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This comprehensive book presents an original reconstruction of the different interpretations of the Phillips curve. The authors demonstrate through an in-depth analysis how it is possible to find non-neoclassical foundations in the trade-off between inflation and unemployment. The debate is presented from a historical perspective which charts the evolution of the Phillips curve from a non-neoclassical perspective, taking account of post Keynesian literature. In the first part of the book the authors focus on the origins of the Phillips curve and they critically analyse Richard Lipsey's interpretation and approach to the Phillips curve. They then explore the neoclassical and monetarist interpretation, paying special attention to the evolution of monetarism and the Keynesian critique of this approach. The Kaleckian, Keynesian and Marxist interpretations of the Phillips trade-off are then presented. Here the authors show how the relationship between inflation, unemployment and money described in these approaches accurately reflects the fundamental features of today's capitalist economies. In the final section a new Phillips curve is constructed, taking into account the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment and the hysteresis of it. Inflation, Unemployment and Money will be of interest to macroeconomists, post Keynesians and monetary and financial economists.
Beyond the New Public Management is an important book which provides a comprehensive analysis of current conceptual debates in public management and governance; and critically reviews attempts made over the last two decades to apply the `new public management' model in developed and developing countries. The book brings together a number of outstanding specialists who examine the range of ideas and concepts of the new models of reform, paying particular attention to the `new public management' model and to strategies of good governance. It evaluates progress made by governments and aid donors in putting these ideas into practice. Using case studies from both the developed and developing world, it emphasises the extent to which public management and governance reforms are being applied throughout the international arena. The examples used focus on the problems of policy and institutional transfers between the industrialised world and developing countries. Multidisciplinary in its approach, the book draws on literature and research from management studies, political science, sociology, economics and development studies; and points to issues likely to dominate the future research agenda. This thoughtful and wide-ranging book will be essential reading for academics, students and practitioners of public management, public policy, governance and development.
This excellent book provides a welcome collection of David Teece's most important writings in the related areas of strategy and technology and their implications for public policy. These papers are the result of an ambitious agenda to analyse concepts in economics, organizational theory and management policy to provide a uniquely integrated global view of strategy, technology and public policy. Key topics which are addressed include: * fundamental issues in strategic management * technology and technology transfer * antitrust * regulation and deregulation * technology policy The volume also includes an extensive introduction which provides a biographical insight into the development of the author's career and his continuing research into the areas the articles in this volume exlore. David Teece's style of writing is succinct and logical and the material presented in this volume, and in its companion Economic Performance and the Theory of the Firm, will be of great interest to economists, managers, consultants and policy makers.
Throughout his long career as a professional scholar, Paul Dale Bush has been a cogent theorist, a model practitioner and an ardent defender of academic freedom and of democratic practices. Institutionalist Theory and Applications is the second of two volumes celebrating his career and his contribution to neo-institutional economics. This volume presents contributions by a distinguished group of institutionalist scholars: Edythe S. Miller, Philip A. Klein, James A. Cypher, F. Gregory Hayden, John Groenewegen, Peter Soederbaum, Charles M.A. Clark, Catherine Kavanagh and Janice Peterson. The book explores the interdependence of theory and policy and applies institutional theory to several problem areas of governance and performance. This book will be of great interest to postgraduate students and academics in the field of institutional economics, evolutionary economics, political economy, history of economic theory, methodology, social economics, social policy and social value theory.
China's stunning record of economic development since the 1970s has been marred by an increasingly obvious gap between the country's 'haves' and its 'have-nots'. While people living in some parts of the country have enjoyed dramatically improved conditions of life, those in other districts and regions have slipped ever further behind in terms of access to health, wealth, education, security and opportunity.
Paying for Progress in China is a collection of essays which trace the causes of this growing inequality, using new data including surveys, interviews, newly available official statistics and in-depth fieldwork. Their findings expose the malfunctioning of China's 'broken' intergovernmental fiscal system, which has exacerbated the disequalizing effects of emerging market forces. Whilst the government's deliberately 'pro-poor' development policies have in recent years sought to reduce the gap between rich and poor, both markets, and also state institutions and policies, are continuing to create perverse equity outcomes across the country, confounding hopes for better-balanced and more inclusive growth in China.
