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This upper level textbook provides a coherent introduction to the economic implications of individual and population ageing. Placing economic considerations into a wider social sciences context, this is ideal reading not only for advanced undergraduate and masters students in economics, health economics and the economics of ageing, but also policy makers, students, professionals and practitioners in gerontology, sociology, health-related sciences and social care. This volume introduces the different conceptualisations of age and definitions of `old age', as well as the main theories of individual ageing as developed in the disciplines of biology, psychology and sociology. It covers the economic theories of fertility, mortality and migration and describes the four main frameworks that can be used to study economics and ageing, namely the life cycle, the overlapping generations, the perpetual youth and the dynastic models.
What role should regulation play in financial markets? What have been the ramifications of financial regulation? To answer these and other questions regarding the efficacy of legislation on financial markets, this book examines the impact of the Gramm Leach Bliley Act (GLBA), also called the Financial Modernization Act of 1999, which fundamentally changed the financial landscape in the United States. The GLBA allows the formation of financial holding companies that can offer an integrated set of commercial banking, securities and insurance products. The tenth anniversary of the most sweeping financial legislation reform in the industry's structure is a natural benchmark for assessing the effects of the law and for questioning whether changes are necessary in the working of this historic legislation. The importance of this review is reinforced by a variety of proposals in the last several years to reform the regulation of financial institutions that have attracted considerable attention among regulators and in the financial firms that they regulate. Most recently, the financial crisis and the failure of some large financial institutions have called into question the legitimacy of America's current financial structure and its regulation, including to some degree the GLBA. There is no doubt that regulatory reform is front and center on today's policy agenda. The lessons of the GLBA experience and its effects, both domestic and international, on financial markets and competitiveness, risk-taking and risk management by financial services firms and their regulators will be critical to the direction the country takes and the effort to ensure that future financial crises do not occur or have less costly damage. With contributions from academics, policy experts, and a sponsor of the GLBA, Congressman James Leach, this book is invaluable to anyone interested in financial system reform.
Infrastructure construction and use is at the heart o the current political debate. Not only are European member state governments investing large amounts of money to alleviate the harmful effects of the economic downturn due to the credit crisis, EU accession countries receive large amounts of cohesion funds for infrastructure purposes. Infrastructure is widely believed to contribute largely to economic performance, but to what extent is this the case? How does the productivity of roads, railways and ports relate to the invested money, and what determines their effectiveness? In this Brief, which focuses to a large extent on Dutch and European practice, numerous distinguished economists describe policy practice and analytical tools for infrastructure appraisal. Moreover, harmonisation of European approaches for evaluation of infrastructure are discussed. The study focuses both on scientific productivity measurement as on case studies of infrastructure policy.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is central to reforming governance, innovating public services, and building inclusive information societies. Countries are learning to weave ICT into their strategies for transforming government as enterprises have learned to use ICT to innovate and transform their processes and competitive strategies. ICT-enabled transformation offers a new path to digital-era government that is responsive to the challenges of our time. It facilitates innovation, partnering, knowledge sharing, community organizing, local monitoring, accelerated learning, and participatory development.
In Transforming Government and Building the Information Society, Nagy Hanna draws on multi-disciplinary research on ICT in the public sector, and on his rich experience of over 35 years at the World Bank and other aid agencies, to identify the key ingredients for the strategic integration of ICT into governance and poverty reduction strategies. The author showcases promising practices from around the world to outline the strategic options involved in using ICT to maximize developmental impact-transforming government institutions and public services, and empowering communities for inclusion and grassroots innovation.
Despite the ICT promise, Hanna acknowledges that reforming governance and empowering poor communities are difficult long-term undertakings. Hanna moves beyond the imperatives and visions of e-transformation to strategic design and implementation options, and draws practical lessons for policymakers, reformers, innovators, community leaders, ICT specialists and development experts.
This book provides an assessment of public financial management (PFM) reforms in developing countries using Turkey as a case study. Volume II elaborates on asset and liability management, intergovernmental fiscal relations, accounting, financial reporting, and auditing. Bringing together academics and practitioners, the book analyzes the PFM reforms in the light of theoretical explanations and practices to reveal the achievements, challenges, and future perspectives of PFM.
Oil-producing countries have received a windfall from rapidly rising oil prices. In this ""Occasional Paper"", IMF experts examine the fiscal response of oil-producing countries to the recent oil boom and the role of special fiscal institutions (SFIs) in fiscal management. They review the experiences of selected countries and draw some general lessons. In doing so, they link findings on best practice in the design of SFIs with broader fiscal management advice.
In a challenge to conventional views on modern monetary and fiscal policy, this book presents a coherent analysis of how money is created, how it functions in global exchange rate regimes, and how the mystification of the nature of money has constrained governments, and prevented states from acting in the public interest.
