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Nicholas Rescher examines a number of controversial social issues using the intellectual tools of the philosopher, in an attempt to clarify some of the complexities of modern society, technology, and economics. He elucidates his thoughts on topics such as: whether technological progress leads to greater happiness; environmental problems; endangered species, costly scientific research on the frontiers of knowledge, medical/moral issues on the preservation of life; and crime and justice, among others.
Vygotsky Philosophy and Education reassesses the works of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky work by arguing that his central ideas about the nature of rationality and knowledge were informed by the philosophic tradition of Spinoza and Hegel. * Presents a reassessment of the works of Lev Vygotsky in light of the tradition of Spinoza and Hegel informing his work * Reveals Vygotsky s connection with the work of contemporary philosophers such as Brandom and McDowell * Draws on discussions in contemporary philosophy to revise prominent readings of Vygotskian psychology and revisits educational debates where Vygotsky s ideas were central * Reveals the limitations of appropriations of Vygotsky which fail to recognize the Hegelian provenance of his work * Shows the relevance of Brandom s inferentialism for contemporary educational theory and practice
From New York Times bestselling author Cass Sunstein, a brisk, provocative book that shows what freedom really means-and requires-today In this pathbreaking book, New York Times bestselling author Cass Sunstein asks us to rethink freedom. He shows that freedom of choice isn't nearly enough. To be free, we must also be able to navigate life. People often need something like a GPS device to help them get where they want to go-whether the issue involves health, money, jobs, children, or relationships. In both rich and poor countries, citizens often have no idea how to get to their desired destination. That is why they are unfree. People also face serious problems of self-control, as many of them make decisions today that can make their lives worse tomorrow. And in some cases, we would be just as happy with other choices, whether a different partner, career, or place to live-which raises the difficult question of which outcome best promotes our well-being. Accessible and lively, and drawing on perspectives from the humanities, religion, and the arts, as well as social science and the law, On Freedom explores a crucial dimension of the human condition that philosophers and economists have long missed-and shows what it would take to make freedom real.
This volume centers on philosophical issues of the life sciences, particularly genetics and psychology, and the relevance of statistical data as the foundation for inductive reasoning in areas such as vaccination testing, population genetics, evolutionary theory, and natural selection. Also discussed is the role of psychology in defining thought processes, experiences, and behaviors and their subsequent relation to scientific discovery, and advancing knowledge of the human condition and human potential.
Considering efficiency, equality, and morality, this book argues for qualified market expansion, particularly in legalizing kidney sales and prostitution. Legalizing prostitution will benefit both men and women, as argued in a chapter jointly written with Yan Wang. Blood donation without monetary compensation can still result in adequate blood supply if schools educate children that blood donation can actually benefit a donor's health. As a society becomes more advanced, with higher incomes and a better educated populace, more activities can be subject to market exchange, with gradual popular acceptance. Without serious misinformation and irrationality, inequality/fairness as such cannot be a valid reason for limiting the scope of the market. The book supports the use of markets to increase efficiency while also increasing the effort to promote equality, making all income groups better off.
This encyclopedia provides a synopsis of the lives and legacies of 200 men and women who have "changed the world." These individuals have developed, extended, or exemplified ideas fundamental to the way human beings perceive the meaning and purpose of their own lives and of their societies. Some have challenged prevailing convictions and worked for immediate change during their lifetimes; others have proposed new modes of thinking that have flourished only after their passing. 4
This compact reference succinctly explains the engineering profession's codes of ethics using case studies drawn from decisions of the National Society of Professional Engineers' (NSPE) Board of Ethical Review, examining ethical challenges in engineering, construction, and project management. It includes study questions to supplement general engineering survey courses and a list of references to aid practicing engineers in exploring topics in depth. Concentrating primarily on situations engineers encounter on a daily basis and offering pragmatic answers to ethical questions, What Every Engineer Should Know About Ethics discusses recent headline-making disasters such as the Challenger explosion, the Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe, and the Hyatt-Regency Hotel collapse; considers the merits and drawbacks of professional codes of ethics; covers the application of the "committee approach" to specific cases; compares and contrasts ethical codes and personal values with alternative approaches to morality; defines professional licensing and registration and enumerates their prerequisites; outlines legal standards for liability; emphasizes the importance of communication, coordination, and documentation; includes a discussion of "whistleblowing;" defines the engineer's primary ethical responsibility; and more.
