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This book explores the regulations, goals and functioning of preparatory proceedings in four Nordic countries and eight former communist countries. The contributions discuss whether, and how the regulation and practice of preparatory proceedings enhance swift civil justice that is both inexpensive and has quality outcomes. A central question is whether the main hearing model of civil justice, in which preclusion of new evidence and claims occur at the end of the preparatory stage, results in greater efficiency, or whether the functioning of civil proceedings largely depends on other factors. It also examines regulation and use of court-connected mediation and judicial settlement efforts. This book offers comparative insights into the functioning of the preparatory civil proceedings in the countries covered. Preparatory proceedings are considered a key tool for achieving efficient civil proceedings. The claims and factual background of the case are clarified at an early stage, and the main hearing is focused. Judicial settlement efforts and court-connected mediation contribute to early resolution of cases, and are important elements of Nordic civil procedure The Nordic countries have used the main hearing model of civil proceedings for some decades, and recent reforms have further enhanced the role of the preparatory stage. Former communist countries are reforming their earlier piecemeal- format civil proceedings by introducing and strengthening written and oral preparation, as well as court-connected mediation.
By definition, international law, once agreed upon and consented to, applies to all parties equally. It is perhaps the one area of law where cross-country comparison seems inappropriate, because all parties are governed by the same rules. However, as this book explains, states sometimes adhere to similar, and at other times, adopt different interpretations of the same international norms and standards. International legal rules are not a monolithic whole, but are the basis for ongoing contestation in which states set forth competing interpretations. International norms are interpreted and redefined by national executives, legislatures, and judiciaries. These varying and evolving interpretations can, in turn, change and impact the international rules themselves. These similarities and differences make for an important, but thus far, largely unexamined object of comparison. This is the premise for this book, and for what the editors call "comparative international law." This book achieves three objectives. The first is to show that international law is not a monolith. The second is to map the cross-country similarities and differences in international legal norms in different fields of international law, as well as their application and interpretation with regards to geographic differences. The third is to make a first and preliminary attempt to explain these differences. It is organized into three broad thematic sections, exploring: conceptual matters, domestic institutions and comparative international law, and comparing approaches across issue-areas. The chapters are authored by contributors who include leading international law and comparative law scholars with diverse backgrounds, experience, and perspectives.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Among the cases reported in Volume 117 is the ICJ 1998 ruling on preliminary objections in the Lockerbie decision relating to the trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands, along with additional materials. Six leading cases of the ECJ concerning the implementation of United Nations sanctions are also reported. In addition the United Nations Compensation Commission Egyptian Workers' Claims case, and the Sandline and Papua New Guinea 1998 arbitration under the UNCITRAL rules are reported. M/V Saiga (No 2) in 1998 and the Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases provisional measures rulings in 1999 from the International Tribunal for the Law of Sea are also included. Lastly, the volume contains Australia/New Zealand immigration cases.
The focus of this book is the legal analysis of the evolution of federal relationships from an asymmetric treaty-constitutional federation to a de facto unitary state. Questioned is whether it is worth returning to the asymmetric federative form, while the aim is to review the origins of federalism in the New Russia, assess the present de jure and de facto situations and analyze whether Russia has a chance of reviving federalism. Steps forward on the way to developed federal relationships in the 1990s have been replaced by steps backwards owing to unitary tendencies in the 2000s and the 2010s. But is this a sustainable state of affairs? The possible ways of framing relations between the center and the constituent units for the next four years and beyond are also discussed. This book is aimed at researchers and students in the field of comparative constitutional law, Russian studies and federal and regional studies. Gulnara R. Shaikhutdinova is Professor and Doctor of International Law in the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation.
This volume of essays casts light on the shape and future direction of the EU in the wake of the Lisbon Treaty and highlights the incomplete nature of the reforms. Contributors analyse some of the most innovative and most controversial aspects of the Treaty, such as the role and nature of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the relationship between the EU and the European Court of Human Rights. In addition, they reflect on the ongoing economic and financial crisis in the Euro area, which has forced the EU Member States to re-open negotiations and update a number of aspects of the Lisbon 'settlement'. Together, the essays provide a variety of insights into some of the most crucial innovations introduced by the Lisbon Treaty and in the context of the adoption of the new European Financial Stability Mechanism.