This is a study of Malaysia's new political economy, with a focus on ownership and control of the corporate sector. It offers a pioneering assessment of government-linked investment companies (GLICs), a type of state-owned institution that has long prevailed in the corporate sector but has not been analysed. Malaysia's history of government-business ties is unique, while the nature of the nexuses between the state and the corporate sector has undergone major transitions. Corporate power has shifted from the hands of foreign firms to the state to the ruling party, and well-connected businessmen, and back to the state. Corporate wealth is now heavily situated in the leading publicly-listed government-linked companies (GLCs), controlled through block shareholdings by a mere seven GLICs under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Finance. To indicate why these GLICs are important actors in Corporate Malaysia, this study provides a deep assessment of their ownership and control of Bursa Malaysia's top 100 publicly-listed enterprises.
China's emerging financial markets reflect the usual contrast between the country's measured approach toward policy, regulatory, and market reform, and the dynamic pace of rapid economic growth and development. But they also offer unusual challenges and opportunities. In the past five years, the pace of opening and reform has accelerated sharply. Recapitalization and partial privatization of the largest banks, and the allowance of some joint venture and branch operations for foreign financial institutions, are making rapid headway in developing and expanding financial services and improving access to domestic business and households. This book provides the most extensive look available at the evolving Chinese financial system. It begins with alternative perspectives on the evolution of the financial system and the broad outlines of its prospects and potential contribution to economic growth. Three articles review broad aspects of the financial system. Franklin Allen, Jun ''QJ'' Qian, Meijun Qian, and Mengxin Zhao lead off with overviews of the banking system and performance of the equity market and other institutions.
Persistently high debt ratios in advanced economies and emerging fragilities in the developing world cast clouds on the global fiscal landscape. In advanced economies, with narrowing budget deficits, the average public debt ratio is expected to stabilize in 2013-14 - but it will be at a historic peak. At the same time, fiscal vulnerabilities are on the rise in emerging market economies and low-income countries - on the back, in emerging market economies, of heightened financial volatility and downward revisions to potential growth, and in low-income countries, of possible shortfalls in commodity prices and aid. Strengthening fiscal balances and buttressing confidence thus remain at the top of the policy agenda. Against that backdrop, this issue explores whether and how tax reform can help strengthen public finances. Taxation is always a sensitive topic and is now more than ever at the center of policy debates around the world. Can countries tax more, better, and more fairly? Results reported in this issue show that the scope to raise more revenue is limited in many advanced economies and, where tax ratios are already high, the bulk of the necessary adjustment will have to fall on spending. In emerging market economies and low-income countries, where the potential for raising revenue is often substantial, improving compliance remains a central challenge.
For a long time, it has been the declared aim in many countries to fight tax evasion in all its different manifestations, from undeclared work by cleaners and gardeners in private households to tax evasion in the international capital markets. This study focuses on the phenomenon of undeclared work and the case of Germany, presenting the most comprehensive analysis of tax non-compliance for Germany to date, based on surveys conducted by the Rockwool Foundation. Theoretically, the analysis starts from the standard model of tax evasion as being influenced by the subjectively perceived extent of deterrence, the perceived marginal tax burden and social norms. Evidence is provided on the impact of deterrence and other factors on tax non-compliance, and several descriptive statistics are presented to better illustrate the natrure of undeclared work with regard to industry, region, education and other socio-economic characteristics.
"Schedule-Based Modeling of Transportation Networks: Theory and Applications" follows the book Schedule-Based Dynamic Transit Modeling, published in this series in 2004, recognizing the critical role that schedules play in transportation systems.
Conceived for the simulation of transit systems, in the last few years the schedule-based approach has been expanded and applied to operational planning of other transportation schedule services besides mass transit, e.g. freight transport. This innovative approach allows forecasting the evolution over time of the on-board loads on the services and their time-varying performance, using credible user behavioral hypotheses. It opens new frontiers in transportation modeling to support network design, timetable setting, and investigation of congestion effects, as well as the assessment of such new technologies, such as users system information (ITS technologies).
Topics in this comprehensive survey include bureaucracy, corruption and tax compliance; public finance in developing economies; taxation in several former Soviet republics, Eastern Europe and China; taxation in the enlarged European Union; tax harmonization vs. tax competition; and the philosophy of taxation and public finance. The editor has assembled a stellar group of authorities to write about their areas of expertise.
Eine effiziente und gerechte Bildungspolitik zahlt zu den bedeutendsten Themen unserer Gesellschaft. Anhand dreier empirischer Studien analysiert Anna Makles, wie mit entsprechendem Ressourceneinsatz und bildungspolitischen Steuerungsmassnahmen ungunstigen Ausgangslagen von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Bildungsprozess entgegengewirkt werden kann. In einer ersten Studie untersucht sie, welchen Effekt die Kindergartenbesuchsdauer auf die Schulfahigkeit von Kindern verschiedener ethnischer und soziookonomischer Herkunftsgruppen hat. Die zweite Studie befasst sich mit dem Effekt der Auflosung von Grundschulbezirken auf die ethnische Zusammensetzung in Grundschulen und der moglichen Verstarkung ungunstiger Ausgangslagen an den Schulen. In der dritten Studie werden Moglichkeiten der bedarfsgerechten Schulfinanzierung zur Berucksichtigung ungunstiger Ausgangslagen an Grundschulen diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse weisen auf vielfaltige Steuerungsmoglichkeiten fur eine gerechte und effiziente Bildungspolitik hin."
