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This book gives readers the theoretical and empirical methods to analyze applied economics. They are institutional economics, information economics, environmental economics, international economics, financial economics, industrial organization, public economics, law and economics, and spatial economics. Because the chapters of this book deal with current topics in these categories, they are relevant not only to researchers and graduate students but also to policy makers and entrepreneurs. As there is uncertainty about the global economy, it is necessary to consider optimal, efficient behavior to survive in the confused world. The book is organized in three parts. Part 1 deals with institutional economics, information economics, and related topics, approached through game theory. Part 2 focuses on environmental economics, international economics, and financial economics, through a microeconomic or econometric approach. Finally, Part 3 concentrates on public economics, social security, and related fields, through microeconomics or macroeconomics.
On 1 March 2013, pursuant to the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, the President ordered an across-the-board cancellation of budgetary resources, known as sequestration, to achieve $85.3 billion in reductions across federal government accounts. Under current law, a sequestration of direct spending will occur through fiscal year 2024 and another sequestration of discretionary appropriations could occur in any fiscal year through 2021. This book examines the effects of fiscal year 2013 sequestration on agency operations, performance, or services to the public; how agencies prepared and planned for sequestration; and how agencies implemented sequestration.
This book offers a critical perspective on the issues related to women's empowerment, microfinance, and entrepreneurship in India. Written by distinguishing experts in this field, this book highlights women's empowerment, which is a process of entrusting power to an individual on the control over resources and decisions. However, these two factors are less effective in a society where religion and cultural dominance is high. The book sheds light on the social security measures undertaken by the government aiming to the right to work helped women who are bounded by social restrictions. Over time there is a shift in rural occupational structure towards non-farm activities, which is largely distress driven self-employment. Access to credit is a great source to provide self-employment that develops self-esteem among women and uplift their position. The book highlights the discrimination against women entrepreneurs in access to credit led to gender biased entrepreneurial society. Association with self-help groups (SHGs) has made women more socially empowered. SHG members help them to change their life in a positive manner through micro-entrepreneurial activities. The book has emphasized on the role of microfinance, which has served the poor to become financially self-reliant. It is observed that for second generation borrowers, the impact of microfinance seems to fizzle out, where MFIs who are gaining efficiency are diverting their objective of servicing poor, signalling a sign of mission drift.
How have the most influential political economists of the past three centuries theorized about sovereign borrowing and shaped its now widespread use? This important question receives a comprehensive answer in this original work, featuring careful textual analysis and illuminating exhibits of public debt empirics since 1700. Beyond its value as a definitive, authoritative history of thought on public debt, this book rehabilitates and reintroduces a realist perspective into a contemporary debate now heavily dominated by pessimists and optimists alike. The book simultaneously explicates and critiques the most prominent theories concerning why states borrow in the first place, whether or not they borrow productively, the incidence of their debts, why they sometimes borrow too much and why they often default, whether explicitly or implicitly. The author classifies major public debt theorists as pessimists, optimists or realists. This book also examines the influence of regime types, especially why most modern welfare states tend not only to over-issue bonds but also to incur even larger implicit obligations via unfunded, off-balance sheet liabilities. Scholars and undergraduate and graduate students in economics and political science, as well as policymakers, will find this analysis of public debt and public spending insightful and revealing.
This book offers a comprehensive assessment of the Mauritian economy and its financial system. The author investigates the pre- and post- crisis financial and economic environment of Mauritius thoroughly and looks to the future potential development of the economy. Chapters feature in-depth analysis of such aspects as the banking sector, the stock market, monetary policy, capital structure, the hedging practices of Mauritian firms, and the housing market in Mauritius, among others. Moreover, the author not only builds a credit risk model for Mauritian bankers, but also develops a financial stability model to provide the reader with a full account of the Mauritian economy. The author ends with a chapter dedicated to a 2030 vision for Mauritius. This book will be of interest to researchers, students, policy-makers, central bankers and economists who wish to explore an example of an upper-income developing economy in depth.
This book offers an essential guide to Public Finance and National Accounts in the context of the European Union. Since the creation of the Eurozone, fiscal policy has been at the heart of economic (but also political/media) discussions in the EU. From the Stability and Growth Pact (1997) to the more recent Fiscal Treaty, EU and Eurozone, countries have been subject to various fiscal rules. The importance of these rules, and of the subsequent procedures that every Eurozone country has to adhere to, is unquestionable. The book provides the reader with an in-depth understanding of the complex EU rules concerning fiscal policy, breaking down the corresponding legal texts into simple and accessible language. It has a broad interdisciplinary appeal, and scholars and practitioners whose work involves these areas will find it of particular interest.