The volume provides analyses and evaluations of the continuing importance of Europe's autonomy in its access to space as a key driver in the development of European space capabilities. From a detailed historical analysis of some of the pitfalls of dependence in the space industry, experts analyse the full range of current European space capabilities and identify areas where autonomy is both possible and required, even in a situation of severe budgetary constraints. The contributions present a comprehensive overview of European efforts in a broad range of areas including energy, culture, science, and security; access to space, space applications, human spaceflight, security and space situational awareness, and strategic issues. They make a cogent strategic and economic case for policy makers to continue to bear in mind the importance of autonomous space capabilities, even in an interdependent globalised world.
Ballast water management is a complex subject with many issues and still limited knowledge, however, it is building up on new scientific researches and practical experience. The Ballast Water Management Convention is the global legal framework which still needs to be implemented. This book brings together a long-term and newest experience from practical work, scientific research, administration and policy involvements, offering unique insights to readers who would like to learn more about this subject. It also provides recommendations and practical solutions especially important for professionals, administrations and organizations in the process of the implementation of this Ballast Water Management Convention.
Antje Wiener examines the involvement of local actors in conflicts over global norms such as fundamental rights and the prohibition of torture and sexual violence. Providing accounts of local interventions made on behalf of those affected by breaches of norms, she identifies the constraints and opportunities for stakeholder participation in a fragmented global society. The book also considers cultural and institutional diversity with regard to the co-constitution of norm change. Proposing a clear framework to operationalize research on contested norms, and illustrating it through three recent cases, this book contributes to the project of global international relations by offering an agency-centred approach. It will interest scholars and advanced students of international relations, international political theory, and international law seeking a principled approach to practice that overcomes the practice-norm gap.
This book provides a thorough legal analysis of sovereign indebtedness, examining four typologies of sovereign debt bilateral debt, multilateral debt, syndicated debt and bonded debt in relation to three crucial contexts: genesis, restructuring and litigation. Its treatise-style approach makes it possible to capture in a systematic manner a phenomenon characterized by high complexity and unclear boundaries. Though the analysis is mainly conducted on the basis of international law, the breadth of this topical subject has made it necessary to include other sources, such as private international law, domestic law and financial practice; moreover, references are made to international financial relations and international financial history so as to provide a more complete understanding. Although it follows the structure of a continental "tractatus, "the work strikes a balance between consideration of doctrinal and jurisprudential sources, making it a valuable reference work for scholars and practitioners alike."
The volume discusses the legal interpretation and implementation of the three pillars of the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1968, regarding the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; the right to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes; and issues relating to nuclear disarmament. It examines the status of international law regarding nuclear capacity, considering competing legal approaches to the development of nuclear technology, non-proliferation, disarmament and regulating nuclear weapons within a contemporary international context.
This fifth volume in the book series on Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law focuses on various legal aspects regarding nuclear security and nuclear deterrence. The series on Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law provides scholarly research articles with critical commentaries on relevant treaty law, best practice and legal developments, thus offering an academic analysis and information on practical legal and diplomatic developments both globally and regionally. It sets a basis for further constructive discourse at both national and international levels. Jonathan L. Black-Branch is Dean of Law and Professor of International and Comparative Law at the University of Manitoba in Canada; a Bencher of the Law Society of Manitoba; JP and Barrister (England & Wales); Barrister & Solicitor (Manitoba); and Chair of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Nuclear Weapons, Non-Proliferation & Contemporary International Law. Dieter Fleck is Former Director International Agreements & Policy, Federal Ministry of Defence, Germany; Member of the Advisory Board of the Amsterdam Center for International Law (ACIL); and Rapporteur of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Nuclear Weapons, Non-Proliferation & Contemporary International Law.
Different countries incorporate and interpret international law in
different ways. This book provides a systematic analysis of the
domestic constitutional regime of over two dozen countries, setting
out the status accorded to international law in those countries and
its normative weight, as well as problems relating to its
Attribution in International Law and Arbitration clarifies and critically discusses the international rules of attribution of conduct, particularly regarding their application to states under international investment law. It examines the key question of how and to what extent breaches of State obligations, particularly in respect of States' commitments to foreign investors under international investment agreements (IIAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs), can be attributed. Of special interest within this context is the responsibility of States when the alleged breach has been committed by separate legal entities, rather than the state itself. Under domestic law, entities such as state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are considered legally distinct, however the State may still be considered responsible for their actions under international law. The book addresses the relevant issues systematically, beginning with direct reference to the Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) on attribution, finalized by the International law Commission (ILC) in 2001. It then elaborates on the specifics of international investment law, based on a detailed examination of practice and case law, whilst giving due consideration to the academic debate. The result is a full, innovative take on one of the most difficult questions in investment arbitration.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 134 reports on, amongst others, the decisions on the death penalty from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the courts of Barbados, Jamaica, Malawi, Singapore and Trinidad and Tobago; the decisions from the International Court of Justice (LaGrand and Avena) and the European Court of Human Rights (Mamatkulov) on the nature and scope of provisional/interim measures; and the decisions from the International Court of Justice (LaGrand and Avena) and the United States of America (Sanchez-Llamas) on consular relations/Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963.