Although Indias federal polity provides for divided governmental functions and powers, imbalances have arisen between functional responsibilities and financial resources of the Central and State Governments. This is so because revenue-raising capacities of the States are lower than their revenue needs. The mismatch between functions and financial powers of the States has occurred partly because of increasing responsibilities of the States and partly due to the dominant position of the Central Government in regard to taxation and debt-raising powers. Therefore, vertical imbalances of resources and expenditure responsibilities have emerged between the Central and State Governments, calling for transfer of resources from the Centre to the States. Financial imbalances at the vertical level (Centre versus States), and at the horizontal level (among the States) are sought to be removed/reduced through constitutional and institutional arrangements. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the magnitude and manner of fiscal transfers from the Centre to the States in India including a case study of Uttar Pradesh -- Indias most populous state.
Low growth, low investment, insufficient spend on infrastructure, weak bank lending to the corporate sector, and funding deficiencies of small and medium-sized enterprises are all causes of concern in Europe. To many, they point to fundamental problems in the financing of European companies and in Europe's financial systems. Are these concerns valid and do the structure and performance of the financial system lie at their heart? If so, what should be done to address them, and have the right policy prescriptions been identified to date? A product of the Restarting European Investment Finance research programme, Finance and Investment: The European Case brings together leading researchers to consider the causes of the persistently low level of investment in Europe. It examines the extent to which the financial system is a contributory factor and identifies possible remedies, considering the relation of finance to corporate sector investment, the lending behaviour of banks, the provision of equity financing, and the role of public sector institutions, regulation, and taxation. Finance and Investment provides one of the most comprehensive and thorough analyses of any financial system undertaken to date. It reflects a large body of research using new and existing data sets, employing advanced empirical tools, and exploiting the unique insights provided by the tumultuous events of financial and sovereign debt crises. Together, they comprise an exceptional body of knowledge to advance academic thinking and guide policy formulation.
This volume features a selection of contributions presented at the 2019 Wroclaw Conference in Finance, covering a wide range of topics in finance and financial economics, e.g. financial markets; monetary policy; corporate, personal and public finance; and risk management and insurance. Reflecting the diversity and richness of research in the field, the papers discuss both fundamental and applied finance, and offer a detailed analysis of current financial-market problems, including specifics of the Polish and Central European markets. They also examine the results of advanced financial modeling. Accordingly, the proceedings offer a valuable resource for researchers at universities and policy institutions, as well as graduate students and practitioners in economics and finance at both private and government organizations.
This book examines the impacts of fiscal decentralization reforms on the efficiency of local governments in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. By offering a comparative perspective and by applying econometric methods and regression models, it analyses various reform trajectories and their effects on individual CEE countries. Furthermore, the book discusses input and output indicators for evaluating the efficiency of municipalities. Readers will learn about the common features of these countries, the impact of path dependence, and future prospects for decentralization reforms. In closing, the book discusses modern management and administration methods, opportunities for cooperation between municipalities, co-creative service delivery, and other measures that could improve the efficiency of public service provision.
Past cycles of sovereign lending and default in emerging markets suggest that debt crises will recur at some point. In addressing debt crises it has proven helpful to distinguish between situations of illiquidity and insolvency. Solutions range from a voluntary debt swap to a soft or hard restructuring. This book shows why investors should reckon with similar credit events in the future.
Insights gained from recent restructurings inspire the design of a valuation model for sovereign bonds. Using the distinction between hard and soft restructurings, the model draws parallels to the concepts of face value and market value recovery. An extension into credit default swap markets explains why bond and CDS spreads diverge during distress.
This survey of the sovereign bond market provides investors with a useful toolkit for analyzing sovereign bonds and foreseeing trends in the international financial architecture. The result should be a better understanding of debt crises and more deliberate investment decisions.
The aim of this book is to analyse specific sets of macro and structural policies in selected Eastern European countries. The book includes studies on the major Western CIS countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, plus a set of cross-country and regional studies. The analysis in this book contributes importantly to the discussion about the economic prospects of the CIS countries.
The 22 papers in this volume illustrate the itinerary of Henry Tulkens on the occasion of his retirement from teaching. The volume presents contemporary analysis of Tulkens classic papers on public sector economics. The collection is structured in four parts: I. Decentralized resource allocation processes for public and private goods - II. Environment, public goods and externalities - III. Efficiency analysis - IV. Fiscal competition and optimality.
This book presents a new approach to the public sector of the economy through the presentation of various issues relating to public-private partnerships in different economic systems.
This book examines the Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Resolution proposed by Chairman Paul Ryan of Wisconsin and the House Committee on the Budget. The Congressional Budget Office provides a long-term analysis of the budget proposal and the Congressional Research Service explores the health care changes offered by this budget.
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