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The Syrian crisis has confounded political leaders and experts who forecast a rapid fall of the regime. This monumental error of interpretation has had tragic consequences for the unfolding of the crisis and its slide into a frightful civil war with regional and international ramifications. This book looks at Syrian reality in a new light. By analysing twenty-five constitutions and constitutional texts and proposing an innovative classification of the different political regimes that have shaped Syria over the last one hundred years, the author retraces the country's intense history and the persistence of a Syrian model defined by the Founding Fathers. If, on emerging from this war, Syria maintains its unity and gives itself a democratic regime reflecting its society, then the concept of Syria may find a new lease of life and Syria will once again be perceived as an idea full of promises.
This Commentary provides an article-by-article summary of the TEU, the TFEU, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights, offering a quick reference to the provisions of the Treaties and how they are interpreted and applied in practice. Written by a team of contributors drawn from the Legal Service of the European Commission and academia, the Commentary offers expert guidance to practitioners and academics seeking fast access to the Treaties and current practice. The Commentary follows a set structure, offering a short overview of the Article, the Article text itself, a key references list including essential case law and legislation, and a structured commentary on the Article itself. The editors and contributors combine experience in practice with a strong academic background and have published widely on a variety of EU law subjects.
This new title in the Juta’s Pocket Companions series will serve as an ideal companion to the Mine Health and Safety Act & Regulations Pocket Statute.
Understanding the Mine Health and Safety Act is derived from the highly regarded Commentary on the Mine Health & Safety Act by Masilo and Rautenbach, the leading South African work on this Act.
The book contains commentary on a variety of sections contained in the eight chapters of the Act, set out in a manner that ensures that discussions are accessible to all without sacrificing detail. All commentary is supported by footnotes containing further references as well as citation of relevant case law.
The first wave of democratization in the United States - the removal of property and taxpaying qualifications for the right to vote - was accompanied by the disenfranchisement of African American men, with the political actors most supportive of the former also the most insistent upon the latter. The United States is not unique in this respect: other canonical cases of democratization also saw simultaneous expansions and restrictions of political rights, yet this pattern has never been fully detailed or explained. Through case studies of the USA, the UK, and France, Disenfranchising Democracy offers the first cross-national account of the relationship between democratization and disenfranchisement. It develops a political institutional perspective to explain their co-occurrence, focusing on the politics of coalition-building and the visions of political community coalitions advance in support of their goals. Bateman sheds new light on democratization, connecting it to the construction of citizenship and cultural identities.
The insolvency of states is by no means a rare or new phenomenon. Despite this, it still seems to be widely felt that states do not go bankrupt. As of yet, there are no regulated insolvency proceedings for states. This book examines the current mechanisms for solving sovereign debt crises. It presents an analysis of their weaknesses and shows possibilities for dealing with such crises in the future. In this respect, the work focusses on crisis resolution measures at European level: the aid packages for Greece, the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stabilisation Facility and the European Stability Mechanism. These are examined for their appropriateness as well as whether they contain elements of insolvency law. Ultimately, it explores possible insolvency proceedings for states at EU level and their implementation options.
This volume is a collection of papers presented at a conference held at the Rand Afrikaans University in September 1997. The purpose of the conference was to promote understanding of the legal theoretical problems involved in the interpretation of substantive law in the new constitutional democracy in South Africa. The conference was divided into six sessions, two on jurisprudence, two on common law, and two on constitutional law. Two papers and two responses were presented in each session.
Immigration and Refugee Law in Russia confronts the issue of access to justice and the realisation of human rights for migrants and refugees in Russia. It focuses on everyday experiences of immigration and refugee laws and how they work 'in action' in Russia. This investigation presupposes that the reality is much more complex than is generally assumed, as it is mediated by peoples' varied positionalities. Agnieszka Kubal's primary focus is on people, their stories and experiences: migrants, asylum seekers, refugees, immigration lawyers, Russian judges, and the Federal Migration Service officers. These actors speak with different voices, profess different ideologies, and hold opposite worldviews; what they hold in common is their importance to our understanding of migration processes. By this focus on individual views and opinions, Kubal highlights the complexity and nuance of everyday experiences of the law, breaking away from the portrayal of Russia as a legal and ideological monolith.