Switch off the mind, awaken all the senses and become aware of your whole body with this superbly illustrated guide to using and enhancing Tantric sexual energy. Tantra, the Tao of Love, is an Eastern path to self-development. Central to that path is healthy sexual energy, which needs to be harmonized if we're to live life happily and fulfil our true potential. The Tantra involves letting your mind go and learning to express yourself through your body. The Tantra nurtures intimacy, sexual and emotional self-confidence and the healthy development of sexual energy flow through the whole body. As the mind and body become harmonised by Tantric sex, communication skills, personal creativity and spontaneity are enhanced. 101 Nights of Tantric Sex leads you through 101 nights of rituals and meditations to bring you closer to the divine, including: Affirming your commitment * Playing the Yin-Yang game * Honouring your partner * Creating sacred space * Erotic touch * Co-mingling breath * Anointing the Chakras
A compelling exploration of how reputation affects every aspect of contemporary life Reputation touches almost everything, guiding our behavior and choices in countless ways. But it is also shrouded in mystery. Why is it so powerful when the criteria by which people and things are defined as good or bad often appear to be arbitrary? Why do we care so much about how others see us that we may even do irrational and harmful things to try to influence their opinion? In this engaging book, Gloria Origgi draws on philosophy, social psychology, sociology, economics, literature, and history to offer an illuminating account of an important yet oddly neglected subject. Origgi examines the influence of the Internet and social media, as well as the countless ranking systems that characterize modern society and contribute to the creation of formal and informal reputations in our social relations, in business, in politics, in academia, and even in wine. She highlights the importance of reputation to the effective functioning of the economy and e-commerce. Origgi also discusses the existential significance of our obsession with reputation, concluding that an awareness of the relationship between our reputation and our actions empowers us to better understand who we are and why we do what we do. Compellingly written and filled with surprising insights, Reputation pins down an elusive subject that affects everyone.
For most of the twentieth century, the writings of aestheticians of the French Enlightenment were neglected by philosophers and students of the fine arts. Coleman has applied philosophical analysis to the writings of Diderot, Montesquieu, Dubos, Batteux, Andre, and Crousaz, among others, to reflect on the fine arts of the first two-thirds of the eighteenth century.
Exam Board: SQA Level: Higher Subject: Religious, Moral and Philosophical Studies First Teaching: 2014, First Exam: 2015 This book is the essential guide to exam skills. It includes detailed advice on how to approach and answer the different types of question you will find in the exam and has been written by an experienced teacher and exam expert. * Detailed advice on how to approach all the different types of question you will find in the exam will develop your skills and help you to avoid common pitfalls * Essential guide to structuring your responses shows you how to formulate and improve your answers * Worked examples of weak and strong answers let you see exactly where and how marks are gained and how to get the best result * A dedicated chapter on the Assignment ensures that you have a great foundation for your grade before you even enter the exam room
This volume poses a challenge to the way one conceptualizes and actually wages war in a high technology age. Computerization and artificial intelligence have brought about a revolution in warfare spawning both increasingly powerful weapons and a rhetoric which disguises their apocalyptic potential in catch phrases like smart weapons and bloodless combat.
