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Data not only represent an integral part of the identity of a person, they also represent, together with other essentials, an integral part of the identity of a state. Keeping control over such data is equally important for both an individual and for a state to retain their sovereign existence. This thought-provoking book elaborates on the assumption that information privacy is, in its essence, comparable to information sovereignty. This seemingly rudimentary observation serves as the basis for an analysis of various information instruments in domestic and international law. Information Sovereignty combines a philosophical and methodological analysis of the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy. Providing insights into previously unexplored parallels between information privacy and information sovereignty, it examines cross-border discovery, cybersecurity and cyber-defence operations, and legal regimes for cross-border data transfers, encompassing practical discussions from a fresh perspective. In addition, it offers an accessible overview of complex theoretical matters in the domain of Internet legal theory and international law and, crucially, a method to resolve situations where informational domains of individuals and/or states collide. This pioneering state-of the-art assessment of information law and legal theory is a vital resource for students, academics, policy-makers and practitioners alike, seeking a guide to the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy.
Renmin Chinese Law Review, Volume 5 is the fifth work in a series of annual volumes on contemporary Chinese law which bring together the work of recognized scholars from China, offering a window on current legal research in China. Volume 5 gives detailed discussion and analysis on significant topical subjects such as regulation, public governance, fair trade practice and extra territoriality. Eminent contributors also address the areas of trademarks and patenting, urban planning, life insurance and criminal law. With an ever-increasing global interest in China's legal approach, this extensive and diverse work will appeal to scholars and professionals of Chinese law, society and politics, as well as members of diplomatic communities with an interest in Chinese law.
Recent revelations, by Edward Snowden and others, of the vast network of government spying enabled by modern technology have raised major concerns both in the European Union and the United States on how to protect privacy in the face of increasing governmental surveillance. This book brings together some of the leading experts in the fields of constitutional law, criminal law and human rights from the US and the EU to examine the protection of privacy in the digital era, as well as the challenges that counter-terrorism cooperation between governments pose to human rights. It examines the state of privacy protections on both sides of the Atlantic, the best mechanisms for preserving privacy, and whether the EU and the US should develop joint transnational mechanisms to protect privacy on a reciprocal basis. As technology enables governments to know more and more about their citizens, and about the citizens of other nations, this volume offers critical perspectives on how best to respond to one of the most challenging developments of the twenty-first century.
A comprehensive overview of the field of comparative administrative law that builds on the first edition with many new and revised chapters, additional topics and extended geographical coverage. This research handbook's broad, multi-method approach combines history and social science with more strictly legal analyses. This new edition demonstrates the growth and dynamism of recent efforts - spearheaded by the first edition - to stimulate comparative research in administrative law and public law more generally, reaching across different countries and scholarly disciplines. A particular focus is on administrative independence with its manifold implications for separation of powers, democratic self-government, and the boundary between law, politics, and policy. Several chapters highlight the tensions between impartial expertise and public accountability; others consider administrative litigation and the role of the courts in reviewing both individual decisions and secondary norms. The book concludes by asking how administrative law is shaping and is being shaped by the changing boundaries of the state, especially shifting boundaries between the public and the private, and the national and the supranational domains. This extensive and interdisciplinary appraisal of the field will be a vital resource for scholars and students of administrative and comparative law worldwide, and for public officials and representatives of interest groups engaged with government policy implementation and regulation.
The legal system is awash with excessive and incomprehensible information. Yet many of us assume that the unrelenting torrent of information pouring into various legal programs is both inevitable and unstoppable. We have become complacent; but it does not have to be this way. Incomprehensible! argues that surrendering to incomprehensibility is a bad mistake. Drawing together evidence from diverse fields such as consumer protection, financial regulation, patents, chemical control, and administrative and legislative processes, this book identifies a number of important legal programs that are built on the foundational assumption that 'more information is better'. Each of these legal processes have been designed in ways that ignore the imperative of meaningful communication. To rectify this systemic problem, the law must be re-designed to pay careful attention to the problem of incomprehensibility.
