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This upper level textbook provides a coherent introduction to the economic implications of individual and population ageing. Placing economic considerations into a wider social sciences context, this is ideal reading not only for advanced undergraduate and masters students in health economics and economics of ageing, but policy makers, professionals and practitioners in gerontology, sociology, health-related sciences, and social care. This volume introduces topics in the economics of happiness, quality of life, and well-being in later life. It also covers questions of inequality and poverty, intergenerational economics, and housing. Other areas described in this book include behavioural economics, political economy, and consumption in ageing societies.
The Greek economic crisis has imperilled the stability of the eurozone, generating much global anxiety. Policymakers, analysts, and the media have daily debated the course of the Greek economy, prescribing ways to move forward. This collection of essays progressively moves from an analysis of the causes of the crisis and the policy responses so far to a debate on some of the country s advantages and capabilities that should underpin its new development model and propel the return to growth. The book analytically chooses to view the glass as half-full and seeks to provide motivation and inspiration for change by indicating some of the economic sectors where Greece maintains a comparative advantage. Therefore, it challenges the emerging picture of Greece as a country doomed to failure, where everything falls apart.
Developments across the millennia suggest that, even though democracies and free market economies are continuously challenged by crises and disturbances, such as natural disasters, wars, or technological revolutions, in the countries where they take roots civil liberties deepen and per capita prosperity increases. To substantiate this claim analytically, the authors emphasize the principles that make free markets a sine qua non condition for democracy and study the nature of the relationship between free market institutions and economic growth. By examining the operating principles, outcomes and challenges experienced by contemporary democracies, many lessons are drawn with regard to how governments should act in order to avoid the pitfalls inherently associated with representative democracy. To illustrate the dangers of deviating from these principles, the authors apply their findings to the Greek democracy and economy since the Second World War.
All too often government lacks the skill, the will, and the wallet to meet its missions. Schools fall short of the mark while roads and bridges fall into disrepair. Health care costs too much and delivers too little. Budgets bleed red ink as the cost of services citizens want outstrips the taxes they are willing to pay. "Collaborative Governance" is the first book to offer solutions by demonstrating how government at every level can engage the private sector to overcome seemingly insurmountable problems and achieve public goals more effectively.
John Donahue and Richard Zeckhauser show how the public sector can harness private expertise to bolster productivity, capture information, and augment resources. The authors explain how private engagement in public missions--rightly structured and skillfully managed--is not so much an alternative to government as the way smart government ought to operate. The key is to carefully and strategically grant discretion to private entities, whether for-profit or nonprofit, in ways that simultaneously motivate and empower them to create public value. Drawing on a host of real-world examples-including charter schools, job training, and the resurrection of New York's Central Park--they show how, when, and why collaboration works, and also under what circumstances it doesn't.
"Collaborative Governance" reveals how the collaborative approach can be used to tap the resourcefulness and entrepreneurship of the private sector, and improvise fresh, flexible solutions to today's most pressing public challenges.
This book examines the role of uncertainty on financial decisions - and, consequently, on financial markets - in the buildup to and aftermath of the Great Recession. It tracks the significant growth and important structural changes in the financial sector during the past few decades, both of which made the economy more vulnerable to perceptions of risk in the markets. Halperin argues that conventional economic models have lost relevance by failing to take these developments into account appropriately, and also explains that because of financial globalization we can no longer understand what happens in the economies of major countries by relying on "closed-economy" thinking. The book concludes with a list of policy recommendations designed to increase the resilience of the financial markets to negative economic developments and to reduce incentives for risk taking, including a proposal to eliminate the double taxation of dividends.
In The Hypocritical Hegemon, Lukas Hakelberg takes a close look at how US domestic politics affects and determines the course of global tax policy. Through an examination of recent international efforts to crack down on offshore tax havens and the role the United States has played, Hakelberg uncovers how a seemingly innocuous technical addition to US law has had enormous impact around the world, particularly for individuals and corporations aiming to avoid and evade taxation. Through bullying and using its overwhelming political power, writes Hakelberg, the United States has imposed rules on the rest of the world while exempting domestic banks for the same reporting requirements. It can do so because no other government wields control over such huge financial and consumer markets. This power imbalance is at the heart of The Hypocritical Hegemon. Thanks to generous funding from COFFERS EU, the ebook editions of this book are available as Open Access volumes from Cornell Open (cornellopen.org) and other repositories.
