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Inspired by Antonio Truyol y Serra's classic work, Doctrines sur le fondement du Droit des gens, this book offers a fully revised and updated examination and discussion of the various doctrines forming the foundations of international law. It offers an accessible insight into the theoretical background of the various legal constructions that characterize the relationship between both international and national legal orders. Written in a clear style, the book's structured chapters provide a comprehensive analysis of the various foundations of obligation in international law: natural law, positivism and sociologism. Through this study, Robert Kolb illustrates how international law has been conceived and shaped over time in relation to its evolving historical and legal-political environment. Split into seven substantive parts, this text is one of the most detailed expositions of the doctrines of international law in the English language to date. Astute and engaging, Robert Kolb's take on Truyol y Serra's Doctrines sur le fondement du Droit des gens will appeal to students and scholars of international law, as well as to practitioners interested in gaining a further grounding with regards to the basis of obligation in international law.
This third edition is a comprehensive manual of the rules of procedure and conduct of business at the UN General Assembly, at international conferences and at assemblies of inter-governmental organisations such as the World Health Organization. It examines the legal basis of these rules, the history of their development and the attempts at their codification. At the heart of the book is an examination of the practical applications of rules of procedure. Procedural rulings, updated to October 2016, are quoted from the records of UN General Assembly meetings, from assemblies of international organisations and from treaty-making conferences. This book is of interest to those involved in international law, international relations and international organisations. It also serves as an indispensable practical guide for delegates to the UN General Assembly and to international inter-governmental conferences. The first edition of this book was awarded the American Society of International Law 'Special Award'.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 164 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice in Judgment No 2867 of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization upon a Complaint Filed against the International Fund for Agricultural Development, together with the related judgments of the ILO Administrative Tribunal, the 2015 judgment of the Federal Court of Australia in Ure v. Commonwealth of Australia and the 2013 United States Supreme Court decision in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.
It is a settled rule of international law that a State may not rely on the provisions of its 'internal law' as justification for failing to comply with international obligations. However, the judiciaries of most countries, including those with a high record of compliance with international norms, have increasingly felt the need to preserve the area of fundamental principles, where the State's inclination to retain full sovereignty seems to act as an unbreakable 'counter-limit' to the limitations deriving from international law. This volume explores this trend by adopting a comparative perspective, addressing the question of how conflicts between international law and national fundamental principles are dealt with and resolved within a specific legal system. The contributing authors identify common tendencies and fundamental differences in the approaches and evaluate the implications of this practice for the future of the principle of supremacy of international law.
The European Union is rarely out of the news and, as it deals with the consequences of the Brexit vote and struggles to emerge from the eurozone crisis, it faces difficult questions about its future. In this debate, the law has a central role to play, whether the issue be the governance of the eurozone, the internal market, 'clawing back powers from Europe' or reducing so-called 'Brussels red tape'. In this Very Short Introduction Anthony Arnull looks at the laws and legal system of the European Union, including EU courts, and discusses the range of issues that the European Union has been given the power to regulate, such as the free movement of goods and people. He considers why an organisation based on international treaties has proved capable of having far-reaching effects on both its Member States and on countries that lie beyond its borders, and discusses how its law and legal system have proved remarkably effective in ensuring that Member States respect the commitments they made when they signed the Treaties. Answering some of the key questions surrounding EU law, such as what exactly it is about, and how it has become part of the legal DNA of its Member States so much more effectively than other treaty-based regimes, Arnull considers the future for the European Union. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
The third edition of this market-leading textbook (previously called An Introduction to International Institutional Law) is written in a clear, three-part structure. It is centred on the dynamics of the relationships between international organisations and their organs, staff, and the outside world. It discusses the essential topics of the law of international organisations, including powers, finances, and privileges and immunities, as well as membership rules, institutional structures, and accountability. The newly revised text has been updated extensively to reflect the entry into force of the EU's Lisbon Treaty (and Croatia's accession) and new articles on the responsibility of international organisations. The chapters have also been reorganised for further clarity. Two new chapters, on the international civil service and the relations between organisations and other institutions, respectively, have been added.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 165 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 judgment of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in Artavia Murillo ('In vitro fertilization') v. Costa Rica, the judgments of the English High Court and Court of Appeal and the European Court of Human Rights in Misick, and the 2014 English High Court judgment in Iraqi Civilians v. Ministry of Defence.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 177 is devoted to the 2017 Final Award on Costs in Philip Morris Asia Limited v. Australia, the 2015 and 2016 orders on provisional measures of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and the Arbitration Tribunal in The Enrica Lexie Incident (Italy v. India) and the 2011 order and 2013 judgment of the International Court of Justice in Request for Interpretation (Cambodia v. Thailand).