This book is a comprehensive analysis of the implications of rising public debt in India. It specifically investigates the implications of domestic debt on consumption, the effect of monetised debt on prices, the long-term relationship between domestic debt and growth, and the separation of debt and monetary management. It studies data on debt in India from 1951 to 2017, and covers a wide canvas of issues related to debt management and important developments in the government securities market. It discusses trends in domestic debt, and provides a descriptive review of the major components of public debt. The book presents a close theoretical discussion on the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis, an important concept both historically and in contemporary literature on public debt. The implications of domestic debt delineated in the objectives are empirically analysed.
This volume reflects on the consequences of the increasingly globalized nature of our world for public sector management. Globalization has triggered rapid growth in trade, global financial transactions and cross-country ownership of economic assets. The implications of these multifaceted processes for the welfare of today's and tomorrow's societies are unclear. What is clear, however, is that an increasing number of problems are too complex to be tackled solely at the level of national states. As a result, the size, functions and modi operandi of the public sector in a globalized world are emerging topics in academia and practice.
The federal government is the world's largest and most complex entity, with about $3.5 trillion in outlays in the fiscal year of 2010, funding a broad array of programs and operations. This book examines government operations that have been identified as high risk due to their greater vulnerabilities to fraud, waste, abuse and mismanagement or the need for transformation to address the economy, efficiency or effectiveness challenges. Since 1990, there have been over 50 areas designated as high risk and subsequently removed. Solutions to high risk problems offer the potential to save billions of dollars, improve service to the public, and strengthen the performance and accountability of the U.S. government.
Americans today face no shortage of threats to their financial well-being, such as job and retirement insecurity, health care costs, and spiraling college tuition. While one might expect that these concerns would motivate people to become more politically engaged on the issues, this often doesn't happen, and the resulting inaction carries consequences for political debates and public policy. Moving beyond previously studied barriers to political organization, "American Insecurity" sheds light on the public's inaction over economic insecurities by showing that the rhetoric surrounding these issues is actually self-undermining. By their nature, the very arguments intended to mobilize individuals--asking them to devote money or time to politics--remind citizens of their economic fears and personal constraints, leading to undermobilization and nonparticipation.
Adam Seth Levine explains why the set of people who become politically active on financial insecurity issues is therefore quite narrow. When money is needed, only those who care about the issues but are not personally affected become involved. When time is needed, participation is limited to those not personally affected or those who are personally affected but outside of the labor force with time to spare. The latter explains why it is relatively easy to mobilize retirees on topics that reflect personal financial concerns, such as Social Security and Medicare. In general, however, when political representation requires a large group to make their case, economic insecurity threats are uniquely disadvantaged.
Scrutinizing the foundations of political behavior, "American Insecurity" offers a new perspective on collective participation.
This Brief proposes a new theory of public economics which deemphasizes reliance on the free market and affirms the importance of public goods and services within the context of the democratic process and constitutional governance. Public non-market production makes up from a quarter to more than half of all economic activity in advanced democratic nation-states. Yet by imposing market precepts on the public domain, as mainstream economics, political science, and public administration do, public governing capacity is weakened and the democratic system suffers. Agencies originally created to meet public needs are being warped into entities whose purpose is to generate revenue and, in some cases, deliver private profits at public expense. Drawing on classic public finance literature, this book illustrates the differences between public economy and the market model and why those differences matter. Building on this, the Brief sketches the elements of a new theory of the public non-market and illuminates its connections to the delegation of power and collective provision of resources from the polity. This book will be useful to scholars of public economics, political science, and public administration as well as policy makers and those working in the public sector.