The interdisciplinary approach of this collection, incorporating work by economists, sociologists and political scientists, makes it a valuable resource for students of contemporary Chinese political economy and social development.
What is the appropriate design for environmental regulation? Gert Tinggaard Svendsen sheds new light on the appropriate mix of economic instruments to implement environmental regulation in the context of the world-wide attempts to abate CO2 emissions. Gert Tinggaard Svendsen offers a detailed and comprehensive study of two alternative methods for controlling CO2 emissions - tradable permits and taxation - using examples of varying success from the United States and Europe. He applies a blend of environmental economic theory and public choice theory to analyse these methods and reveals that they both have merits. He proposes a design incorporating the best features of the two approaches because it is both cost-effective and politically and administratively feasible. In the case of C02 regulation, a CO2 permit market based on the US experience with free historical emissions should be applied in relation to industry, electric utilities and environmental organisations. The author proposes that a CO2 tax should be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transport sector, based on the EU experience. In particular, these policy recommendations are applied to potential CO2 permit markets in Europe and the United States. The interdisciplinary approach and the resulting policy recommendations make this book relevant to policymakers and academics across the social sciences. It will be particularly pertinent to those interested in environmental economics and public choice economics.
This volume offers an impressive collection of scholarly papers which investigate the historical foundations of globalisation before 1945. The book explores the effects of the nineteenth century technologies of the railway, the telegraph and the steamship which promoted the globalisation process by boosting trade across frontiers and triggering migration of labour and flows of capital to the temperate areas of agriculture. The colonial empires, in particular the British Empire, facilitated the process, as the integration of capital markets and monetary systems and methods of business organization followed trade and labour. The volume also covers the time between the wars, when impediments to trade, migration and currency movements increased and led to a period of deglobalization and divergence.
Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy. Topics covered include: the objectives of transport policy, policy options, policy analysis and, through a series of case studies, policy implementation. This volume will be of particular interest to those academics and policymakers seeking an overview of the most important issues in the modern transport policy arena.
Paul Dale Bush has been an imaginative and important contributor to the neo-institutionalist economic literature in the United States for over three decades. This is the first of two volumes presenting a tribute to this highly influential scholar. The majority of Paul Dale Bush's recent scholarly writings have addressed the clarification and refinement of the pragmatic instrumentalist model of inquiry. This book first reviews Dale Bush's main contributions to academic life and to neo-institutional scholarship. Internationally recognized contributors - Phillip Anthony O'Hara, Erkki Kilpinen, Geoffrey M. Hodgson, Kurt Dopfer, Warren J. Samuels, Edythe S. Miller, Ann L. Jennings and William Waller - then provide a penetrating analysis of the Veblen-based neo-institutionalist theoretical approach to inquiry and its reflection in social value theory. This book will be of great interest to postgraduate students and scholars in the field of institutional economics, political economy, history of economic thought, methodology and social value theory.
The economic demands of an ageing population, coupled with the crisis of public spending pose one of the greatest challenges to social policy in both the East and West. This book focuses on the political economy of pensions, particularly on the interaction between private and state provision. Enterprise and the Welfare State argues that there is more to welfare than simply provision by the state and so the focus of this book is on the welfare society rather than the welfare state. This requires a new system of statistical accounting and a different focus for case studies. A multidisciplinary approach is used to examine the design of the pensions system in nine countries with different institutional welfare mixes. Using a common conceptual framework, it compares and contrasts the goals and realities of the welfare systems in France, Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden, where strong occupational pensions are in operation, with the more modest welfare states in Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Each country case study provides a grounded analysis of the evolution of pension design and traces the impact of the policies on the economic well-being of the aged and the performance of the economy. It offers new data on the level of spending of enterprise based occupational pensions and examines the implications for redistribution resulting from changes in the design of state and occupational pensions. This book will be essential reading for academics, students and public policymakers interested in the economics of welfare, social policy and the future of pension provision.
