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Drawing together key documents, case law, reports and other essential materials, International Humanitarian Law offers students, lecturers and practitioners an accessible and critically informed account of the theory, law and practice of international humanitarian law. Providing comprehensive, thematic and targeted coverage of national and international cases and materials, this book successfully balances doctrine with practical application to help readers understand how the theories are applied in practice and navigate through jurisprudence with ease. Employing a critical and targeted commentary throughout, this book also helps readers to better understand the implications of the law and the challenges facing international humanitarian law today including: cyber war, detention, direct participation in hostilities, human rights in armed conflict and terrorism. Suitable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students and practitioners, International Humanitarian Law offers a thematic and comprehensive treatment of the subject.
Democracy is the ability to participate freely and equally in the political and economic affairs of the country. Americans have relied on philosophical pragmatism and on the impulse of political progressivism to express those creedal democratic values. Achieving Democracy argues that, in the last 30 years, however, by focusing on free markets and small government, America has since lost its grasp on these crucial democratic values. Economically, the vast majority of Americans have been made worse off due to a historically unprecedented redistribution of wealth from the lower and middle classes to the top one percent. Politically, partisan gridlock has hampered efforts to seek fairer taxes, responsive and effective regulation, reliable health care, and better education, among other needs. Achieving Democracy critiques the history of the last 30 years of neoliberal government in the United States, and enables an understanding of the dynamic and changing nature of contemporary government and the future of the regulatory state. Sidney A. Shapiro and Joseph P. Tomain demonstrate how lessons from the past can be applied today to regain essential democratic losses within the successful framework of a progressive government to ultimately construct a good society for all citizens.
Bringing armed conflicts to an end is difficult; restoring a lasting peace can be considerably harder. Reclaiming Everyday Peace addresses the effectiveness and impact of local level interventions on communities affected by war. Using an innovative methodology to generate participatory numbers, Pamina Firchow finds that communities saturated with external interventions after war do not have substantive higher levels of peacefulness according to community-defined indicators of peace than those with lower levels of interventions. These findings suggest that current international peacebuilding efforts are not very effective at achieving peace by local standards because disproportionate attention is paid to reconstruction, governance and development assistance with little attention paid to community ties and healing. Firchow argues that a more bottom up approach to measuring the effectiveness of peacebuilding is required. By finding ways to effectively communicate local community needs and priorities to the international community, efforts to create an atmosphere for an enduring peace are possible.
Comparative constitutional law is a field of increasing importance around the world, but much of the literature is focused on Europe, North America, and English-speaking jurisdictions. The importance of Asia for the broader field is demonstrated here in original contributions that look thematically at issues from a general perspective, with special attention on how they have been treated in East Asian jurisdictions. The authors - leading comparativists from around the world - illuminate material from Asian jurisdictions on matters such as freedom of religion, constitutional courts, property rights, emergency regimes and the drafting process of constitutions. Together they present a picture of a region that is grappling with complex constitutional issues and is engaged with developments in the rest of the world, while at the same time pursuing distinctive local solutions that deserve close attention. This unique scholarly study will prove an important research tool for Asian scholars, constitutional lawyers within Asia and comparative constitutional scholars around the world.
The characters and stories found in comic art play a dominant role in contemporary popular culture throughout the world. In this first-of-its-kind work, Comic Art, Creativity and the Law examines how law and legal doctrine shapes the creative process as applied to comic art. The book examines the impact of contract law, copyright law (including termination rights, parody and ownership of characters), tax law and obscenity law has on the creative process. It considers how these laws enhance and constrain the process of creating comic art by examining the effect their often inconsistent and incoherent application has had on the lives of creators, retailers and readers of comic art. It uniquely explains the disparate results in two key comic book parody cases, the Winter Brothers case and the Air Pirates case, offering an explanation for the seemingly inconsistent results in those cases. Finally, it offers a detailed discussion and analysis of the history and operation of the `work for hire' doctrine in copyright law and its effect on comic art creators. Designed for academics, practitioners, students and fans of comic art, the book offers proposals for changes in those laws that constrain the creative process, as well as a glimpse into the future of comic art and the law.