Praise for Endgame "This is an extremely powerful, sobering, well-written and highly accessible book. It will demonstrate to you why there are no painless solutions to the mounting debt problems around the world something that too many people are yet to realize. It will take you on a well-documented journey through the debt supercycle, making stops around the world and at critical junctures. And it is a must-read for anyone wishing to understand the global debt dynamics and ways to protect against its bad consequences." Mohamed A. El-Erian, CEO, PIMCO, and author of When Markets Collide "No one has thought more creatively about the economy. Mauldin's weekly newsletter is a must-read, and his book is even more important if you want to understand a rapidly changing world." Newt Gingrich, Former Speaker of the House of Representatives "Successful investors explore all possibilities. You should read this book so you can succeed in case the Endgame is our future." Jim Rogers, author of A Gift to My Children "I read everything John Mauldin writes. He travels the world and shares his financial stories like a good friend sharing a drink. Mauldin is that rarity a skeptical optimist who calls 'em straight and rewards his clients and fans." Rich Karlgaard, Publisher and Columnist, Forbes magazine "There's clearly something important going on in the world economy. Something big. Something powerful and dangerous. But something as yet undefined and uncertain. We are all feeling our way around in the dark, trying to figure out what it is. John Mauldin must have night vision glasses. He does an excellent job of seeing the obstacles. You should read this book before you knock over a lamp and stumble over the furniture." William Bonner, President and CEO, Agora Inc., and author of Dice Have No Memory and Empire of Debt "Endgame is not only a highly readable and informative account of the causes of the recent global economic and financial meltdown, but it also provides investors with a concrete investment strategy from which they can benefit while this final act in financial history is being played out." Marc Faber, Managing Director, Marc Faber, Ltd., and Editor, Gloom, Boom & Doom Report
This book provides comprehensive analysis and descriptions of China's ageing finance system . China is undergoing the largest, fastest and longest process of population ageing in the world. It becomes a pressing challenge to the Chinese social security system in this era. Many developed countries have been going through this process. Pension and other financial tools have been studied and practiced for decades. China now is developing its own ageing finance systems by learning from other countries' experiences and making innovations to suit the country's request. Finance, a field that deals with the study of investments and the science of money management, is the most important tool to manage this situation. And hence Ageing finance has been developed into an independent area for research and practice. It helps the country adapt to new elderly support systems which is the necessary result from China's admirable economic development and changes in population structure. Ageing finance is the sum of financial activities centered on various social need of providing for the aged and serving for their society. It includes pension finance,old age wealth management service and finance of ageing industry. Chinese government and people are facing a very unique situation as our population structure is deeply changed by the One Child Policy since last 70s. The slope of ageing curve is sharper than most countries yet it has achieved the most successful economic development in the world during the same period. Academic researchers, financial practitioners, and policy makers will find this book to be essential reading, as they study this process and look forward to new theories, innovations and lessons raised from it.
The Handbook is a virtual encyclopedia of public financial management, written by topmost experts, many with a background in the IMF and World Bank. It provides the first comprehensive guide to the subject that has been published in more than ten years. The book is aimed at a broad audience of academics/students, government officials, development agencies and practitioners. It covers both bread-and-butter topics such as the macroeconomic and legal framework for budgeting, budget preparation and execution, procurement, accounting, reporting, audit and oversight, as well as specialist subjects such as government payroll systems, local government finance, fiscal transparency, the management of fiscal risks, sovereign wealth funds, the management of state-owned enterprises, and political economy aspects of budgeting. The book sets out numerous examples and case studies describing good practice in public financial management, and is highly relevant for use in both advanced and developing countries.
This book uses facts and data to prove that socialist public sectors are still in a predominant position in China. Based on previous research and studies, a set of methods for measuring the structure of public or non-public owned economy is offered in this book. As is remarked by the authors, China's basic economic system, namely the system with the public sector remaining dominant and diverse sectors of the economy developing side by side, represents an efficient approach towards mutual benefit, common prosperity and peaceful co-existence.
The main objective of this book is to develop a strategy and policy measures to enhance the formalization of the shadow economy in order to improve the competitiveness of the economy and contribute to economic growth; it explores these issues with special reference to Serbia. The size and development of the shadow economy in Serbia and other Central and Eastern European countries are estimated using two different methods (the MIMIC method and household-tax-compliance method). Micro-estimates are based on a special survey of business entities in Serbia, which for the first time allows us to explore the shadow economy from the perspective of enterprises and entrepreneurs. The authors identify the types of shadow economy at work in business entities, the determinants of shadow economy participation, and the impact of competition from the informal sector on businesses. Readers will learn both about the potential fiscal effects of reducing the shadow economy to the levels observed in more developed countries and the effects that formalization of the shadow economy can have on economic growth.