The place of human rights in EU law has been a central issue in contemporary debates about the character of the European Union as a political organisation. This Research Handbook explores the principles underlying fundamental rights norms and the way such norms operate in the case law of the Court of Justice. Leading scholars in the field discuss both the effect of rights on substantive areas of EU law and the role of EU institutions in protecting them. Organised into three parts, their contributions examine the current state of the law as well as the direction of future developments in the field. The first part discusses the normative and doctrinal framework for the protection of human rights in the EU. The second part focuses on EU external relations and on the interaction between EU law and other sources of human rights rules such as the European Convention on Human Rights and international law. Finally, the third part considers the influence of human rights in areas where the EU takes action. Timely and astute, this Research Handbook will appeal to students and scholars of European law and human rights law. It will also prove a valuable and comprehensive resource for practitioners, policymakers, NGO and government officials.
In this fifth edition of his bestselling classic, Jay Feinman provides an authoritative and up-to-date overview of the American legal system. In the years since the publication of the fourth edition, there have been many important developments on the legal front. The Supreme Court has issued important decisions on presidential powers, freedom of religion, and personal liberty. Police-involved shootings and the rise of Black Lives Matter has impacted the court system too. The rise of arbitration at the expense of jury trials has impacted affected the rights of consumers, and internet law remains in a state of constant change. This fully updated fifth edition of Law 101 accounts for all this these developments and more, as Feinman once again provides a clear introduction to American law. The book covers all the main subjects taught in the first year of law school, and discusses every facet of the American legal tradition, including constitutional law, the litigation process, and criminal, property, and contracts law. To accomplish this, Feinman brings in the most noteworthy, infamous, and often outrageous examples and cases. We learn about the case involving scalding coffee that cost McDonald's half a million dollars, the murder trial in Victorian London that gave us the legal definition of insanity, and the epochal decision of Marbury vs. Madison that gave the Supreme Court the power to declare state and federal law unconstitutional. A key to learning about the law is learning understanding legal vocabulary, and Feinman helps by clarifying terms like "due process" and "equal protection," as well as by drawing distinctions between terms like "murder" and "manslaughter." Above all, though, is that Feinman reveals to readers of all kinds that despite its complexities and quirks, the law is can be understood by everyone. Perfect for students contemplating law school, journalists covering legislature, or even casual fans of "court-television" shows, Law 101 is a clear and accessible introduction to the American legal system.
In the first interdisciplinary work focused on the European Ombudsman, expert observers of EU institutional affairs provide a thorough evaluation of the Ombudsman and its constitutional role, powers, activities and future potential. The book addresses the Ombudsman's impact on accountability in the EU's executive branch and offers new suggestions for the further development of the practice of `ombuds review'. The contributions to the discussion within this book come from law, political science, administrative science and economics. Looking at comparative developments in EU law and policy they critically review, from a variety of perspectives and methodologies, the Ombudsman's role in the review of activity of EU institutions, bodies, offices and agencies. They then evaluate this role, and its achievements, against the original objectives for creating an Ombudsman some 20 years ago. This timely book will appeal to scholars and advanced students of the EU political and legal system. It is a also must-read for policy advisors and practitioners looking to enhance their understanding of alternative modes of dispute settlement and anyone interested in the future of administration in the EU.
This book provides unique insights into the practice of democratic constitutionalism in one of the world's most legally and politically significant regions. It combines contributions from leading Latin American and global scholars to provide `bottom up' and `top down' insights about the lessons to be drawn from the distinctive constitutional experiences of countries in Latin America. In doing so, it also draws on a rich array of legal and interdisciplinary perspectives. Ultimately, it shows both the promise of democratic constitutions as a vehicle for social, economic and political change, and the variation in the actual constitutional experiences of different countries on the ground - or the limits to constitutions as a locus for broader social change. This book presents new perspectives on recurrent topics and debates that enrich comparative constitutional law in other regions of the world, both in the Global South and the Global North. The fine-tuned, in-depth approach of the contributors brings rigorous scholarship to this institutionally diverse and significant region, illuminating the under-explored relationship between constitutionalism, politics, ideology and leadership. This unique and challenging study will prove to be an indispensable tool, not only for academics interested in Latin America but for comparative constitutional law scholars across the globe.