Why has U.S. security policy scarcely changed from the Bush to the Obama administration? National Security and Double Government offers a disquieting answer. Michael J. Glennon challenges the myth that U.S. security policy is still forged by America's visible, "Madisonian institutions" - the President, Congress, and the courts. Their roles, he argues, have become largely illusory. Presidential control is now nominal, congressional oversight is dysfunctional, and judicial review is negligible. The book details the dramatic shift in power that has occurred from the Madisonian institutions to a concealed "Trumanite network" - the several hundred managers of the military, intelligence, diplomatic, and law enforcement agencies who are responsible for protecting the nation and who have come to operate largely immune from constitutional and electoral restraints. Reform efforts face daunting obstacles. Remedies within this new system of "double government" require the hollowed-out Madisonian institutions to exercise the very power that they lack. Meanwhile, reform initiatives from without confront the same pervasive political ignorance within the polity that has given rise to this duality. The book sounds a powerful warning about the need to resolve this dilemma-and the mortal threat posed to accountability, democracy, and personal freedom if double government persists. This paperback version features an Afterword that addresses the emerging danger posed by populist authoritarianism rejecting the notion that the security bureaucracy can or should be relied upon to block it.
In our post-11 September world, challenges to international peace and security emanate from non-State actors as never before. Under international law States have an obligation to act with due diligence in confronting non-State actors that engage in terrorism. The author of this book examines the grounds and mechanisms through which a State can bear responsibility for breaching its due diligence obligations in this regard. He explores the question whether a comprehensive definition of terrorism exists and reviews the development of the due diligence principle during the last century. After doing so, the author examines how the due diligence principle operates in the counter-terrorism context by analysing international and regional treaties and Security Council Resolutions. Theoretical issues that arise when interpreting the due diligence principle are also studied. The author concludes by critically engaging with the question whether national security should trump human rights in the fight against terrorism. This book fills a significant gap in the literature. It is principally designed for policy makers, academics, and students of international law.
This volume focuses on the everyday social relationships through which international justice is produced. Using case studies from the International Criminal Court, the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Women's Convention Committee and elsewhere, it explores international justice as a process that takes place at the intersection of the often contradictory practices of applicants, lawyers, bureaucrats, victims, accused and others. With a sensitivity to broader institutional and political inequalities, the contributors ask how and why international justice is mobilised, understood and abandoned by concrete social actors, and to what effect. An attention to the different voices that feed into international justice is essential if we are to understand its potentials and limitations in the midst of social conflict or full blown political violence.
The aviation community, in which the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) play leading roles, is hard at work in bringing aviation into the 21st Century. In doing so, the United States and Europe have taken proactive steps forward in introducing modernization, particularly in moving towards more efficient air traffic management systems within NextGen and SESAR. Elsewhere, in the fields of personnel licensing, rules of the air, accident investigation and aeronautical charts and information, significant strides are being made in moving from mere regulation to implementation and assistance calculated to make all ICAO member States self sufficient in international civil aviation. However, these objectives can be achieved only if the aviation industry has a sustained understanding of the legal and regulatory principles applying to the various areas of air navigation. This book provides that discussion. Some of the subjects discussed in this book are: sovereignty in airspace; flight information and air defence identification zones; rules of the air; personnel licensing; meteorological services; operations of aircraft; air traffic services; accident and incident investigation; aerodromes; efficiency aspects of aviation and environmental protection; aeronautical charts and information; the carriage of dangerous goods; and NextGen and SESAR . Except for NextGen and SESAR, these subjects form the titles of the Annexes to the Chicago Convention that particularly involve the rights and liabilities of the key players involved in air navigation.