Are Supreme Court justices swayed by the political environment that surrounds them? The intuitive response of most is "yes," and most point to trends in electoral politics as well as the nature of the relationship between the three branches of government. It is not that simple, however. As the eminent law and politics scholars Neal Devins and Larry Baum show in The Company They Keep, justices today are reacting to far more subtle social drivers than pressure from other branches of government or mass public opinion. In particular, by making use of social psychology, they examine why Justices are apt to follow the lead of the elite social networks that they are a part of. That is, the justices take cues primarily from the people who are closest to them and whose approval they care most about: political, social, and professional elites. The result is a court in which the justices' ideological stances reflect the dominant views in the appointing president's party. Devins and Baum argue that today's partisanship on the Court is also tied to the emergence of the conservative legal network-a social network that reinforces the conservative leanings of Republican appointees. For earlier Courts, elite social networks were not divided by political party or ideology, but for today's Court, elite social networks are largely bifurcated by partisan and ideological loyalties, and the Justices reflect that bifurcation. A fascinating examination the factors that impact decision-making, The Company They Keep will reshape our understanding of the contemporary Supreme Court.
Companion website: www.oup.com/klamert This Commentary provides an article-by-article summary of the TEU, the TFEU, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights, offering a quick reference to the provisions of the Treaties and how they are interpreted and applied in practice. Written by a team of contributors drawn from the Legal Service of the European Commission and academia, the Commentary offers expert guidance to practitioners and academics seeking fast access to the Treaties and current practice. The Commentary follows a set structure, offering a short overview of the Article, the Article text itself, a key references list including essential case law and legislation, and a structured commentary on the Article itself. The editors and contributors combine experience in practice with a strong academic background and have published widely on a variety of EU law subjects. Commentary on the EU Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights: Digital Pack includes a digital app with enhanced user functionalities that ensures that you have access to the text and all your accompanying notes wherever you are. The app is available on PC, Mac, Android devices, iPad or iPhone
In 1966, thirteen black employees of the Duke Power Company's Dan River Plant in Draper, North Carolina, filed a lawsuit against the company challenging its requirement of a high school diploma or a passing grade on an intelligence test for internal transfer or promotion. In the groundbreaking decision Griggs v. Duke Power (1971), the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, finding such employment practices violated Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 when they disparately affected minorities. In doing so, the court delivered a significant anti-employment discrimination verdict. Legal scholars rank Griggs v. Duke Power on par with Brown v. Board of Education (1954) in terms of its impact on eradicating race discrimination from American institutions. In Race, Labor, and Civil Rights, Robert Samuel Smith offers the first full-length historical examination of this important case and its connection to civil rights activism during the second half of the 1960s.
Smith explores all aspects of Griggs, highlighting the sustained energy of the grassroots civil rights community and the critical importance of courtroom activism. Smith shows that after years of nonviolent, direct action protests, African Americans remained vigilant in the 1960s, heading back to the courts to reinvigorate the civil rights acts in an effort to remove the lingering institutional bias left from decades of overt racism. He asserts that alongside the more boisterous expressions of black radicalism of the late sixties, foot soldiers and local leaders of the civil rights community -- many of whom were working-class black southerners -- mustered ongoing legal efforts to mold Title 7 into meaningful law. Smith also highlights the persistent judicial activism of the NAACP-Legal Defense and Education Fund and the ascension of the second generation of civil rights attorneys.
By exploring the virtually untold story of Griggs v. Duke Power, Smith's enlightening study connects the case and the campaign for equal employment opportunity to the broader civil rights movement and reveals the civil rights community's continued spirit of legal activism well into the 1970s.
The Second Amendment is among the most recognized provisions of the Constitution. It is also perhaps the most misunderstood. Common misconceptions about the amendment - what it forbids, what it permits, how it functions as law - distort the gun debate and America's constitutional culture. In The Positive Second Amendment, Blocher and Miller provide the first comprehensive post-Heller account of the history, theory, and law of the right to keep and bear arms. Their aim is not to pick sides in the gun debate, but rather to show how a positive account of the 'constitutional' Second Amendment differs from its political cousin. Understanding the right to keep and bear arms as constitutional law will challenge many deeply held beliefs. But it may also provide a better way to negotiate the seemingly intractable issues that afflict America's debate over gun rights and regulation.
