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The book investigates how an analogy between States and international organizations has influenced and supported the development of the law that applies to intergovernmental institutions on the international plane. That is best illustrated by the work of the International Law Commission on the treaties and responsibility of international organizations, where the Commission for the most part extended to organizations rules that had been originally devised for States. Revisiting those codification projects while also looking into other areas, the book reflects on how techniques of legal reasoning can be - and have been - used by international institutions and the legal profession to tackle situations of uncertainty, and discusses the elusive position that international organizations occupy in the international legal system. By cutting across some foundational topics of the discipline, the book makes a substantive contribution to the literature on subjects and sources of international law.
The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.
In the past decade, a sense of feminist 'success' has developed within the United Nations and international law, recognized in the Security Council resolution 1325 on women, peace and security, the increased jurisprudence on gender based crimes in armed conflict from the ICTR/Y and the ICC, the creation of UN Women, and Security Council sanctions against perpetrators of sexual violence in armed conflict. Contributing to the development of feminist and gender scholarship on international law, Gina Heathcote provides a feminist analysis of the central pillars of international law, noting the advances and limitations of feminist approaches. Through incorporating into mainstream international legal studies specific critical and feminist narratives, this book considers the manner in which feminist thinking has changed international law, and the manner in which international law has remained impervious to key feminist dialogues. It argues for a return to structural bias feminism that engages the foundations of international law and uses gender as a method for challenging post-millennium narratives on fragmentation, the role of international institutions, the nature of legal authority, sovereignty, and the role of international legal experts.
Policing is commonly thought to be governed by domestic legal systems and not international law. However, various international legal standards are shown to have an impact in situations where police use force. Police Use of Force under International Law explores this tension in detail for the first time. It critically reviews the use of force by law enforcement agencies in a range of scenarios: against detainees, during protests, and in the context of counterterrorism and counterpiracy operations. Key trends, such as the growing use of private security services, are also considered. This book provides a human rights framework for police weaponry and protection of at-risk groups based on critical jurisprudence from the last twenty years. With pertinent case law and case studies to illustrate the key principles of the use of force, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in policing, human rights, state use of force or criminology.
As the centenary of the Treaty of Versailles approaches, this book presents the pre-1914 precursors to the interwar naval arms treaties arising from the peace of 1919, providing a fresh perspective on arms control efforts through an interdisciplinary approach. Interweaving historical investigation with legal analysis, Scott Keefer traces the British role in the development of naval arms control, outlining the pragmatic Foreign Office approaches towards international law. By emphasizing what was possible within the existing legal system rather than attempting to create radically powerful international institutions, statesmen crafted treaties to exploit the unique pace of naval construction. Utilizing previously-overlooked archival resources, this book investigates how the great powers exploited treaties as elements of national security strategies. The result is a fuller analysis of the Hague Peace Conferences, Anglo-German discussions, and lesser known regional agreements from the American Great Lakes to South America, and a richer exploration of pre-1914 diplomacy, providing insights into how a past generation perceived questions of war and defence.
This book explores whether the co-existence of (partially) overlapping and sometimes competing layers of authority, which characterizes today's global order, undermines or rather strengthens efforts to promote the rule of law on a global scale. Heupel and Reinold argue that whether multi-level governance and global legal pluralism have beneficial or detrimental effects on the international rule of law depends on specific scope conditions. Among these are the mobilization of powerful states and courts, as well as the fit between soft law and hard law arrangements. The volume comprises seven case studies written by International Relations and International Law scholars. Bridging the gap between political science and legal scholarship, the volume enables an interdisciplinary perspective on the emergence of an international rule of law. It also provides much needed empirical research on the implications of multi-level governance and global legal pluralism for the rule of law beyond the nation state.
This book deals with what the author considers a sorely neglected question, namely the role of the judiciary in states' foreign policy processes. Eksteen argues that the impact of the judiciary on foreign affairs is understudied and that recognition of its role in foreign affairs is now due. This makes it a ground-breaking scholarly contribution that should first of all prove of value to students, scholars, researchers and practitioners in the two broad fields of politics and law for the wide scope of issues it covers and the very comprehensive reference lists it contains. Secondly, professionals working within politics, including members of the legislatures of the United States, the European Union and South Africa, as well as members of the judiciaries there, should find this book of benefit. A detailed examination has been undertaken of the role of the United States Supreme Court, the two high courts in South Africa, namely the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the European Court of Justice of the European Union in foreign affairs. The author substantiates the unmistakable fact that these Courts have become involved in and influence foreign affairs. Furthermore, that they have not shied away from using their judicial authority when dealing with cases touching on foreign affairs and especially presidential overreach. The lack of recognition of the judiciary's role in foreign affairs is still noticeable in Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) literature. This book concludes that FPA has to accept and give proper recognition to the judiciary and its increasing relevance in foreign affairs. Dr. Riaan Eksteen is a Former South African Ambassador residing in Namibia; from 1968-1973 he served at the South African Embassy in Washington D.C.; between 1976-1994, he subsequently served as Ambassador and Head of Mission at the U.N. in New York (1976-81), in Namibia (1990-91), at the U.N. in Geneva (1992-94), and in Turkey, including Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (1995-97). He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Johannesburg in 2018.