This important book investigates the causes of the decline in public capital spending which has occurred in most OECD countries over the past 25 years, and estimates the macroeconomic consequences of this decline. Governments can improve the future living conditions of their citizens in various ways including stimulating private investment, increasing spending on education and health programmes, preserving the environment and adding to the stock of public capital. In Public Capital Spending in OECD Countries the author focuses on government investment in physical capital within a macroeconomic context. He examines the consequences of the decline in public investment on physical assets such as infrastructure and the environment. The past few years have witnessed a growing awareness that especially the stock of public capital has been neglected by many OECD governments. Such a reduction in public investment may lead to a decline in economic growth, and therefore it is vital that the fall in government spending is rigorously examined. Key features include:- * a detailed and comprehensive review of existing literature. * original empirical investigations using alternative techniques and different datasets. * possible explanations for the trends in public capital spending. * estimates of the effect of public capital spending on economic growth.
Population ageing has been the subject of much discussion in recent years, often expressed in alarmist language that advocates evasive policy action to avert an imminent demographic crisis. This forward-looking book evaluates the debates surrounding population ageing and offers a more optimistic outlook on its effect on the economy. William Jackson initially considers general theoretical approaches to population ageing, particularly in relation to the rising dependency burden. He then goes on to examine traditional topics such as employment, productivity, pensions and social security, along with less traditional topics such as informal care, within the context of long-run structural changes. The author draws on an extensive range of economic literature and considers neoclassical arguments before analysing the issue from a non-neoclassical economic, social gerontological and sociological perspective. He maintains that conventional economic theory tends to overstate the effects of population ageing on the economy. Thus, he argues that while population ageing is a complex issue requiring some policy adjustments, it is a less acute problem than is suggested in popular and academic discussion. This book will be of great importance to scholars and students with an interest in population economics and the economics of social policy.
Challenges to the Welfare State examines and assesses cultural, economic and political problems facing welfare states in Europe and North America and provides policy suggestions to alleviate these problems. An important group of authors identifies the relative merits of welfare state systems in the United States and Europe. They consider the transition of the welfare state in former Communist countries to more market oriented systems and the status of the European welfare state in the context of deepening European integration. More specifically, these experts address the question of whether further integration in Europe will result in an environment where all citizens are guaranteed only certain basic social rights and are encouraged to take private financial responsibility for health care, pension provision and insurance. The nature of social insurance institutions, the problems of ageing populations and the backlash against increasing taxation are also considered. The authors conclude that the reduction of existing government debt in the context of the move towards European Monetary Union will require either considerable increases in taxation or a significant reduction in entitlements. This book will be required reading for scholars and students of economics, social and public politics, politics and public administration.
This volume presents an authoritative collection of the most significant papers on fiscal federalism and local finance. In addition to some classic papers, it offers clear and insightful presentations of conventional wisdom in the field as well as recent papers which illuminate important issues and point the way to ongoing research. Topics covered include federal tax structure and the division of fiscal functions among levels of government, the effect of local taxes on economic growth, the systems of governmental grants, income redistribution, the theory and practice of local finance and fiscal decentralization in developing countries and transitional economies.
The major industrialized countries are undergoing a significant demographic transition associated with low fertility rates combined with reduced mortality rates. A major consequence of the current transition is that populations are expected to age substantially over the next forty years. This innovative book studies the effects of population ageing with the associated factor of immigration, on social expenditure and public finance. The authors begin by providing an introduction to some of the main issues concerning population ageing and migration. This is followed by a discussion of the demographic and economic aspects of the transition towards an older population which is taking place in the major industrialized countries. Within this framework the impacts of ageing on government budgets and the labour market are analysed. The book then turns to a discussion of some of the economic, social and demographic issues related to immigration. Particular emphasis is placed on the Australian economy, which provides an interesting case study in view of its high immigration levels, particularly over the last fifty years. The authors project population structure and social expenditure patterns under a variety of assumptions concerning the number and composition of immigrants. The quantitative techniques developed to produce these projections can be applied without modification to any other country. Population Ageing, Migration and Social Expenditure will be of use to academics and students with an interest in public finance, public policy and population studies.