Notwithstanding increases in the scope for interaction between European and national courts, little research has been undertaken into the potential impact of institutional cooperation and dialogue in European private law making. This coherent collection of original chapters provides unique insights into these developments - with a particular focus on consumer law, and changes in national civil procedure via substantive law enforcement - from a broad range of stakeholders, including academics and judges from the EU and the US. Dialogue of both a vertical (between national and European courts) and horizontal (between national courts) nature is visible in the growing number of preliminary references to the CJEU in European private law. Combined with activism on the part of national courts and the growing importance of regulators, this dialogue brings about new forms of development of European private law. This book offers a case-based analysis of these processes, highlighting the need to focus on the instruments of dialogue and cooperation, and pressing beyond the prevailing focus on constitutional dialogue to reveal a new perspective on the private law sphere. Judicial Cooperation in European Private Law will appeal to scholars, students, practising lawyers and judges interested in the creation and development of European private law at both national and EU levels.
This book aims to give readers an insight into two dynamics that influence the phenomenon of autonomous public bodies (APBs) in the European legal sphere today. Stephanie De Somer first studies both phenomena - EU impulse and national restraint - as standalone trends and then addresses the tensions between them. The first trend covers EU legislation that obliges Member States to entrust the implementation of substantive supranational rules to entities that enjoy a considerable degree of autonomy vis-a-vis central government institutions. The second trend refers to a counter-movement at the national level, where initiatives have been taken to rationalize and restrain the use of APBs. Central to the book is the somewhat controversial question of whether the EU, which is itself often criticized for lacking democratic legitimacy, is disregarding fundamental principles regarding the democratic legitimacy of national administrations when imposing these institutional obligations on its Member States. As far as domestic law is concerned, the book offers an integrated approach that truly compares national legal systems. De Somer also incorporates the results of in-depth interviews with representatives of APBs in Belgium and the Netherlands. Focusing on these two contemporary trends, this book demonstrates the extent to which two fundamental systems of rules and principles increasingly influence and transform the phenomenon of APBs This book is relevant not only for legal academia, but also for scholars working in the fields of political science and public administration. National legislatures, governments, regulatory bodies, data protection authorities and other APBs may also find this book useful.
Countries are increasingly introducing data localization laws and data export restrictions, threatening digital globalization and inhibiting cloud computing's adoption despite its acknowledged benefits. Through a cloud computing lens, this multi-disciplinary book examines the personal data transfers restriction under the EU Data Protection Directive (including the EU-US Privacy Shield and General Data Protection Regulation). It covers historical objectives and practical problems, showing why the focus should move from physical data location to effective jurisdiction over those controlling access to intelligible data and control of access to data through security measures. The book further discusses data localization laws' failure to solve concerns regarding the topical and contentious issue of mass state surveillance. Its arguments are also relevant to other data localization laws, cross-border transfers of non personal data and transfers not involving cloud computing. Comprehensive yet accessible, this book is of great value to academics in law, policy, computer science and technology. It is also highly relevant to cloud computing/technology organisations and other businesses in the EU and beyond, data privacy professionals, policymakers and regulators.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of children's human rights, collecting the works of leading authorities as well as new scholars grappling with emerging ideas of `children' and `rights.' Beginning with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the most widely ratified human rights treaty in the world, this book explores the theory, doctrine, and implementation of the legal frameworks addressing child labor, child soldiers, and child trafficking, as well as children's socio-economic rights, including their rights to education. With an original introduction by the Professor Stark, this topical volume is an invaluable resource for scholars, students, and activists
In its 1908 decision for Winters v. United States, the Supreme Court affirmed a lower-court ruling guaranteeing the Gros Ventre and Assiniboine Indian tribes reserved water rights in the Milk River. Based on the same 1888 treaty that had created the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana, the Winters decision has with some controversy influenced American Indian water rights and western water development as a whole ever since. Indian Reserved Water Rights by John Shurts is the first book-length historical study of the Winters case and its early effects. In contrast to previous explanations of the decision, Shurts demonstrates how the litigation and its outcome fit well within the existing legal context and ongoing water development in the Milk River Valley. He also analyzes the Winters doctrine during its earliest years, primarily through an examination of water-rights litigation on the Uintah Reservation in Utah, showing that it had a lively existence in those years contrary to what has been understood.