Experts are increasingly relied on in decision-making processes at international and European levels. Their involvement in those processes, however, is contested. This timely book on the role of 'experts' provides a broad-gauged analysis of the issues raised by their involvement in decision-making processes. The chapters explore three main recurring themes: the rationales for involving experts and ensuing legitimacy problems; the individual and collective dimensions of expert involvement in decision making; and experts and politics and the politics of expertise. With contributions from leading scholars and practitioners, they theorize the experts' involvement in general and address their role in the policy areas of environment, trade, human rights, migration, financial regulation, and agencification in the European Union.
This book takes a completely new and innovative approach to analysing the development of EU law. Within the framework of different important areas of EU law, such as the internal market, consumer protection law, social law, investment law, environment law, migration law, legal translation and terminology, it examines the Union's approach to the regulation and management of legal risks. Over the years, the Union has come to a point where it is becoming increasingly difficult to justify its authority to regulate in various areas of law. In managing legal risks deriving from the diversity of Member States' laws, which create barriers to trade and hinder the Union's economy, the Union itself has actually produced new legal risks that now have to be addressed. This failure on the part of EU institutions to manage legal risks has contributed to legal uncertainty for actors operating on the internal market. This book intends to contribute to the Union's smoother functioning and continuing development by proposing effective concrete solutions for managing the legal risks distorting the development of various areas of EU law. It pursues an innovative and effective approach to identify legal risks, their causes at the EU level and their impacts on the functioning of the Union and its Member States. By presenting new approaches in this context, the first book on legal risk management in the EU will actively promote the improvement of the EU lawmaking process and the application of EU law in practice.
Climate change and rising oil prices have thrust the Arctic to the top of the foreign policy agenda and raised difficult issues of sovereignty, security and environmental protection. Improved access for shipping and resource development is leading to new international rules on safety, pollution prevention and emergency response. Around the Arctic, maritime boundary disputes are being negotiated and resolved, and new international institutions, such as the Arctic Council, are mediating deep-rooted tensions between Russia and NATO and between nation states and indigenous peoples. International Law and the Arctic explains these developments and reveals a strong trend towards international cooperation and law-making. It thus contradicts the widespread misconception that the Arctic is an unregulated zone of potential conflict.
The global economic downturn has led to increased commercial litigation and insolvency proceedings in financial centres across the world. As a result, there has been a growing need to seek the assistance of courts in offshore jurisdictions where significant assets and/or evidence are likely to be found. Informed judgements must be made about what rules of law and practice govern the relevant judicial cooperation regimes, both by lawyers who manage litigation onshore concerning assets or evidence located offshore, and by offshore lawyers asked to advise their onshore counterparts. Although geographically small, the British territories of Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are well established international financial centres. These six commercially significant jurisdictions are home to a vast array of commercial entities which conduct business throughout the world. There is growing concern over how the courts of these jurisdictions will cooperate with courts in other centres of commerce in responding to letters of request, enforcing foreign judgments, or assisting foreign liquidators. This book is the only publication to provide a detailed explanation of the law and practice in each of these six British territories and how each approaches the judicial cooperation issues of obtaining evidence for use in foreign proceedings, enforcing foreign judgments, and cross-border insolvency. It is edited by a commercial judge and two experienced commercial litigators with contributions from experts in each jurisdiction, all written from the perspective of the practitioner.
This book comprises chapters by leading international authors analysing the interface between intellectual property and foreign direct investment, development, and free trade. The authors search for a balance between the conflicting interests that inherently coexist in intellectual property law. The chapters dig deep into the subjects and notions that have become central in international intellectual property legal developments: i) flexibility, public interest and policy-space for implementation; ii) interfaces between the intellectual property regime and other legal regimes; and iii) the development of international intellectual property law and its influence on national legal orders, which includes the implementation of intellectual property undertakings.