"The ideas in "Nothing Left Over" are seeds bursting with vitality and her book is a primer in grateful living. As you come to know her in a delightful intimacy, you come to know yourself from unsuspected perspectives."--Brother David Steindl-Rast
"A magnificent piece of writing."--Stephen Batchelor
Wittgenstein: Meaning and Mind is the third volume of a four-volume analytical commentary on Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, consisting of two parts. Part 1 is a sequence of fifteen essays that examine in detail all the major topics discussed in Philosophical Investigations 243-427. These include the private language arguments, privacy, private ostensive definition, the nature of the mind, the inner and the outer, behaviour and behaviourism, thought, imagination, the self, consciousness, and criteria. Published in 1990 to widespread acclaim as a scholarly tour de force, the first edition of this volume of essays provides a comprehensive survey of these themes, the history of their treatment in early modern and modern philosophy, the development of Wittgenstein's ideas on these subjects from 1929 onwards, and an elaborate analysis of his definitive arguments in the Investigations. The new second edition has been thoroughly revised by the author and features four new essays. These include a survey of the evolution of the private language arguments in Wittgenstein's oeuvre and their role within the developing argument of the Investigations, a comprehensive essay on private ownership of experience and its pitfalls, a detailed examination and defence of Wittgenstein's repudiation of subjective knowledge of one's experience, and an overview of the achievement and importance of the private language arguments. Revised essays examine new objections to Wittgenstein's arguments - which are found wanting- and incorporate new materials from the Nachlass that were not known to exist in 1990. All references have been adjusted to the revised fourth edition of the Investigations, but previous pagination in the first and second editions has been retained in parentheses. These revisions bring the book up to the high standard of the extensively revised editions of Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning (Blackwell, 2005) and Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity (Wiley Blackwell, 2009). They ensure that this survey of Wittgenstein's private language arguments and of his accounts of thought, imagination, consciousness, the self, and criteria will remain the essential reference work on the Investigations for the foreseeable future.
This richly illustrated book is an exploration of how chance and risk, on the one hand, and meaning or significance on the other, compete for the limelight in art, in philosophy, and in science. In modern society, prudence and probability calculation permeate our daily lives. Yet it is clear for all to see that neither cautious bank regulations nor mathematics have prevented economic crises from occurring time and again. Nicolas Bouleau argues that it is the meaning we assign to an event that determines the perceived risk, and that we generally turn a blind eye to this important fact, because the word "meaning" is itself awkward to explain. He tackles this fundamental question through examples taken from cultural fields ranging from painting, architecture, and music, to poetry, biology, and astronomy. This enables the reader to view overwhelming risks in a different light. Bouleau clarifies that the most important thing in a time of uncertainty is to think of prudence on a higher level, one that truly addresses the various subjective interpretations of the world.
Jane Alexander is inspired and inspiring. I trust her advice completely' - Sarah Stacey, Mail on SundayIn this fast-paced, social media-filled world, people are looking for clarity and inner calm, as well as an escape from the digital overload. This book offers a comprehensive lowdown on the ancient wisdoms from around the world in an accessible way, so we can harness this wisdom and use it in our contemporary environment. The book will be broken down into five major sections. The first gives an overview to the various forms of ancient wisdom covered in the book. The following four sections will each cover a season with information and practical exercises on: Nutrition (adapting your diet throughout the year); Body (different seasonal exercise, including simple yoga and qiyong flows, healing forms of breathwork and bodywork); Emotional life (seasonal emotional shifts and advice on natural approaches to dealing with everyday stresses and anxiety); and Spiritual life (powerful soul-work, including crystals, sound healing and oracles).
This collection features five essays from noted theologians, philosophers, geneticists, and biologists who discuss the sweeping impact of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species on their respective fields. This volume, edited by Ralph Buchsbaum, professor of biology at the University of Pittsburgh, was published to celebrate the centenary of Darwin's announcement in 1858, along with Alfred Russel Wallace, of their independent discovery of the process of natural selection. Darwin's book was published one year later.