The Crown stands at the heart of the New Zealand, British, Australian and Canadian constitutions as the ultimate source of legal authority and embodiment of state power. A familiar icon of the Westminster model of government, it is also an enigma. Even constitutional experts struggle to define its attributes and boundaries: who or what is the Crown and how is it embodied? Is it the Queen, the state, the government, a corporation sole or aggregate, a relic of feudal England, a metaphor, or a mask for the operation of executive power? How are its powers exercised? How have the Crowns of different Commonwealth countries developed? The Shapeshifting Crown combines legal and anthropological perspectives to provide novel insights into the Crown's changing nature and its multiple, ambiguous and contradictory meanings. It sheds new light onto the development of the state in postcolonial societies and constitutional monarchy as a cultural system.
Mark Tushnet presents a concise yet comprehensive overview of free expression law, understood as a form of constitutional law. Confronting the major issues of free expression - speech critical of government, libel law, hate speech regulation, and the emerging challenges posed by new technologies - he evaluates the key questions and potential difficulties for future generations. Contrasting the United States with current law in Europe and elsewhere, Tushnet argues that freedom of expression around the world should reflect deference to legislative judgements, unless those judgements reflect inadequate deliberation or bias, and that much of the existing free expression law is consistent with this view. Key features include: * Comprehensible for both students of law and non-specialist readers interested in freedom of expression from a legal perspective * Viewpoints from multiple legal systems including analysis of decisions made by the US Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights * Explains the two legal doctrinal structures: categorical, rule-bound approaches and standards-based approaches * List of key references for further reading, allowing readers to extend their knowledge of the topic past the advanced introduction. This Advanced Introduction will be an essential foundational text for students of law, as well as those from a political science background who can view freedom of expression from a legal perspective.
The last twenty years have witnessed an extraordinary measure of globalisation of finance and trade, seen most prominently in the establishment of the World Trade Organisation and other organisations inspired by the ‘Washington Consensus’. At a national level, the exercise of those bodies’ executive and administrative authority is typically regulated by administrative law in its various guises. The rapid process of globalising economic power raises vital questions about its global regulation, in the absence of supra-national institutions and rules dedicated to this task.
This volume brings together papers given at a workshop held in Cape Town in March 2008, which was a joint venture between the New York University Law School and the Faculty of Law at the University of Cape Town. The papers critically explore the concept of Global Administrative Law in theory and its relevance to developing countries; the efficacy of regulatory regimes focussed on international trade and finance; and recent developments in the crucially important area of intellectual property law. The lessons learned in the process will inform intellectual debate and assist in the development of practical measures in pursuit of the good governance of global power through the law.
Every day, in every court and tribunal, advocates represent us all - Crown and defendant, landlord and tenant, rich and poor, honest and false alike. What are the duties to court and client? This book surveys the role of advocates at every stage of their work.
This book explores the legitimacy of political asylum applications in the US and UK through an examination of the varieties of evidence, narratives, and documentation with which they are assessed. Credibility is the central issue in determining the legitimacy of political asylum seekers, but the line between truth and lies is often elusive, partly because desperate people often have to use deception to escape persecution. The vetting process has become infused with a climate of suspicion that not only assesses the credibility of an applicant's story and differentiates between the economic migrant and the person fleeing persecution, but also attempts to determine whether an applicant represents a future threat to the receiving country. This innovative text approaches the problem of deception from several angles, including increased demand for evidence, uses of new technologies to examine applicants' narratives, assessments of forged documents, attempts to differentiate between victims and persecutors, and ways that cultural misunderstandings can compromise the process. Essential reading for researchers and students of Political Science, International Studies, Refugee and Migration Studies, Human Rights, Anthropology, Sociology, Law, Public Policy, and Narrative Studies.
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