This timely two-volume set collects together the most influential legal scholarship on the enforcement of human rights at institutional level, both regional and international. The first volume includes articles that discuss charter-based and reporting monitoring procedures as well as the role of high commissioners and treaty bodies. The articles in the second volume focus on the movement towards establishing quasi-judicial procedures, and the judicial enforcement of human rights and interim measures, concluding with a thoughtful consideration of the potential for universal judicial enforcement - a world court of human rights. Together with an original introduction by the editor, this insightful collection will be an essential research resource for those studying, working or teaching in this important field.
Concepts allow us to know, understand, think, do and change international law. This book, with sixty chapters by leading scholars, provides a nuanced guide to those concepts of historical significance for international law, as well as those that have become central to how we think about the discipline. In select cases this book also offers some new concepts, seeking to address familiar concerns that have not been fully articulated within the discipline. This unique book is the first expansive exploration of concepts that have become historically central to the discipline. It allows us to appreciate how order, struggle and change play out in international law and legal thought, and how these concerns of power implicate ethical considerations. Embracing a wide range of historical and theoretical approaches, this book hopes to ignite a renewed, fertile engagement between our concepts and the contemporary, precarious, conditions of international legal life. Thought-provoking, original and engaging, this book is essential reading for researchers, postgraduates and doctoral students in international law, legal history and legal theory. Academics in international relations, history, sociology and political thought will also find this an essential read.
This book is one of the few comprehensive works focusing on the sub-regional institutions in the Latin American and Caribbean region. These organisations and institutions enrich the co-operation at sub-regional level, but, in most cases, are neglected in legal literature. They have mainly economic purposes but they also contribute to new forms of institutional co-operation in other areas, including financial, political and social matters. The volume addresses some of the most representative of these institutions, such as the Mercosur, the Andean Community and sub-regional financial organisations (e.g. Central American Bank for Economic Integration and Andean Development Corporation) as well as new developments including the UNASUR and the Alliance for the Pacific. It provides updated information on the structure and changes of the institutions, and constitutes a valuable resource for those wishing to keep pace with legal developments in the fast-moving world of international institutional law. The book will appeal to a wide audience including researchers and practitioners specialising in international law and international organisations and related disciplines. Marco Odello, JD (Rome), LLM (Nottingham), PhD (Madrid) is a Reader in Law at Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK. Francesco Seatzu, JD (Cagliari), PhD (Nottingham) is Professor of International and European Law at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.
China sometimes plays a leadership role in addressing global challenges, but at other times it free rides or even spoils efforts at cooperation. When will rising powers like China help to build and maintain international regimes that sustain cooperation on important issues, and when will they play less constructive roles? This study argues that the strategic setting of a particular issue area has a strong influence on whether and how a rising power will contribute to global governance. Two strategic variables are especially important: the balance of outside options the rising power and established powers face, and whether contributions by the rising power are viewed as indispensable to regime success. Case studies of China's approach to security in Central Asia, nuclear proliferation, global financial governance, and climate change illustrate the logic of the theory, which has implications for contemporary issues such as China's growing role in development finance.
Students of Public International Law require access to an overwhelming variety of materials which are not always easy to obtain. Cases and Materials on International Law draws together in one volume an exhaustive selection of cases, materials and background information on the subject, which is supplemented by authoritative commentary and expert analysis. Widely recognised as the leading text of its kind, the eighth edition of Cases and Materials on International Law incorporates all major developments in the subject, including: International Court of Justice judgments on the jurisdictional immunity of states (Germany v Italy) and on the obligation to prosecute or extradite in cases of torture (Belgium v Senegal), as well as the Court's advisory opinion on the legality of the declaration of independence in respect of Kosovo New judgments of the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea on maritime disputes The International Law Commission's Guide to Practice on Reservations to Treaties The use of force in Crimea, Libya and Cote D'Ivoire Developments in the UN human rights system
Drawing on both theory and practice, this insightful book offers a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and the International Criminal Court (ICC), centered on the referral mechanism. Arguing that the legal nature of the referral must be conceptualized as a conferral of powers from the UNSC to the ICC, the author explores the complex legal relationship between interacting international organizations. With a novel approach to the relationship between the UNSC and the ICC, this book addresses important questions raised in practice. In particular, Gabriel M. Lentner explores issues regarding any limits and conditions for referral under the UN Charter and the Rome Statute, and the legal effects on heads-of-state immunity, as well as the validity of jurisdictional exemptions for other specific categories of nationals. This is a persuasive study into the powers of the UNSC with respect to international criminal law. With its timely focus on an important topic, this book will be vital reading for academics in international institutional law, international criminal law, and human rights law. ICC judges and lawyers, as well as lawyers involved in the UN, governments, and non-governmental organizations will also benefit from this book.