This is a challenge to conventional thinking around money and the 'debt crisis'. By re-evaluating the source of money, Mary Mellor presents a radical alternative to austerity and privatisation: public wealth, or, money used for sustainability, sufficiency and social justice. Debt or Democracy debunks the received lessons of the financial crisis of 2007. Political elites shout about a house whose finances are in disarray; a 'yawning deficit' created by reckless spending in a bloated public sector. The answer to this 'debt crisis' has been harsh austerity measures - but this is a dangerously deceptive discourse. Turning against the prevalent narrative, with its language of 'debt' and 'deficit', Mellor takes on the familiar question - 'where does money come from?'. The real solution is a return to the notion of public wealth and the public economy; of a monetary system owned by, and operated in the interests of, the majority.
What role should regulation play in financial markets? What have been the ramifications of financial regulation? To answer these and other questions regarding the efficacy of legislation on financial markets, this book examines the impact of the Gramm Leach Bliley Act (GLBA), also called the Financial Modernization Act of 1999, which fundamentally changed the financial landscape in the United States. The GLBA allows the formation of financial holding companies that can offer an integrated set of commercial banking, securities and insurance products. The tenth anniversary of the most sweeping financial legislation reform in the industry's structure is a natural benchmark for assessing the effects of the law and for questioning whether changes are necessary in the working of this historic legislation. The importance of this review is reinforced by a variety of proposals in the last several years to reform the regulation of financial institutions that have attracted considerable attention among regulators and in the financial firms that they regulate. Most recently, the financial crisis and the failure of some large financial institutions have called into question the legitimacy of America's current financial structure and its regulation, including to some degree the GLBA. There is no doubt that regulatory reform is front and center on today's policy agenda. The lessons of the GLBA experience and its effects, both domestic and international, on financial markets and competitiveness, risk-taking and risk management by financial services firms and their regulators will be critical to the direction the country takes and the effort to ensure that future financial crises do not occur or have less costly damage. With contributions from academics, policy experts, and a sponsor of the GLBA, Congressman James Leach, this book is invaluable to anyone interested in financial system reform.
Infrastructure construction and use is at the heart o the current political debate. Not only are European member state governments investing large amounts of money to alleviate the harmful effects of the economic downturn due to the credit crisis, EU accession countries receive large amounts of cohesion funds for infrastructure purposes. Infrastructure is widely believed to contribute largely to economic performance, but to what extent is this the case? How does the productivity of roads, railways and ports relate to the invested money, and what determines their effectiveness? In this Brief, which focuses to a large extent on Dutch and European practice, numerous distinguished economists describe policy practice and analytical tools for infrastructure appraisal. Moreover, harmonisation of European approaches for evaluation of infrastructure are discussed. The study focuses both on scientific productivity measurement as on case studies of infrastructure policy.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is central to reforming governance, innovating public services, and building inclusive information societies. Countries are learning to weave ICT into their strategies for transforming government as enterprises have learned to use ICT to innovate and transform their processes and competitive strategies. ICT-enabled transformation offers a new path to digital-era government that is responsive to the challenges of our time. It facilitates innovation, partnering, knowledge sharing, community organizing, local monitoring, accelerated learning, and participatory development.
In Transforming Government and Building the Information Society, Nagy Hanna draws on multi-disciplinary research on ICT in the public sector, and on his rich experience of over 35 years at the World Bank and other aid agencies, to identify the key ingredients for the strategic integration of ICT into governance and poverty reduction strategies. The author showcases promising practices from around the world to outline the strategic options involved in using ICT to maximize developmental impact-transforming government institutions and public services, and empowering communities for inclusion and grassroots innovation.
Despite the ICT promise, Hanna acknowledges that reforming governance and empowering poor communities are difficult long-term undertakings. Hanna moves beyond the imperatives and visions of e-transformation to strategic design and implementation options, and draws practical lessons for policymakers, reformers, innovators, community leaders, ICT specialists and development experts.
Oil-producing countries have received a windfall from rapidly rising oil prices. In this ""Occasional Paper"", IMF experts examine the fiscal response of oil-producing countries to the recent oil boom and the role of special fiscal institutions (SFIs) in fiscal management. They review the experiences of selected countries and draw some general lessons. In doing so, they link findings on best practice in the design of SFIs with broader fiscal management advice.
