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Given that persons typically have a right not to be subjected to the hard treatment of punishment, it would seem natural to conclude that the permissibility of punishment is centrally a question of rights. Despite this, the vast majority of theorists working on punishment focus instead on important aims, such as achieving retributive justice, deterring crime, restoring victims, or expressing society's core values. Wellman contends that these aims may well explain why we should want a properly constructed system of punishment, but none shows why it would be permissible to institute one. Only a rights-based analysis will suffice, because the type of justification we seek for punishment must demonstrate that punishment is permissible, and it would be permissible only if it violated no one's rights. On Wellman's view, punishment is permissible just in case the wrongdoer has forfeited her right against punishment by culpably violating (or at least attempting to violate) the rights of others. After defending rights forfeiture theory against the standard objections, Wellman explains this theory's implications for a number of core issues in criminal law, including the authority of the state, international criminal law, the proper scope of the criminal law and the tort/crime distinction, procedural rights, and the justification of mala prohibita.
Spaceflight is a rational undertaking, yet full of emotions. It is a dream of mankind and a multi-billion industry likewise. It is subject to a distinct branch of law - and moreover part of modern pop culture. In short: spaceflight is fascinating. "Outer Space in society, politics and law" is an inter-disciplinary approach to the understanding of modern space law. Technical, cultural and historical aspects lay the foundation for a sound comprehension why space law norms have been established and what they mean in practice. The reader will realize the impact space and spaceflight have on society - from Stonehenge to climate change. A new approach to presenting space law: comprehensive and illustrative. "We live in a society absolutely dependent on science and technology and yet have cleverly arranged things so that almost no one understands science and technology. That's a clear prescription for disaster." Carl Sagan
In recent decades, new international courts and other legal bodies have proliferated as international law has broadened beyond the fields of treaty law and diplomatic relations. This development has not only triggered debate about how authority may be held by institutions beyond the state, but has also thrown into question familiar models of authority found in legal and political philosophy. The essays in this book take a philosophical approach to these developments, debates and questions. In doing so, they seek to clarify the relevant issues underpinning, as well as develop possible solutions to the problem of how legal authority may be constructed beyond the state.
This book offers a compendium of diverse essays on emerging legal issues in outer space, written by experts in the field of Space Law from different parts of the globe. The book comprehensively addresses opportunities in space and the inevitable legal challenges that these space activities pose for mankind. It explores the increasing role of private sector in outer space, which calls for a review of policy and legislation; invites opinio juris from law scholars for ensuring the applicability of the Outer Space Treaty on all states without ratification and universal abidance with Space Law without demur; reflects upon the challenges for the global space community involved in implementing a more effective approach to international space governance; and considers the use of domestic laws, and the consequent need for legal reform, to encourage broader engagement with commercial space innovation. Further, the book delves into the adequacy of existing international liability regime to protect space tourists in the event of a space vehicle accidents; examines the increasing use of space for military activities and canvasses how International Law may apply to condition behaviour; highlights the challenges of scavenging space debris; calls for protections of space assets; touches upon the legal regime pertaining to ASAT and discusses other ways of creating normative instruments, which also come from other areas and use other methods. Given its comprehensive coverage of opportunities in space and the inevitable legal challenges that they pose, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, academics and professionals including government officials, industry executives, specialists, and lawyers, helping them understand essential contemporary issues and developments in Space Law.
Underground warfare, a tactic of yesteryear, has re-emerged as a global and rapidly diffusing threat. This book is the first of its kind to examine tunnel warfare in a systematic and comprehensive way, addressing the legal issues while keeping in mind operational and strategic challenges. Like many other aspects of contemporary warfare, the renewed use of the subterranean in armed conflict presents a challenge for democracies wishing to abide by the law. To Dr. Richemond-Barak, this challenge has not only been under-explored, it is also largely underestimated by the community of states, security experts, and public opinion. She analyzes traditional concepts of the laws of war as they relate to tunnels and underground operations, contemplating questions such as whether tunnels constitute legitimate targets, the assessment of proportionality in anti-tunnel operations, and the availability of advanced warning in this complex terrain. She also identifies issues that are unique to underground warfare, including those that arise when cross-border tunnels burrow under a state's own civilian infrastructure.