Cities around the globe struggle to create better and more equitable access to important destinations and services, all the while reducing the energy consumption and environmental impacts of mobility. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation illustrates a new planning paradigm for sustainable transportation through case studies from around the world with hundreds of valuable resources and references, color photos, graphics and tables. The second edition builds and expands upon the highly acclaimed first edition, with new chapters on urban design and urban, regional and intercity public transportation, as well as expanded chapters on automobile dependence and equity issues; automobile cities and the car culture; the history of sustainable and unsustainable transportation; the interrelatedness of technologies, infrastructure energy and functionalities; and public policy and public participation and exemplary places, people and programs around the globe. Among the many valuable additions are discussions of autonomous vehicles (AVs), electric vehicles (EVs), airport cities, urban fabrics, urban heat island effects and mobility as a service (MaaS). New case studies show global exemplars of sustainable transportation, including several from Asia, a case study of participative and deliberative public involvement, as well as one describing life in the Vauban ecologically planned community of Freiburg, Germany. Students in affiliated sustainability disciplines, planners, policymakers and concerned citizens will find many provides practical techniques to innovate and transform transportation.
Gives the reader a detailed account of how cyber-security in Switzerland has evolved over the years, using official documents and a considerable amount of inside knowledge. It focuses on key ideas, institutional arrangements, on the publication of strategy papers, and importantly, on processes leading up to these strategy documents. The peculiarities of the Swiss political system, which influence the way cyber-security can be designed and practiced in Switzerland are considered, as well as the bigger, global influences and driving factors that shaped the Swiss approach to cyber-security. It shows that throughout the years, the most important influence on the Swiss policy-approach was the international level, or rather the developments of a cyber-security policy in other states. Even though many of the basic ideas about information-sharing and public-private partnerships were influenced by (amongst others) the US approach to critical infrastructure protection, the peculiarities of the Swiss political system has led to a particular "Swiss solution", which is based on the federalist structures and subsidiary principles, characterized by stability and resilience to external shocks in the form of cyber-incidents. Cybersecurity in Switzerland will be a stimulating read for anybody interested in cyber-security policy, including students, researchers, analysts and policy makers. It contains not only specific material on an interesting case, but also a wealth of background information on different variations of cyber-security, as well as on information-sharing and public-private partnerships.
The jurisprudential conception of effective control is rooted in outmoded conc- tions of hierarchical organizational structure. By extension, the current template for evaluating effective control poses an increasing risk that culpable commanders will escape liability by exploiting the lacunae in current case law. This article p- poses that jurists should analyze command/superior responsibility cases with full cognizance of modern command and control theory in order to sustain its viability as a practical prosecutorial tool to regulate the crimes committed by loosely knit groups and non-state actors conducting atrocities in chaotic circumstances. The Composite Theory proposed herein would support liability for the acts of subor- nates on the theory that commanders who field fighting organizations without the proper methods for enforcing compliance with the laws and customs of war - sume the risk of criminal sanction where criminal violations occur by their sub- dinates, regardless of the nature of the organization. Despite its broad acceptance and frequent regurgitation in jurisprudence, the doctrine of effective control drawn from the essence of the leader's authority is increasingly inapplicable to non-state actors who conduct hostilities in non-tra- tional conflicts. The independent emergence of the principle that the commander's orders operate with the force of law to limit the application of violence in widely disparate cultures and historical periods suggests that it is more than just a legal technicality, but instead is fundamental to the nature of warfare itself.
This book offers the first definitive English-language resource on Chinese business law. Written by an authoritative source, the book accurately describes what the business law is and explains legislative intentions underlying the myriad of law, rules, and regulations. Moreover, it provides the most up-to-date information on law, rules, and regulations and contains accurate predictions of the future legislative trend. It is written for readers across the spectrum of both common law and civil law systems. The author's experience as expert counsel to Chinese central governmental legislative functions including the State Council Legislative Affairs Office and the expert editor and translator in chief of the national administrative regulations in business and finance, extensive experience of international legal practice and arbitration, and teaching and research experience in international business law and Chinese law will make this book of interest to lawyers, business people, and scholars.
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