This book describes the global legal framework for safeguarding the "Intangible Cultural Heritage" - as defined by the UNESCO Convention in 2003 - and analyses its use in selected countries in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Europe. Each of the contributions has been prepared by high profile experts and strategically addresses countries that are representative for their corresponding area. Our understanding of the term "Cultural Heritage" has changed considerably over the past few decades, and it is becoming increasingly clear that the concept also includes traditions and living expressions that we inherit from our ancestors and pass on to our descendants. UNESCO has recognised and responded to this change of perspective, creating through the 2003 Convention an international instrument for safeguarding the "Intangible Cultural Heritage", a notion including oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe, as well as the knowledge and skills needed to produce traditional crafts. New values, practices and heritages were recognized - from the ancient African rituals to the Mexican Mariachi musical expression to the Brazilian Samba and the Mediterranean Diet - all of which convey strong social and cultural meaning for their community's identity. Intangible Cultural Heritage is a growing, relatively recent field of study and also an emblem of the dialogue between distant populations with different cultures, which is the reason why a comparative approach is the most appropriate basis for conducting an analysis of how the contracting states to the Convention live up to their commitments through national safeguarding measures and enhancement policies or through international cooperation projects.
It is now more than a decade since the Right to Food Guidelines were negotiated, agreed and adopted internationally by states. This book provides a review of its objectives and the extent of success of its implementation. The focus is on the first key guideline - "Democracy, good governance, human rights and the rule of law" - with an emphasis on civil society participation in global food governance. The five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are presented as case studies: representing major emerging economies, they blur the line between the Global North and South, and exhibit different levels of human rights realisation. The book first provides an overview of the right to adequate food, accountability and democracy, and an introduction to the history of the development of the right to adequate food and the Right to Food Guidelines. It presents a historical synopsis of each of the BRICS states' experiences with the right to adequate food and an analysis of their related periodic reporting to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as a specific assessment of their progress in regard to the first guideline. The discussion then focuses on the effectiveness of the Right to Food Guidelines as both a policy-making and monitoring tool, based on the analysis of the guidelines and the BRICS states.
In the second of two volumes Jerome Alan Cohen and Hungdah Chiu have presented in a comprehensive form the views of the People's Republic of China on all the major questions of public international law. The material chosen includes official acts and statements from every level of the Chinese government, editorials and major articles from the People's Daily, dispatches of the New China News Agency and other government media, the writings of Chinese scholars, and the speeches of China's leaders. In an extensive introduction, Professors Cohen and Chiu discuss the experience of previous Chinese governments with international law, and the relationship of China's domestic public order and its foreign policy to its views of international law. Originally published in 1974. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
This book is the first systematic scientific study of global quasi-legislation. Taking public opinion and multilateral agreements as the international equivalent to national election and passing laws on the national scale, and extending nation-state concepts to a global society, it analyzes citizens' preferences and the state's willingness to enter into 120 multilateral treaties. After identifying the links as a first step toward conceptualizing quasi-legislative global politics, the book examines how each of the 193 states manifests quasi-legislative behavior by factor-analyzing six instrumental variables such as treaty participation index and six policy domains of multilateral treaties, including peace and trade. It then discusses global change between 1989 and 2008, and conceptually and empirically examines the three theories of global politics that originated during that period: the theory of power transition, theory of civilizational clash and theory of global legislative politics. Lastly, it proposes a theory of global legislative politics. Shedding fresh light on the transformative nature of multilateral treaties, this book attracts researchers and students in political philosophy, international law and international relations as well as practitioners and journalists. Inoguchi and Le have developed a genuinely original perspective on world politics, one that opens up a new research agenda for thinking about state and global actors simultaneously.-- Anne-Marie Slaughter, Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor Emerita of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University This is one of those books that warrant a global readership given its emphasis on the implied trust that we invest in public institutions as viewed from an interdisciplinary perspective. -- Richard J. Estes, Professor of Social Policy & Practice, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania This book is innovative and distinctive in carving out a new way to look at "global legislative politics." I do not know of anything that compares in this interesting and novel niche of international relations analysis.-- William R. Thompson, Distinguished Professor and Rogers Chair of Political Science Emeritus, Indiana University
Protracted and bitter resistance by alter- and anti-globalisation movements shows that the globalisation of law transpires as the globalisation of inclusion and exclusion. Humanity is inside and outside global law in all its possible manifestations. But how is this possible? How must legal orders be structured, such that, even if we can now speak of law beyond state borders, no emergent global legal order is possible that does not include without excluding? Is an authoritative politics of boundaries possible that neither postulates the possibility of realising an all-inclusive global legal order nor accepts resignation or political paralysis in the face of the globalisation of inclusion and exclusion? These pressing questions guide this book, opening up a vast field of enquiry that demands integrating sociological, doctrinal and philosophical perspectives and insights.
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