Striking a balance between peace and justice has long been debated by scholars and practitioners. There has been definite progress in a world in which blanket amnesties were at times granted with little hesitation. There is a growing understanding that accountability has both pragmatic and principled arguments in its favor. Practical arguments as much as shifts in norms have created a situation in which the choice is increasingly seen as "which forms of accountability" rather than a stark one between peace and justice. The Colombian Justice and Peace Law 975 and its implementation offer an interesting and unique approach to dealing with the international crimes committed in Colombia's decades-long armed conflict. Yet, will this approach suffice with regard to Colombia's obligations under international law to investigate and prosecute international crimes? Does it meet the standards of the ICC, which has been monitoring the Colombian situation for some time now? In particular, does it pass the complementarity test laid out in the ICC statute or will the ICC have to intervene in Colombia to enforce international criminal law?
How does EU membership affect national sovereignty? This question has acquired a central place in the public debate on the European Union. National sovereignty relates to the independence of nation states in international affairs and to their autonomy to organize domestic matters. The European Union has challenged both, or so it has been perceived. In any case, such a view on sovereignty narrows the focus down to the question of national policy discretion. This edited volume offers a broader perspective on sovereignty relying on the international law concept. In addition to authority, this concept also includes citizenship and territory and assumes unity between these three elements. The focus is on the role of core values such as (representative) democracy, rule of law, justice, equality and economic stability in the process of shaping sovereignty in the shared legal order of the European Union. Moreover, not only the EU's power to regulate, but also issues of enforcement are addressed. Seven case-studies exploring 11 policy domains ranging from financial markets to social policy, and from administrative law to private law address two sub questions: how do core values define the relation between EU and national authority, citizenship and territory and how are conflicts between core values addressed within this shared legal order. Three cross-cutting studies on authority, citizenship, and territory identify common approaches and existing challenges. All 23 contributors of this volume work at the Utrecht Centre for Shared Regulation and Enforcement in Europe (RENFORCE). [Subject: International Law, European Law, Social Policy, Administrative Law, Private Law]
This book offers an in-depth account of the failure of popular constitution making in Turkey from 2011 to 2013, which was an anomaly in the otherwise authoritarian history of Turkish constitutional politics. The authors demonstrate that, even in unfavorable conditions, constitution making that brings together different stakeholders can potentially lead to significant improvement of constitutional regimes. Long-standing societal divides regarding cultural and religious diversity, which were evident in political parties' negotiations, played a significant role in the failure of the process in Turkey. Most notably, the ruling AKP's insistence on establishing a presidential system - supported by neither other political parties nor the public - destabilized the process and exacerbated distrust among the drafters. Unfavorable procedures, particularly an unrealistic deadline and the unanimity principle, prevented consensus and allowed the AKP to hijack the process. The process was a missed opportunity for democratization before Turkey plunged into full-fledged democratic backsliding.
Written as the decade-long Syria conflict nears an end, this is the first book-length treatment of how the Syrian war has changed international law. In The Syrian Conflict's Impact on International Law, the authors explain the history of the current conflict in Syria and discuss the principles and process of customary international law formation and the phenomenon of accelerated formation of customary international law known as Grotian Moments. They then explore specific examples, including how use of force against ISIS in Syria has changed the law of self-defense against non-state actors, how the allied airstrikes in response to Syria's use of chemical weapons have changed the law of humanitarian intervention, and others. This book seeks to contribute both to understanding the concept of accelerated formation of customary international law and the specific ways the Syria conflict has led to development of new norms and principles in several areas of international law.
This compact, highly engaging book examines the international legal regulation of both the conduct of States among themselves and conduct towards individuals, in relation to the use of cyberspace. Chapters introduce the perspectives of various stakeholders and the challenges for international law. The author discusses State responsibility and key cyberspace rights issues, and takes a detailed look at cyber warfare, espionage, crime and terrorism. The work also covers the situation of non-State actors and quasi-State actors (such as IS, or ISIS, or ISIL) and concludes with a consideration of future prospects for the international law of cyberspace. Readers may explore international rules in the areas of jurisdiction of States in cyberspace, responsibility of States for cyber activities, human rights in the cyber world, permissible responses to cyber attacks, and more. Other topics addressed include the rules of engagement in cyber warfare, suppression of cyber crimes, permissible limits of cyber espionage, and suppression of cyber-related terrorism. Chapters feature explanations of case law from various jurisdictions, against the background of real-life cyber-related incidents across the globe. Written by an internationally recognized practitioner in the field, the book objectively guides readers through on-going debates on cyber-related issues against the background of international law. This book is very accessibly written and is an enlightening read. It will appeal to a wide audience, from international lawyers to students of international law, military strategists, law enforcement officers, policy makers and the lay person.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Among the consular relations cases reported are the ICJ decisions on the request for provisional measures in the 1998 Case Concerning the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Paraguay v. United States) the 1999 LaGrand Case (Germany v. United States), and the corresponding decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Human rights cases include the 1999 decision of the European Court of Human Rights in Waite and Kennedy v. Germany, concerning whether the defendant's immunity from jurisdiction was considered compatible with right of access to court under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. Also included are fifteen important decisions of the United Nations Human Rights Committee and national courts during the 1990s.