In a challenge to conventional views on modern monetary and fiscal policy, this book presents a coherent analysis of how money is created, how it functions in global exchange rate regimes, and how the mystification of the nature of money has constrained governments, and prevented states from acting in the public interest.
This is a study of Malaysia's new political economy, with a focus on ownership and control of the corporate sector. It offers a pioneering assessment of government-linked investment companies (GLICs), a type of state-owned institution that has long prevailed in the corporate sector but has not been analysed. Malaysia's history of government-business ties is unique, while the nature of the nexuses between the state and the corporate sector has undergone major transitions. Corporate power has shifted from the hands of foreign firms to the state to the ruling party, and well-connected businessmen, and back to the state. Corporate wealth is now heavily situated in the leading publicly-listed government-linked companies (GLCs), controlled through block shareholdings by a mere seven GLICs under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Finance. To indicate why these GLICs are important actors in Corporate Malaysia, this study provides a deep assessment of their ownership and control of Bursa Malaysia's top 100 publicly-listed enterprises.
In the midst of political decline and burgeoning financial problems in the late nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire became embroiled in a borrowing frenzy, which eventually resulted in the financial collapse of the empire. Under political pressure and with the growing need for external funds, the Ottoman court compromised its fiscal sovereignty by ceding the most liquid revenue sources to a financial administration controlled by European creditors. In this book, Murat Birdal sheds light on the handling of the external debt crisis, one of the most controversial periods of Ottoman economic history. Based on extensive archival research foreign archives, he explores the pivotal role of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration (OPDA) in the peripheralization of the Ottoman economy. This book will be invaluable to scholars of Ottoman, Middle East and economic history.
China's emerging financial markets reflect the usual contrast between the country's measured approach toward policy, regulatory, and market reform, and the dynamic pace of rapid economic growth and development. But they also offer unusual challenges and opportunities. In the past five years, the pace of opening and reform has accelerated sharply. Recapitalization and partial privatization of the largest banks, and the allowance of some joint venture and branch operations for foreign financial institutions, are making rapid headway in developing and expanding financial services and improving access to domestic business and households. This book provides the most extensive look available at the evolving Chinese financial system. It begins with alternative perspectives on the evolution of the financial system and the broad outlines of its prospects and potential contribution to economic growth. Three articles review broad aspects of the financial system. Franklin Allen, Jun ''QJ'' Qian, Meijun Qian, and Mengxin Zhao lead off with overviews of the banking system and performance of the equity market and other institutions.
Persistently high debt ratios in advanced economies and emerging fragilities in the developing world cast clouds on the global fiscal landscape. In advanced economies, with narrowing budget deficits, the average public debt ratio is expected to stabilize in 2013-14 - but it will be at a historic peak. At the same time, fiscal vulnerabilities are on the rise in emerging market economies and low-income countries - on the back, in emerging market economies, of heightened financial volatility and downward revisions to potential growth, and in low-income countries, of possible shortfalls in commodity prices and aid. Strengthening fiscal balances and buttressing confidence thus remain at the top of the policy agenda. Against that backdrop, this issue explores whether and how tax reform can help strengthen public finances. Taxation is always a sensitive topic and is now more than ever at the center of policy debates around the world. Can countries tax more, better, and more fairly? Results reported in this issue show that the scope to raise more revenue is limited in many advanced economies and, where tax ratios are already high, the bulk of the necessary adjustment will have to fall on spending. In emerging market economies and low-income countries, where the potential for raising revenue is often substantial, improving compliance remains a central challenge.
For a long time, it has been the declared aim in many countries to fight tax evasion in all its different manifestations, from undeclared work by cleaners and gardeners in private households to tax evasion in the international capital markets. This study focuses on the phenomenon of undeclared work and the case of Germany, presenting the most comprehensive analysis of tax non-compliance for Germany to date, based on surveys conducted by the Rockwool Foundation. Theoretically, the analysis starts from the standard model of tax evasion as being influenced by the subjectively perceived extent of deterrence, the perceived marginal tax burden and social norms. Evidence is provided on the impact of deterrence and other factors on tax non-compliance, and several descriptive statistics are presented to better illustrate the natrure of undeclared work with regard to industry, region, education and other socio-economic characteristics.