This volume compiles influential and diverse readings on the timely subject of immigration. This collection includes work published by leading economists, as well as a number of important contributions made by influential legal scholars, with a focus on economic issues that are salient in debates over immigration policy. Professor Chang's introduction not only explains the contribution that each reading makes to our understanding of immigration, but also surveys the literature more broadly, putting the selected readings in context.
The authors examine developments in labor standards in global supply chains over the past thirty years, analyzing factors that create challenges and opportunities for improving working conditions. They illustrate the complex dynamics within and among key groups, including brands, suppliers, governments, workers and consumers. Using extended examples from China, Honduras, Bangladesh and the United States, as well as new quantitative evidence, the authors analyze stakeholders and mechanisms that create or obstruct opportunities for improving labor rights. They evaluate key clusters of actors and their interests in order to comprehensively map the complex interactions and relationships that make up global supply chains. Original data and analyses, including four in-depth case studies, present a systematic evaluation of the points of leverage for changing labor standards in sectors including apparel, footwear, and electronics. This exciting new contribution to a burgeoning field of study will benefit scholars of labor rights and human rights, as well as students with an interest in labor and working conditions. It also presents critical information for political scientists, NGOs, and practitioners looking to effect change in working conditions and learn more about key players in the global economy.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. Designed to be accessible yet rigorous, they offer concise and lucid surveys of the substantive and policy issues associated with discrete subject areas. Mark Tushnet, a world-renowned scholar of constitutional law, has excelled in extending and revising his essential introduction to comparative constitutional law. Through an analysis of topics at the cutting edge of contemporary scholarship, this authoritative study investigates constitution making, forms of constitutional review, proportionality analysis and its alternatives, and the development of a new `transparency' branch in constitutions around the world. Throughout, the book draws upon examples from a wide range of nations, demonstrating that the field of comparative constitutional law now truly encompasses the world. New to this revised and enlarged second edition: * Updated and extended material to encompass the developments in practice and scholarship since the original edition's publication back in 2014 * With substantial additional attention, Tushnet analyses abusive constitutionalism, the idea of the constituent power, eternity clauses and unconstitutional amendments * Recent developments in weak- and strong-form constitutional review are given fresh analysis, as well as an expanded consideration of third generation rights. Addressing the key issues of constitutional design and structure, this second edition will serve as an excellent up-to-date resource for students and scholars of comparative constitutional law.
The book introduces and describes the principal characteristics of the Canadian constitution, including Canada's institutional structure and the principal drivers of Canadian constitutional development. The constitution is set in its historical context, noting especially the complex interaction of national and regional societies that continues to shape the constitution of Canada. The book argues that aspects of the constitution are best understood in `agonistic' terms, as the product of a continuing encounter or negotiation, with each of the contending interpretations rooted in significantly different visions of the relationship among peoples and societies in Canada. It suggests how these agonistic relationships have, in complex ways, found expression in distinctive doctrines of Canadian constitutional law and how these doctrines represent approaches to constitutional legality that may be more widely applicable. As such, the book charts the Canadian expression of trans-societal constitutional themes: democracy; parliamentarism; the rule of law; federalism; human rights; and Indigenous rights, and describes the country that has resulted from the interplay of these themes. `The Constitution of Canada is a masterpiece - an outstanding and original study of the Canadian constitutional experience by one of Canada's leading legal scholars. Webber explains the history, characteristics and resourcefulness of the living constitution in non-technical and illuminating language. He also shows how the constitution is shaped by the engagement and interaction of the diverse people of Canada, who are simultaneously subjects and active citizens of it - a dynamic he calls "agonistic constitutionalism".' James Tully, Distinguished Professor, University of Victoria `Jeremy Webber has given us a rich, contextual account of Canada's constitution. Webber moves beyond the confines of constitutional texts and judicial decisions and grounds his account in the circumstances of the country's history. Only such an account can capture the deep diversity that is the hallmark of Canada's constitutional culture.' Peter Russell, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto
What does it mean to "act black" or "act white"? Is race merely a matter of phenotype, or does it come from the inflection of a person's speech, the clothes in her closet, how she chooses to spend her time and with whom she chooses to spend it? What does it mean to be "really" black, and who gets to make that judgment? In Acting White?, leading scholars of race and the law Devon Carbado and Mitu Gulati argue that, in spite of decades of racial progress and the pervasiveness of multicultural rhetoric, racial judgments are often based not just on skin color, but on how a person conforms to behavior stereotypically associated with a certain race. Specifically, racial minorities are judged on how they "perform" their race. This performance pervades every aspect of their daily life, whether it's the clothes they wear, the way they style their hair, the institutions with which they affiliate, their racial politics, the people they befriend, date or marry, where they live, how they speak, and their outward mannerisms and demeanor. Employing these cues, decision-makers decide not simply whether a person is black but the degree to which she or he is so. Relying on numerous examples from the workplace, higher education, and police interactions, the authors demonstrate that, for African Americans, the costs of "acting black" are high, and so are the pressures to "act white." But, as the authors point out, "acting white" has costs as well. Provocative yet never doctrinaire, Acting White? will boldly challenge your assumptions and make you think about racial prejudice from a fresh vantage point.
