and 9 were developed in the literature as extensions to the basic DEA models. Each chapter explains why new advances in DEA were needed in order to carry out accurate analysis of educational production, and then presents the use of these new techniques within the context of educational performance, productivity, and cost. These extensions were based on public sector production in general, and educational production in particular. The models showed that traditional DEA improperly controlled for exogenous factors of production like the socioeconomic conditions prevalent in the education setting. In addition, models of educational funding typically use ad hoc and simple approaches that often assume that schools operate efficiently. This book uses economic and mathematical models to further our understanding of educational production while providing various measures of economic performance. The authors use current data on Australian schools to highlight important policy questions related to efficiency, economies of size and how scarce resources can best be spent to improve performance.
This research focus comes at an important watershed moment in the Australian Federal Governments current involvement in designing new nationally consistent funding models for both government and non-government schooling sectors with effect from 2014. A new National School Resourcing Standard is proposed to be implemented signaling a move to resource adequacy, school efficiency and value for money dimensions. These proposed innovative schooling resourcing developments will enable the Australian school efficiency and productivity studies to serve as the basis to evaluate the funding changes, in order to determine whether there have been significantly different student performance outcomes in the transition from a centralized to a new decentralized set of school funding arrangements."
This book proposes a method for calculating China's debt based on a quantitative econometric analysis. This is conducted by measuring the relationship between China's debt size and economic growth. The conclusion that is reached is as follows: China's current debt has already exceeded the inflection point, and that means that it is now having an adverse effect on its economic performance. The book also focuses on China's debt problems as a whole, highlighting debt issues faced by different entities and industries, as well as the ratio and structure of the virtual and real economies. The contents are presented in three major principles: theory, oriented,data, and oriented policy.
This open access book offers a critical perspective on intra-European mobility and migration by using new empirical data and theoretical discussions. It develops a theoretical and empirical analysis of the consequences of intra-European movement for sending and receiving urban regions in The Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Turkey, Poland and Czech Republic. The book conceptualizes Central and Eastern European (CEE) migration by distinguishing between different types of CEE migrants and consequences. This involves a mapping of migration corridors within Europe, a unique empirical analysis of consequences for urban regions, and an analysis of governance responses. Next to the European and country perspectives on this phenomenon, the book focuses on the local perspective of urban regions where most mobile citizens settle (either permanently or temporarily). This way the book puts the analysis of intra-European movement in the perspective of broader theoretical debates in migration studies and beyond.
This book covers the latest advances in the theory and practice of public investment management. It includes the most up-to-date developments in the implementation of public asset management - including multiple contributions on portfolio allocation in varying interest-rate and credit-risk environments. Other highlights include implementation, performance attribution and governance issues surrounding reserves management, portfolio construction techniques appropriate for public investors and an in-depth discussion of the challenges to achieving international diversification.
Is there a limit to technological advancements? Are technological advancements creating a more equal and fair world? Starting from influential thinkers driving a never-ending evaluation of development discourse - incorporating theories of modernisation, endogenous growth, globalisation, neoliberalism and several others - Seung-Jin Baek answers these questions and sets out practical steps to create societies that are more equal in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This book explores why Western-centred development strategies are unlikely to bring about similar developmental paths and outcomes in developing economies. By theoretically and empirically assessing the Technology-Development-Inequality nexus, Baek explores why a distorted developmental path has been observed in recent years, with high income countries being associated with rising inequality. This is important reading for all those seeking to understand international development in a twenty-first century context.
The Global Curse of the Federal Reserve reveals and explores the missing link between the Austrian School of Economics and behavioral finance theory. Monetary instability is the source of the waves of irrational exuberance (sometimes described as "asset price inflation"), which spread so much economic destruction and geo-political turmoil when they break. The largest and most destructive waves in the past 100 years have all been powered by monetary turmoil created by the Federal Reserve. Dr. Brown argues that flawed monetary practice and principles--most recently in the form of Bernanke-ism--have been responsible for the Fed-made havoc. The author comes to two optimistic conclusions. First, political forces in the US will one day gain sufficient strength to repeal Bernanke-ism. But the new revolutionaries must learn from the mistakes of the first monetarist revolution. Brown argues for the end of the Fed as a policy-making institution. Second, it is possible for investors to build substantial protection for their wealth and even profit from monetary chaos unleashed by the Federal Reserve--but this depends on throwing overboard much of the established wisdom about optimal portfolio management.
This volume covers the proceedings of the ZAFIN Finance and Sustainability conference, organized by the Wroclaw University of Economics in cooperation with the Corvinus University of Budapest and the University of Economics in Prague. The authors analyze a variety of issues related to recent finance problems, including corporate finance, public finance, monetary and fiscal policy issues, and risk management. The book also discusses topics related to sustainable finance, the transition to green economies, corporate sustainability and sustainable development. The target audience for this book includes researchers at universities and research and policy institutions, graduate students, and practitioners in economics, finance and international economics working for private or government institutions.
Since the opening of the Ottoman Archives, research on the history of the Ottoman Empire prior to 1800 has resulted primarily in the publication of individual financial and administrative records, sometimes with analysis. Dr. Shaw's study is the first effort to use all the available records concerning an individual province, synthesizing them into an exhaustive study of Egypt's administration under Ottoman rule, from its conquest in 1517 until the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. A unique work of scholarship, the book shows in detail the changes made over the centuries, and is based both on the local archives and on the Imperial Ottoman archives located in Istanbul. Originally published in 1962. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
This book describes the ontology structure, types of actors, their potential actions, and ways that actions can affect the things that are part of the conflict. An ontology of unconventional conflict supports the understanding of unconventional conflict in general. It also provides a tool for understanding and investigating a particular unconventional conflict. The ontology specifies the relations among the elements and supports creating a description of a particular situation. Unconventional conflict spans the range from natural disasters through human disagreements to irregular warfare (up to conventional war). Unconventional conflict involves damage to things and injuries to people; however, the critical factors are the actions, reactions, and opinions of people, including political, military, economic, social, infrastructure, and information components. This ontology supports and will appeal to military strategists, political scientists, economists, and politicians in understanding their planning for, and managing of these conflicts.
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