Think Like a Feminist is an irreverent yet rigorous primer that unpacks over two hundred years of feminist thought. In a time when the word feminism triggers all sorts of responses, many of them conflicting and misinformed, Professor Carol Hay provides this balanced, clarifying, and inspiring examination of what it truly means to be a feminist today. She takes the reader from conceptual questions of sex, gender, intersectionality, and oppression to the practicalities of talking to children, navigating consent, and fighting for adequate space on public transit, without deviating from her clear, accessible, conversational tone. Think Like a Feminist is equally a feminist starter kit and an advanced refresher course, connecting longstanding controversies to today's headlines. Think Like a Feminist takes on many of the essential questions that feminism has risen up to answer: Is it nature or nurture that's responsible for our gender roles and identities? How is sexism connected to racism, classism, homophobia, transphobia, and other forms of oppression? Who counts as a woman, and who gets to decide? Why have men gotten away with rape and other forms of sexual violence for so long? What responsibility do women themselves bear for maintaining sexism? What, if anything, can we do to make society respond to women's needs and desires? Ferocious, insightful, practical, and unapologetically opinionated, Think Like a Feminist is the perfect book for anyone who wants to understand the continuing effects of misogyny in society. By exploring the philosophy underlying the feminist movement, Carol Hay brings today's feminism into focus, so we can deliberately shape the feminist future.
For more than 25 years Noriko Morishita has studied and practised the intricate rules of the famous Japanese Tea Ceremony, trying to master its complexities in order to find inner peace. In this vivid account of her experience of the universal trials and triumphs of adulthood, Morishita connects the core tenets of this ancient art with leading a fulfilling life, showing how we too may use mindfulness to achieve happiness.
Over the centuries, the idea of the self has both fascinated and confounded philosophers. From the ancient Greeks, who problematized issues of identity and self-awareness, to Locke and Hume, who popularized minimalist views of the self, to the efforts of postmodernists in our time to decenter the human subject altogether, the idea that there is something called a self has always been in steady decline. But for Richard Sorabji, one of our most celebrated living intellectuals, this negation of the self is dispiriting. In Self, he sets out to recover the rich variety of positive accounts of the self from Antiquity right up to the present, while offering his own inspiring view of what precisely the self might be. Drawing on Eastern religion, classical antiquity, and Western philosophy, Sorabji proceeds to tackle a number of thematic debates that have preoccupied philosophers over the ages, including the concept of the self, its sameness and mutability, the idea of the resurrection of the body and spirit, and the fear of death. According to Sorabji, the self is not an undetectable soul or ego, but an embodied individual whose existence is plain to see. It is also neither a linguistic creation nor a psychological fiction, but something that owns both a consciousness and a body. Ultimately, Sorabji argues, the demise of a positive idea of the self stems from much older and more pervasive problems of identity than we realize. Through an astute reading of this tradition, he helps us come to terms with our uneasiness about the subject in an account that will be at the forefront of philosophical debates foryears to come.
Analyses the social imaginary of undoing, repair and return underpinning the international norm of restitution-making Approaches restitution not just as a legal norm of property return, but as a social imaginary and a cultural-psychoanalytic 'scene' of undoing, repair and return Brings together philosophic-political, socio-legal and cultural-psychoanalytic approaches to the study of restitution Outlines a heterogeneous and multifaceted idea of restitution emergent in modernity, and looks at the peripheries of the modern restitutive tradition in the search for alternatives and counter-traditions This book takes a unique approach grounded in political and cultural discourse to develop a political theory of restitution. Challenging assumptions about restitution in the Western legal and political tradition, where it has become nearly synonymous with reacquisition and where legal studies focus on material objects and claims to their ownership, Zolkos argues that the development of restitutive norms has been auxiliary to the emergence of modern state sovereignty, and excavates the restitutive tradition's mythical-religious substrate. Bringing together texts from within and outwith the Western canon of political theory and philosophy, including the writings of Grotius, Durkheim, Freud, and Klein, as well as Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the book undertakes a dual task: reading literary texts as a political theorising of restitution, and reading political or sociological texts as literary narratives with distinctive 'restitutive tropes' of repair, undoing and return.
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