Constitucion de Guatemala de 1985 El 31 de mayo de 1985, despues de 9 meses del debate, la Asamblea Constituyente termino de redactar una nueva constitucion, que entro en vigor inmediatamente. El politico, Vinicio Cerezo, fue candidato a presidente por la Democracia Cristiana y gano las primeras elecciones sostenidas bajo la nueva constitucion.
La Constitucion de 1982 fue el resultado del fruto de negociaciones entre las fuerzas politicas y los militares. Se redujo el periodo presidencial, se establecio la no reeleccion;y le dieron a las Fuerzas Armadas la tutela del sistema, en el caso que alguno quisiera atentar contra la democracia y suprimir la constitucion. Bajo la nueva constitucion resulto elegido presidente constitucional el liberal, Roberto Suazo Cordova.
La promulgacion de la Constitucion de 1978 implico la culminacion de la llamada Transicion Espanola, que tuvo lugar como consecuencia de la muerte, el 20 de noviembre de 1975, del anterior jefe del Estado, el general Francisco Franco, precipitando una serie de acontecimientos politicos e historicos que transformaron el anterior regimen franquista en un Estado Social y Democratico de Derecho, bajo la forma politica de Monarquia Parlamentaria.
As demonstrated in any conflict, war is violent and causes grave harms to innocent persons, even when fought in compliance with just war criteria. In this book, Rosemary Kellison presents a feminist critique of just war reasoning, with particular focus on the issue of responsibility for harm to noncombatants. Contemporary just war reasoning denies the violence of war by suggesting that many of the harms caused by war are necessary, though regrettable, injuries for which inflicting agents bear no responsibility. She challenges this narrow understanding of responsibility through a feminist ethical approach that emphasizes the relationality of humans and the resulting asymmetries in their relative power and vulnerability. According to this approach, the powerful individual and collective agents who inflict harm during war are responsible for recognizing and responding to the vulnerable persons they harm, and thereby reducing the likelihood of future violence. Kellison's volume goes beyond abstract theoretical work to consider the real implications of an important ethical problem.
Can harsh interrogation techniques and torture ever be morally justified for a nation at war or under the threat of imminent attack? In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist strikes, the United States and other liberal democracies were forced to grapple once again with the issue of balancing national security concerns against the protection of individual civil and political rights. This question was particularly poignant when US forces took prisoners in Afghanistan and Iraq who arguably had information about additional attacks. In this volume, ethicist Paul Lauritzen takes on ethical debates about counterterrorism techniques that are increasingly central to US foreign policy and discusses the ramifications for the future of interrogation. Lauritzen examines how doctors, lawyers, psychologists, military officers, and other professionals addressed the issue of the appropriate limits in interrogating detainees. In the case of each of these professions, a vigorous debate ensued about whether the interrogation policy developed by the Bush administration violated codes of ethics governing professional practice. These codes are critical, according to Lauritzen, because they provide resources for democracies and professionals seeking to balance concerns about safety with civil liberties, while also shaping the character of those within these professional guilds. This volume argues that some of the techniques used at Guantanamo Bay and elsewhere were morally impermissible; nevertheless, the healthy debates that raged among professionals provide hope that we may safeguard human rights and the rule of law more effectively in the future.