The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual: Commentary and Critique provides an irreplaceable resource for any politician, international expert, or military practitioner who wishes to understand the approach taken by the American military in the complex range of modern conflicts. Readers will understand the strengths and weaknesses of US legal and policy pronouncements and the reasons behind the modern American way of war, whether US forces deploy alone or in coalitions. This book provides unprecedented and precise analysis of the US approach to the most pressing problems in modern wars, including controversies surrounding use of human shields, fighting in urban areas, the use of cyberwar and modern weaponry, expanding understanding of human rights, and the rise of ISIS. This group of authors, including academics and military practitioners, provides a wealth of expertise that demystifies overlapping threads of law and policy amidst the world's seemingly intractable conflicts.
Companies, lawyers, privacy officers and marketing and IT professionals are increasingly facing privacy issues. While information is freely available, it can be difficult to grasp a problem quickly, without getting lost in details and advocacy. This is where Determann's Field Guide to Data Privacy Law comes into its own - identifying key issues and providing concise practical guidance for an increasingly complex field shaped by rapid change in international laws, technology and society. This third revised edition includes significant changes to data privacy law since 2015 such as the challenges companies face as they move data to cloud solutions. With data privacy law enforcement at an all time high, readers will benefit from this introduction to key data privacy concepts and the useful practical guidance on starting, maintaining and auditing compliance programs. Step-by-step direction on drafting privacy documentation is provided, with `how-to' suggestions for tackling other tasks and projects. Finally, the book offers an A-Z list of hot topics, organized by commonly used words and terms. This should be on the desk and in the briefcase of every compliance officer and corporate counsel. New to this edition: * updated checklists and guidance based on EU General Data Protection Regulation and other new laws and cases * in-depth discussion and comparison of PROs and CONs of the new EU-U.S. Privacy Shield v. other international transfer compliance mechanisms. * data residency v. retention v. privacy law guidance. Key Features: * A-Z of data privacy provides snapshot of key topics * international scope: concise overview of the practical requirements of data privacy compliance worldwide * practical guide on starting, maintaining and auditing privacy compliance programs * advice on drafting documentation gives the user the tools to complete an end-to-end process * glossaries of key acronyms and terms help the user to navigate through the field * includes sample documentation and checklists to ensure the clearest possible guidance * clear structure facilitates quick reference.
The various reports on cultural rights by UN Special Rapporteur Faridah Shaheed have provided a new universal standard for topics ranging from cultural diversity, cultural heritage, the right to artistic freedom and the effects of today's intellectual property regimes. This book's team of international contributors reflects upon the many aspects of cultural rights discussed in Faridah Shaheed's reports and discusses how cultural rights support cultural diversity, foster intercultural dialogue and contribute to inclusive social, economic and political development. Drawing from a range of disciplines, the contributing authors explore the meaning and position of cultural rights and the implications these may have for international relations, the international legal order and cross-cultural understanding, while also offering recommendations for the future. Key topics discussed include the link between culture and science, gender and human rights, rights to artistic freedom, the importance of historical narratives and the impact of advertising and marketing on the enjoyment of cultural rights. This worthwhile contribution to the current cultural rights debate will be of interest to academics and students teaching and studying in the fields of culture, heritage and human rights as well as policymakers who are working within cultural rights related issues.
The practice of armed conflict has changed radically in the last decade. With eminent contributors from legal, government and military backgrounds, this Research Handbook addresses the legal implications of remote warfare and its significance for combatants, civilians, policymakers and international lawyers. Primarily focused on the legality of all forms of remote warfare, including targeted killings by drone, cyber-attacks, and autonomous weapons, each chapter gives a compelling insight beyond the standard and reactionary criticisms of these technologies. Current assumptions of remote warfare are challenged and discussed from a variety of international perspectives. These include governing the use of force, humanitarian law, criminal law, and human rights law. Contributors consider the essential features of current warfare regulations, and test their strength for controlling these new technologies. Suggestions are made for the future development of law to control the limits of modern remote warfare, with a particular focus on the possibility of autonomous weapons. This is an essential read for academics and students of jus ad bellum, international humanitarian law, criminal law and human rights. Students of political science, governance and military studies will also find this a thought-provoking insight into modern warfare techniques and the complex legal issues they create.