Population ageing is an important trend which will be experienced in industrialized countries in the early years of the next century. This significant book examines aspects of population ageing and pensions, with an emphasis on the design and use of simple economic models to focus on particular aspects of a very broad problem. The analysis of pensions presents many complex problems. A major aim of this book is to demonstrate how reasonably simple economic models can be designed and used to shed some light on the issues involved in population growth and pension provision. The basic analytics of population growth and pension structure are first explored. Projections for Australia are examined and used to model ageing and social expenditure and to estimate the `burden' of aged care on future workers. The author goes on to investigate pensions and pension finance, and examines several types of economic model before turning to the analysis of alternative pension arrangements using a lifetime simulation model. The results of the study suggest that both lower contribution rates and a universal pension encourage a later retirement age. This book will prove invaluable to students and scholars of public sector economics, welfare economics, social economics and public finance.
This important book is concerned with the evaluation of changes in income distribution and the analysis of tax and transfer systems. The book begins with an introduction to the measurement of inequality and poverty, stressing the role of value judgements. The following six chapters deal with cross- sectional comparisons, including the analysis of a labour market model of income distribution, the choice of transfer system, marginal indirect tax reform, and the distributional effects of inflation. The next seven chapters are concerned with dynamic aspects of income distribution. These examine the complex relationship between cross-sectional and lifetime distributions, relative income mobility, and the effects of income mobility on temporary and permanent poverty. The Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty will be essential reading for students and scholars of public sector economics, welfare economics and social economics, along with those directly concerned with policy formulation.
The field of economic demography has expanded in recent years because of the perceived relevance of economic constraints to family formation and to demographic behaviour. [The increased availability of household surveys from countries at all levels of development and the advances of methods for analysing such data have encouraged empirical extensions and the testing of household demand theories.] This authoritative collection presents in two volumes some of the influential ideas which have helped to adapt economic theory and methods to analysing the determinants and consequences of demographic behaviour and to relating such behaviour to the investments in human capital which account for much of modern economic growth. It focuses on the following topics: the estimation of wage functions - a key building block for economic demography because it explains how human capital formation affects human productivity and contributes to economic growth; health and longevity, the second most notable source of human capital accumulation; the evolution of the household production model; cooperative and bargaining approaches to the household entity; models dealing with fertility and female labour supply; models which examine the problems of fertility and investments in child quality; an exploration of how gender affects schooling, health and wage-earning potential; the effect on wages of the size and skill of the labour supply; some historical aspects of economic demography; the effects of population growth on economic development; and questions of savings, inheritance and the economic consequences of an aging population.
The recent shift away from reactive to creative public policy management has caused considerable problems in Central and Eastern Europe. This book questions whether public management reforms as applied in OECD countries can make a real contribution to establishing new forms of public management in Central and Eastern Europe. The book defines the main problems facing public administrations in transitional countries and provides a comparative evaluation of the relevance for these countries of reform measures undertaken in OECD states. In the first part an historical perspective on the role of the state in Europe is presented. Parts two and three present country case studies which focus on the key areas of public management and the attempts made to address its current problems. The case studies describe the constitutional and political framework in which the system of public management operates and present a critical analysis of ongoing reform processes. They focus on reforms at the central government level, changes in local-central government relations, and the high profile areas of health and education policy. The authors look at the characteristics of the policy process, financial and human resource management and the accountability system. In conclusion, they question whether models of public administration and strategies for reform applied in Western capitalist economic systems, can really provide solutions to the particular problems of Central and Eastern Europe, or whether those problems might be aggravated by copying Western models and strategies. Innovations in Public Management will be welcomed by policy makers and practitioners in both Western Europe and OECD countries as well as those working in transitional countries through its fresh comparative approach and analysis of the real applicability of reform strategies. It will also be welcomed by academics and students interested in public administration, public policy and government.
Housing is an important commodity in the national accounts of all countries and has generated a high quality specialised literature. The papers in this scholarly collection span a thirty-five year period from 1960 when the field of housing economics was just beginning to attract attention. Topics covered include housing and urban spatial structures, housing supply, the analysis of housing demand and empirical and theoretical studies of housing quality and prices. One of the features which complicates economic analysis of housing is the severe regulation of the housing and land markets; the implications of such controls, including rent control, local taxes and housing subsidies are investigated, as are the effects of property taxes and the provision of public services on housing choice. The articles in the final section cover recent research on the linkage between housing markets and financial markets, a subject which is currently of intense interest to economists in this field.