Research Handbook on Human Rights and Intellectual Property is a comprehensive reference work on the intersection of human rights and intellectual property law. Resulting from a field-specific expertise of over 40 scholars and professionals of world renown, the book explores the practical and doctrinal implications of human rights considerations on intellectual property law and jurisprudence. The various chapters of the book scrutinize issues related to interactions among and between norms of different legal families and the role of human rights in the development of a balanced intellectual property legal framework. The innovative approach of the book is reflected in its structure: the first part provides a foundation for the human rights and intellectual property discourse; the second sheds light on the human rights implications for the development of intellectual property; and the third (characterised by a human rights perspective) is devoted to the specific issues of interaction between human rights and intellectual property. Exploring in depth a variety of interactions between human rights and intellectual property law, the book will be of great interest to academics and experts working within human rights, intellectual property, development, international relations and international public law.
Known for attentive revising and streamlining, the authors continue to strengthen the distinctive features of their best-selling text-its currency, scholarship, and the inclusion of both concurring and dissenting opinions-while closely following the pressing issues the Roberts Court has taken up in recent years. Author commentary preceding excerpted opinions includes: the case Facts and key Arguments made by the attorneys on both sides; Aftermath boxes that reveal what happened to litigants after a ruling; Global Perspective boxes that explain how U.S. case law compares to other nations; and NEW to these editions, Annotated Readings that give direction about where to go for more information.
This timely volume by distinguished scholar Gunter Frankenberg offers a sophisticated analysis and sharp critique of the reactions of nations such as the US, Great Britain and Germany to perceived terrorist threats, organized crime actions and other political emergencies that have occurred in recent years. The author demonstrates how governments have increasingly sacrificed the rule of law and human rights for the benefit of security programs - as evidenced by a rise in extraordinary measures such as surveillance, detention and torture - thus normalizing the state of exception and privileging preemptive, proactive and coercive methods of political engineering. An interdisciplinary and multi-jurisdictional study, this book develops and implements a unique theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding the rise of technical-political rationality and the fall of the rule of law, and submits both to a firm critique. Particularly relevant in light of current controversies, this provocative book will appeal to scholars and students of international and constitutional law, legal theory, political science, and terrorism studies.
HATE dispels misunderstandings plaguing our perennial debates about hate speech vs. free speech, showing that the First Amendment approach promotes free speech and democracy, equality, and societal harmony. We hear too many incorrect assertions that hate speech which has no generally accepted definition is either absolutely unprotected or absolutely protected from censorship. Rather, U.S. law allows government to punish hateful or discriminatory speech in specific contexts when it directly causes imminent serious harm, but government may not punish such speech solely because its message is disfavored, disturbing, or vaguely feared to possibly contribute to some future harm. When U.S. officials formerly wielded such broad censorship power, they suppressed dissident speech, including equal rights advocacy. Likewise, current politicians have attacked Black Lives Matter protests as hate speech. Hate speech censorship proponents stress the potential harms such speech might further: discrimination, violence, and psychic injuries. However, there has been little analysis of whether censorship effectively counters the feared injuries. Citing evidence from many countries, this book shows that hate speech laws are at best ineffective and at worst counterproductive. Their inevitably vague terms invest enforcing officials with broad discretion; predictably, regular targets are minority views and speakers. Therefore, prominent social justice advocates in the U.S. and beyond maintain that the best way to resist hate and promote equality is not censorship, but rather, vigorous counterspeech and activism.
This ambitious book takes up the grand challenge to design regulatory thinking for a global future beyond wealth and growth, and towards social sustainability. Assuming a `South World' perspective on market regulation and social sustainability, the authors present the options and possibilities for radically repositioning regulatory principle. The analysis of intersections between the market economies of the South and North reconsiders fundamental regulatory relationships and outcomes motivated by sustainability rather than individual wealth creation and economic growth models. The book aims to return economy to society at a critical global juncture, demanding new and creative regulatory intervention outside the regulatory state model. Along with new perspectives on regulation, the analysis offers a better understanding of the problematic future of global regulation by revealing the different reasons for fragmentation within and between very different regulatory spaces. Students of social development and scholars researching market economics and the global crisis will find this book to be a valuable and challenging resource. Policy makers and readers interested in law and regulation will also benefit from the thoughtful discussion presented in this volume.
En los presentes decretos Ignacio Agramonte, lider de la independencia cubana, proclamo la libertad de los esclavos y participo en la redaccion y aprobacion de la Constitucion de Guaimaro;en la que se proclaman los poderes facticos que regirian la primera Guerra de Independencia de Cuba con respecto a Espana.
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