Renmin Chinese Law Review, Volume 5 is the fifth work in a series of annual volumes on contemporary Chinese law which bring together the work of recognized scholars from China, offering a window on current legal research in China. Volume 5 gives detailed discussion and analysis on significant topical subjects such as regulation, public governance, fair trade practice and extra territoriality. Eminent contributors also address the areas of trademarks and patenting, urban planning, life insurance and criminal law. With an ever-increasing global interest in China's legal approach, this extensive and diverse work will appeal to scholars and professionals of Chinese law, society and politics, as well as members of diplomatic communities with an interest in Chinese law.
Data not only represent an integral part of the identity of a person, they also represent, together with other essentials, an integral part of the identity of a state. Keeping control over such data is equally important for both an individual and for a state to retain their sovereign existence. This thought-provoking book elaborates on the assumption that information privacy is, in its essence, comparable to information sovereignty. This seemingly rudimentary observation serves as the basis for an analysis of various information instruments in domestic and international law. Information Sovereignty combines a philosophical and methodological analysis of the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy. Providing insights into previously unexplored parallels between information privacy and information sovereignty, it examines cross-border discovery, cybersecurity and cyber-defence operations, and legal regimes for cross-border data transfers, encompassing practical discussions from a fresh perspective. In addition, it offers an accessible overview of complex theoretical matters in the domain of Internet legal theory and international law and, crucially, a method to resolve situations where informational domains of individuals and/or states collide. This pioneering state-of the-art assessment of information law and legal theory is a vital resource for students, academics, policy-makers and practitioners alike, seeking a guide to the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy.
Citizenship is an ever-evolving and expanding concept. European citizenship is all the more so. This book considers the role that the institutional design of the European Union plays in extending the rights of EU citizens. With chapters from leading researchers in the field, Democratic Empowerment in the European Union outlines the core themes relating to democratic empowerment in the EU. It examines the channels that are being made available by EU policy makers to help increase democratic participation, as well as the hindrances to, and the problems associated with, democratic empowerment. With its groundbreaking account of the ways in which EU citizens are hampered in exercising their democratic citizenship, and proposals for how they might be further empowered to do so, this book is an important addition to the literature on the subject, and offers an excellent introduction to this crucial issue. Democratic Empowerment in the European Union will be essential reading for students of politics and both social and public policy with interests in democracy and citizenship, as well as European policy makers seeking to understand and encourage democratic engagement.
This book aims to introduce concrete and innovative proposals for an holistic approach to supranational human rights justice through a hands-on legal exercise: the rewriting of decisions of supranational human rights monitoring bodies. The contributing scholars have thus redrafted crucial passages of landmark human rights judgments and decisions, `as if human rights law were really one', borrowing or taking inspiration from developments and interpretations throughout the whole multi-layered human rights protection system. In addition to the rewriting exercise, the contributors have outlined the methodology and/or theoretical framework that guided their approaches and explain how human rights monitoring bodies may adopt an integrated approach to human rights law. Integrated Human Rights in Practice shows that even within the current fragmented landscape of international human rights law, it is possible to integrate human rights to a significantly higher degree than is generally the case. Redrafted opinions deal with major contemporary issues such as conscientious objection by health service providers, intersectional discrimination of minority women, the rights of persons with disabilities, the rights of indigenous peoples against powerful economic interests, and the human rights impact of austerity measures. This book's novel perspective and applied, concrete examples make it an invaluable resource for academics and students as well as judges, lawyers, and treaty body members.
Recent revelations, by Edward Snowden and others, of the vast network of government spying enabled by modern technology have raised major concerns both in the European Union and the United States on how to protect privacy in the face of increasing governmental surveillance. This book brings together some of the leading experts in the fields of constitutional law, criminal law and human rights from the US and the EU to examine the protection of privacy in the digital era, as well as the challenges that counter-terrorism cooperation between governments pose to human rights. It examines the state of privacy protections on both sides of the Atlantic, the best mechanisms for preserving privacy, and whether the EU and the US should develop joint transnational mechanisms to protect privacy on a reciprocal basis. As technology enables governments to know more and more about their citizens, and about the citizens of other nations, this volume offers critical perspectives on how best to respond to one of the most challenging developments of the twenty-first century.
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