This book aims to advance the understanding of pre-commercial procurement (PCP) as innovation policy instrument and as means to fulfil public needs. To this end, it places PCP within its political and legal context and elucidates its origins and its economic rationale. Based on this analysis, it suggests a clear conceptualization of PCP and a clear delineation from other innovation policy instruments. Subsequently, the book assesses the value and achievements of the more established type of PCP policy programmes, and draws lessons for improvement. In this context, it raises awareness of the remaining obstacles to its wide and effective implementation and suggests appropriate solutions ranging from policy guidance to law interpretation and legislative reform. The text makes use of illustrative practical examples of policy-making and project implementation in various public programmes of R&D procurement. This is a highly relevant book for academics and practitioners in the field of public procurement. Ramona Apostol is Senior Procurement Adviser at Corvers Procurement Services B.V. in the Netherlands. She holds a Ph.D. in Law from Leiden University, the Netherlands. She has been involved in a wide range of procurement projects related to the implementation of R&D and innovation procurement and regularly acts as independent expert for the European Commission on this topic.
Autonomy in the Law considers one of the most important benefits of the rule of law. Juxtaposing European and American conceptions of autonomy in the law of families, capital punishment and, criminal trials reveals the common values that justify all legal systems. Law protects the autonomy of individuals and associations by defending the boundaries of their own self-rule. This book illuminates the fundamental purpose of law by examining how European and American lawyers, judges and citizens do and should apply legal autonomy to the practical circumstances of litigation, legislation and the law.
In this groundbreaking study, Christopher Warren argues that early modern literary genres were deeply tied to debates about global legal order and that todayas international law owes many of its most basic suppositions to early modern literary culture. Literature and the Law of Nations shows how the separation of scholarship on law from scholarship on literature has limited the understanding of international law on both sides. Warren suggests that both literary and legal scholars have tacitly accepted tendentious but politically consequential assumptions about whether international law is areala law. Literature and the Law of Nations recognizes the specific nature of early modern international law by showing how major writers of the English Renaissance-including Shakespeare, Milton, and Hobbes-deployed genres like epic, tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy, and history to shore up the canonical subjects and objects of modern international law. Warren demonstrates how Renaissance literary genres informed modern categories like public international law, private international law, international legal personality, and human rights. Students and scholars of Renaissance literature, intellectual history, the history of international law, and the history of political thought will find in Literature and the Law of Nations a rich interdisciplinary argument that challenges the usual accounts by charting a new literary history of international law.
The book provides a comprehensive analysis of the advisory role of the International Court of Justice in light of its jurisprudence and overall contribution over a period of more than 55 years. The author highlights the "organic connection" between UN organs and the Court and the Court 's contribution as one of the UN 's principal organs to the Organisation. The basic argument of this study is that the advisory function should be understood as a two-sided process involving the interplay between UN organs and the ICJ. The request for and the giving of an advisory opinion is a collective coordinated process, involving more than one organ or part of the Organisation.
This book reviews and presents antitrust law compliance programmes from different angles. These programmes have been increasingly implemented and refined by firms over recent years, and various aspects of this topic have been researched. The contributions in this book extend beyond the treatment of legal issues and show how lawyers, economists, psychologists, and business scholars can help design antitrust law compliance programmes more effectively and run them more efficiently.
Authored by international experts from academia, international organizations, governments and NGOs, this book highlights the main environmental security issues in the South-East European (SEE) countries, with a particular focus on climate change and water management. The common goal of the authors was to provide a reliable evaluation of whether existing legal regimes and correct implementation of applicable international treaties may contribute to reducing environmental security risks in the region. In-depth analyses and assessment of major challenges in compliance, serve as a firm ground which such evaluation is based on. This volume is recommended for public officials, legal practitioners and consultants. Its interest may also extend beyond the SEE countries, serving as a case-study of a broader and paradigmatic relevance of the analysis and management of environmental and security issues in a trans-boundary context.