This book is the first English language edition of Le Commerce et le Gouvernement by the distinguished eighteenth century economist and philosopher Condillac. It was one of the most original contributions to French economics in the eighteenth century. In this edition the editors provide an English translation of the original and a comprehensive account of Condillac's life and contribution to economics. In the late eighteenth century Condillac used the clarity and precision of thought of a leading philosopher to derive a fundamental set of economic principles and their implications for policy. He arrived at the same free trade conclusions as Adam Smith, and Le Commerce et le Gouvernement was published in the same year as The Wealth of Nations. Condillac's economics was initially condemned by the physiocrats because in his utility-based analysis, industry and commerce and not just agriculture contributed to the wealth of France. The original French edition was quickly dismissed by those in positions of power in France who preferred dirigism to competition, while across the Channel the British were unaware of its existence. The importance of Condillac's contribution to economics was recognised after the marginal revolution of the 1870's. In the eighteenth century Condillac won the respect of Voltaire and Rousseau, and the high regard of the King and the Church. His work has since been admired by Allais, Hayek, Menger and Weulersse, while Jevons believed that it provided the first distinct statement of the true connection between value and utility. Commerce and Government will be of special interest to historians of economic thought and those interested in the economic history of the eighteenth century.
Baumol's Cost Disease is the inevitable escalation of the real costs that occur in labour-intensive industries like the arts, health care and education. The labour costs in these industries tend to increase at the same rate as other industries, but their scope for utilizing labour-saving technical progress is either small or non-existent. The book opens with an introduction by Ruth Towse in which there is an overview of William Baumol's work. In this discussion Ruth Towse examines Baumol's work in the context of the development of the economics of the arts. The volume is then divided into parts and begins by introducing William Baumol's work through several autobiographical essays. This is followed by some of his early contributions to cultural economics and the cost disease. William Baumol's leading macroeconomic work on the `unbalanced growth model' is also included and the debate about it at its inception. In parts three and four some of the more empirical papers on the arts are presented as well as essays on policy implications for the arts. Following this are chapters on the theatre and publishing as well as historical studies of the arts and the implications of the cost disease for libraries, health care and education. This book contains William Baumol's contribution to cultural economics and spans over 30 years of writing on the subject, much of which is not widely available. It provides a real insight into the development of Baumol's analysis and his perception of the problems of the arts and other labour-intensive sectors.
The Fiscal Behavior of State and Local Governments presents, in one authoritative volume, Harvey Rosen's considerable contribution to the field of sub-federal public finance in the United States. He investigates how state and locality spending and taxing decisions are influenced by the economic environment in which they operate. This important book begins by examining the fiscal structures of states and localities. The analyses augment traditional models with new economic and political considerations. Rosen investigates the effect of tax structure on the growth of expenditure, the influence of the level of expenditure of neighbouring governments, and the impact of the federal income tax on the fiscal structure of state and local governments. He also employs the tools of modern dynamic analysis to shed new light on state and local behaviour in an intertemporal setting, using both panel and aggregate data. In addition, he discusses the problems involved in characterizing state tax structure. Finally, he explores a number of methodological issues relating to the theory and econometrics of tax analysis. This book will prove invaluable to economists who specialise in public finance, political economy and public policy.
Fiscal Policy and Interest Rates in the European Union is a comprehensive study concerned with the potential effects of fiscal policy on financial markets in the European Union. It takes into account the gradual liberalization of capital movements throughout Western Europe and the institutional framework of the European monetary system. Klaas Knot takes a fresh approach to the impact of budget deficits on interest rates, especially in relation to international financial integration, and concludes that the increases in European budget deficits since the early 1970s have raised interest rates in the long term throughout the Union. In conclusion he argues that balanced budget deficits are necessary to maintain low interest rates. This important new book will be of interest to students, academics and policymakers concerned with monetary and public economics.
This authoritative new volume contains a selection of the most important articles and papers spanning over 20 years on budgeting and managing public spending. It is divided into five succinct parts, covering the main areas of the field including the political-economic environment, approaches to expenditure budgeting and implementing the budget. Donald Savoie does not limit his examples to just one country - budgeting and spending is discussed in a variety of countries, including the UK, Australia, New Zealand, America, Canada and Spain. He has also written a new introduction to accompany the piece. All those with an interest in government spending, budgeting and how finances are controlled will find this work - which includes articles and papers not immediately accessible - an essential reference tool.
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