The right turn in U. S. politics has increased conflict over both ends and means in government budgeting and financial management. Overlapping and competing views of the way the world works drive finance officials' practice. Taking a new look at public financial management that acknowledges the multiple, competing realities, Government Budgeting and Financial Management in Practice: Logics to Make Sense of Ambiguity examines transaction cost economics and other small government, managed-by-the-market techniques as the latest reincarnation of public budgeting and financial management orthodoxy. Gerald J. Miller reviews new research on the continuing validity of the political dimension of government finance decisions and the multiple, intensely argued constructions of reality the finance official must make sense of.
Miller discusses major advances in interpretive approaches to budgeting and finance and how they dominate writing in the broader field of public administration. He also examines the effects of the explosion of information systems, new budget techniques, nonconventional ways of spending, and new technologies. The book uses a question as the motivating force to understand some facets of today's government budgeting, finance, and financial management: where do the critical assumptions come from to drive financial management? Miller takes the history of reform, developments in the field and the logics finance officials say they use as sources for these assumptions and examines what they reveal about constructions of the government finance world.
Exploring new avenues of financial management thinking, the book discusses ambiguity and interpretations that move the unclear preferences, ends, and goals toward consensus. The author identifies an alternative approach to research that explains important facets of financial management. This approach is drawn directly from practice, events and problems in public organizations and from the creedal bent of many political actors in competition.
This book is an examination of the sovereign risk and debt limit issues facing the Eurozone (crisis/post crisis) and the need for alternative mechanisms to fund the capital investment requirements of the region.
This book investigates the reasons for persistent public deficits and delayed fiscal reform in Japan, placing a special emphasis on political economy aspects. Japan is confronted with the need to pursue fiscal discipline for fiscal consolidation and implement structural reforms for reorganizing fiscal expenditures. Focusing on particular policy fields including social security, female labor supply, public works, and intergovernmental transfer schemes, the book clarifies economic and political elements that have hindered effective steps toward these two goals. Facing population aging and a business downturn, the Japanese government was urged to increase social security expenditures and the budget for Keynesian stimulus policies. As elucidated in the book, the institutional design has worked to over-represent the demands of elderly generations and local interest groups and to expand these expenditures. Rigorous theoretical and numerical analyses reported throughout the book consequently provide readers with insights into incentive designs and institutional reforms necessary for fiscal consolidation, also presenting points of view for public policy and public debate.
This book explores public budgeting in India. As government finances play an important role in the social and economic development of a nation, it focuses on public budgeting in the context of India. The respective chapters not only discuss the underlying principles of budgeting, but also address the practical issues related to the government's financial operations and their macro-economic implications. Recently there has been considerable debate surrounding the size of government, with the neo-liberal framework advocating a very limited governmental role. This book provides comprehensive information on the practical aspects of public budgeting with regard to how governments raise revenues, how they are spent, the nature of public services provided, and their implications for the social and economic development of the country against the backdrop of public budgeting theory. The topics covered include the constitutional fiscal framework; theories, structure and issues related to budgets; mechanisms of budget construction, budget execution, public budgeting and performance assessment; government accounting; and financial accountability.
The European economy is still in recession, even though there are some weak indications of stabilization. This book examines important aspects of the crisis in selected countries of Southern Europe, the Balkans and Eastern Europe. The intensity of the crisis and its economic and social repercussions have varied from country to country, generally impacting the core countries less than those on the periphery. The countries in the latter group currently face significant structural challenges with regard to improving productivity and competitiveness, including the areas of investment, climate, the labour market, and the public sector. The book not only illustrates the scope of the problem, but also informs readers on the policies implemented to address it, and discusses the progress some of the economies have already made. Special topics include the convergence hypothesis, agriculture and growth, Public-Private Partnership in Infrastructure (PPPI), and the labour market.
This book examines key issues and policy concerns relating to fiscal sustainability and competitiveness in European and Asian economies. In addition to estimating the extent of fiscal capacity or lack thereof for these economies, the authors supplement the empirical analysis with country case studies.
Monetary policies and international standards and norms on banking
regulations have, once again, come to the forefront of the policy
discussion in developed nations due to the recent crisis in the
world's financial markets. This discussion is far from new, nor
does it apply exclusively to the world's most advanced economies. A
stable monetary policy and a sound and well-enforced regulatory
regime can help developing nations channel financial resources more
efficiently into investments. For open economies it can also act as
a buffer, an important stability factor in today's shaky market
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