This book analyses the governance foundations of innovation, brands, inventions, secrets and expression, which are the keys to a century based on knowledge. They are reflected in legal rights that have been fermenting over centuries of national policy deliberations on intellectual property rights, constantly in flux in the face of new advances in science, but overall a trend towards greater protectionism. As countries are challenged by the strictures of international agreements, often extorted through imbalanced power relationships, they seek their own national means for beneficial differentiation from the new global norms, whilst complying with international obligations. This book deals with the outcomes of regional governance of intellectual property, which often creates ripples in the search for harmony in the laws that form the basis for the future of intellectual property. The work has contributions that come from developing and developed nations, showing a common theme of the struggle to find the balance in an area of law that often does not provide clearcut solutions to real world environments. There are many intellectual property struggles illustrated in this work: patent at the boundaries of nature and invention, the need for drug development, which is driven by profit based on the patent monopoly; copyright, the expression of original thought, seeking to maximise exposure facilitated by the internet, but a system that facilitates rampant copying; trade marks, supporting company branding, seeks to exploit global branding through naming domains names; and other areas concomitant to the globalisation of intellectual property governance, such as foreign direct investment. This book holds up a mirror to the issues of world governance of intellectual property rights in this century, asking whether the direction we are currently following is in the best interest of global citizens, and showing the divergence that constraints are stimulating on a national level.
The European Union has succeeded to considerably expand its influence during the past twenty years. The three rounds of enlargement and the strengthening of the EU's economic and political presence in its neighborhood are among the most remarkable successes of its post-Cold War history. The Union is one of the key facilitators of stability in the Western Balkans; it represents an institutional and normative anchor for countries in Eastern Europe and acts as a partner for a thriving economic partnership with most of the Mediterranean states. During the past few years, however, the changing international order, the deterioration of European competitiveness and the need for internal compromises have begun to challenge the belief in the Union's future capabilities to actively mold its environment, bringing the problem of the capabilities-expectations gap once again to the fore.
The essays in this book analyze the interaction between two processes: the evolving influence of the European Union in the wider European space, and its adaptation to the changing global environment.
This book explores the regulations, goals and functioning of preparatory proceedings in four Nordic countries and eight former communist countries. The contributions discuss whether, and how the regulation and practice of preparatory proceedings enhance swift civil justice that is both inexpensive and has quality outcomes. A central question is whether the main hearing model of civil justice, in which preclusion of new evidence and claims occur at the end of the preparatory stage, results in greater efficiency, or whether the functioning of civil proceedings largely depends on other factors. It also examines regulation and use of court-connected mediation and judicial settlement efforts. This book offers comparative insights into the functioning of the preparatory civil proceedings in the countries covered. Preparatory proceedings are considered a key tool for achieving efficient civil proceedings. The claims and factual background of the case are clarified at an early stage, and the main hearing is focused. Judicial settlement efforts and court-connected mediation contribute to early resolution of cases, and are important elements of Nordic civil procedure The Nordic countries have used the main hearing model of civil proceedings for some decades, and recent reforms have further enhanced the role of the preparatory stage. Former communist countries are reforming their earlier piecemeal- format civil proceedings by introducing and strengthening written and oral preparation, as well as court-connected mediation.
By definition, international law, once agreed upon and consented to, applies to all parties equally. It is perhaps the one area of law where cross-country comparison seems inappropriate, because all parties are governed by the same rules. However, as this book explains, states sometimes adhere to similar, and at other times, adopt different interpretations of the same international norms and standards. International legal rules are not a monolithic whole, but are the basis for ongoing contestation in which states set forth competing interpretations. International norms are interpreted and redefined by national executives, legislatures, and judiciaries. These varying and evolving interpretations can, in turn, change and impact the international rules themselves. These similarities and differences make for an important, but thus far, largely unexamined object of comparison. This is the premise for this book, and for what the editors call "comparative international law." This book achieves three objectives. The first is to show that international law is not a monolith. The second is to map the cross-country similarities and differences in international legal norms in different fields of international law, as well as their application and interpretation with regards to geographic differences. The third is to make a first and preliminary attempt to explain these differences. It is organized into three broad thematic sections, exploring: conceptual matters, domestic institutions and comparative international law, and comparing approaches across issue-areas. The chapters are authored by contributors who include leading international law and comparative law scholars with diverse backgrounds, experience, and perspectives.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Among the cases reported in Volume 117 is the ICJ 1998 ruling on preliminary objections in the Lockerbie decision relating to the trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands, along with additional materials. Six leading cases of the ECJ concerning the implementation of United Nations sanctions are also reported. In addition the United Nations Compensation Commission Egyptian Workers' Claims case, and the Sandline and Papua New Guinea 1998 arbitration under the UNCITRAL rules are reported. M/V Saiga (No 2) in 1998 and the Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases provisional measures rulings in 1999 from the International Tribunal for the Law of Sea are also included. Lastly, the volume contains Australia/New Zealand immigration cases.
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