"Schedule-Based Modeling of Transportation Networks: Theory and Applications" follows the book Schedule-Based Dynamic Transit Modeling, published in this series in 2004, recognizing the critical role that schedules play in transportation systems.
Conceived for the simulation of transit systems, in the last few years the schedule-based approach has been expanded and applied to operational planning of other transportation schedule services besides mass transit, e.g. freight transport. This innovative approach allows forecasting the evolution over time of the on-board loads on the services and their time-varying performance, using credible user behavioral hypotheses. It opens new frontiers in transportation modeling to support network design, timetable setting, and investigation of congestion effects, as well as the assessment of such new technologies, such as users system information (ITS technologies).
Topics in this comprehensive survey include bureaucracy, corruption and tax compliance; public finance in developing economies; taxation in several former Soviet republics, Eastern Europe and China; taxation in the enlarged European Union; tax harmonization vs. tax competition; and the philosophy of taxation and public finance. The editor has assembled a stellar group of authorities to write about their areas of expertise.
Our growing national debt has dropped out of the headlines recently - but that doesn't mean that the problem has gone away. The national debt recently topped $17.5 trillion, and is projected to reach $27 trillion by 2024. Worse yet, if you include the unfunded liabilities of Social Security and Medicare, the U.S. real indebtedness exceeds $83 trillion. Despite these undeniable facts, politicians from both parties continue to avoid making the difficult decisions that must be made. Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid alone account for 48 percent of federal spending today, a portion that will only increase more rapidly with the newest entitlement program, Obamacare. The truth is that there is no way to address America's debt problem without reforming entitlements. Going for Broke provides a critical, in-depth analysis of these entitlement programs and lays out much needed solutions for real reform.
Although Indias federal polity provides for divided governmental functions and powers, imbalances have arisen between functional responsibilities and financial resources of the Central and State Governments. This is so because revenue-raising capacities of the States are lower than their revenue needs. The mismatch between functions and financial powers of the States has occurred partly because of increasing responsibilities of the States and partly due to the dominant position of the Central Government in regard to taxation and debt-raising powers. Therefore, vertical imbalances of resources and expenditure responsibilities have emerged between the Central and State Governments, calling for transfer of resources from the Centre to the States. Financial imbalances at the vertical level (Centre versus States), and at the horizontal level (among the States) are sought to be removed/reduced through constitutional and institutional arrangements. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the magnitude and manner of fiscal transfers from the Centre to the States in India including a case study of Uttar Pradesh -- Indias most populous state.
Low growth, low investment, insufficient spend on infrastructure, weak bank lending to the corporate sector, and funding deficiencies of small and medium-sized enterprises are all causes of concern in Europe. To many, they point to fundamental problems in the financing of European companies and in Europe's financial systems. Are these concerns valid and do the structure and performance of the financial system lie at their heart? If so, what should be done to address them, and have the right policy prescriptions been identified to date? A product of the Restarting European Investment Finance research programme, Finance and Investment: The European Case brings together leading researchers to consider the causes of the persistently low level of investment in Europe. It examines the extent to which the financial system is a contributory factor and identifies possible remedies, considering the relation of finance to corporate sector investment, the lending behaviour of banks, the provision of equity financing, and the role of public sector institutions, regulation, and taxation. Finance and Investment provides one of the most comprehensive and thorough analyses of any financial system undertaken to date. It reflects a large body of research using new and existing data sets, employing advanced empirical tools, and exploiting the unique insights provided by the tumultuous events of financial and sovereign debt crises. Together, they comprise an exceptional body of knowledge to advance academic thinking and guide policy formulation.
Past cycles of sovereign lending and default in emerging markets suggest that debt crises will recur at some point. In addressing debt crises it has proven helpful to distinguish between situations of illiquidity and insolvency. Solutions range from a voluntary debt swap to a soft or hard restructuring. This book shows why investors should reckon with similar credit events in the future.
Insights gained from recent restructurings inspire the design of a valuation model for sovereign bonds. Using the distinction between hard and soft restructurings, the model draws parallels to the concepts of face value and market value recovery. An extension into credit default swap markets explains why bond and CDS spreads diverge during distress.
This survey of the sovereign bond market provides investors with a useful toolkit for analyzing sovereign bonds and foreseeing trends in the international financial architecture. The result should be a better understanding of debt crises and more deliberate investment decisions.
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