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 169 reports on, amongst others, the 2015 Arbitration Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility in Philip Morris Asia Limited v. Commonwealth of Australia, the 2012 judgment of International Court of Justice in Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia) and the 2014 and 2015 Canadian judgments of Supreme Court and Court of Appeal of British Columbia in United Mexican States v. British Columbia (Labour Relations Board) regarding State immunity.
Socio-centric societies have vibrant - albeit different - concepts of human flourishing than is typical in the individualistic West. These concepts influence the promotion of human rights, both in domestic contexts with religious minorities and in international contexts where Western ideals may clash with local norms. Human Rights in Thick and Thin Societies uncovers the original intentions of the drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, finds inspiration from early leaders in the field like Eleanor Roosevelt, and examines the implications of recent advances in cultural psychology for understanding difference. The case studies included illustrate the need to vary the application of human rights in differing cultural environments, and the book suggests a new framework: a flexible universalism that returns to basics - focusing on the great evils of the human condition. This approach will help the human rights movement succeed in a multipolar era.
The 1803 edition of de Rayneval's The Institutions of Natural Law and the Law of Nations served as the leading French text on international law during the first half of the nineteenth century. Written at a time when international law was wholly bilateral in nature, the book decisively sets out the Law of Nations as it stood at the time. Despite its influence on the development of international law in the nineteenth century, the work is now difficult to obtain, and has never before been translated into English. Through his faithful translation and introductory essay, Jean Allain reintroduces this classic work to a new audience. Keeping in line with the fundamental approach and underpinning of de Rayneval's work, this new text considers issues of the Law of Nations, with Book I focusing on self-preservation of the individual turning to self-preservation of political grouping to the creation of the States as a means of ensuring its and its people's self-preservation. In Book II - On State to State Relations - the emphasis shifts from natural law to the Law of Nations. Here consideration is given to States and issues of independence, of trade and alliances, of the acquisition of territory, of boundaries, of reprisals, and issues of foreigners, ambassadors and titles and rank. Finally, Book III - On the State of War and Peace - takes readers through a more clearly developed part of the Law of Nations with regard to the origins, causes, effects, and conduct of war with further sections devoted maritime law and the law of treaties. While Book II and III set out the law of the Law of Nations, the Appendix then considers the role of the Sovereign and his political agents in setting and carrying out a State's foreign policy.
Governments across the globe have begun evolving from lumbering bureaucracies into smaller, more agile special jurisdictions - common-interest developments, special economic zones, and proprietary cites. Private providers increasingly deliver services that political authorities formerly monopolized, inspiring greater competition and efficiency, to the satisfaction of citizens-qua-consumers. These trends suggest that new networks of special jurisdictions will soon surpass nation states in the same way that networked computers replaced mainframes. In this groundbreaking work, Tom W. Bell describes the quiet revolution transforming governments from the bottom up, inside-out, worldwide, and how it will fulfill its potential to bring more freedom, peace, and prosperity to people everywhere.
The growing economic and political significance of Asia has exposed a tension in the modern international order. Despite expanding power and influence, Asian states have played a minimal role in creating the norms and institutions of international law; today they are the least likely to be parties to international agreements or to be represented in international organizations. That is changing. There is widespread scholarly and practitioner interest in international law at present in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as developments in the practice of states. The change has been driven by threats as well as opportunities. Transnational issues such as climate change and occasional flashpoints like the territorial disputes of the South China and the East China Seas pose challenges while economic integration and the proliferation of specialized branches of law and dispute settlement mechanisms have also encouraged greater domestic implementation of international norms across Asia. These evolutions join the long-standing interest in parts of Asia (notably South Asia) in post-colonial theory and the history of international law. The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Asia and the Pacific brings together pre-eminent and emerging specialists to analyse the approach to and influence of key states of the region, as well as whether truly 'Asian' trends can be identified and what this might mean for international order.
In its first twenty years, the WTO dispute settlement system generated over 350 decisions totalling more than 60,000 pages. These decisions contain many statements by WTO adjudicators regarding the law of treaties, state responsibility, international dispute settlement, and other topics of general public international law. This book is a collection of nearly one thousand statements by WTO adjudicators relating to admissibility and jurisdiction; attribution of conduct to a State; breach of an obligation; conflicts between treaties; countermeasures; due process; evidence before international tribunals; good faith; judicial economy; municipal law; non-retroactivity; reasonableness; sources of international law; sovereignty; treaty interpretation; and words and phrases commonly used in treaties and other international legal instruments. This comprehensive digest presents summaries and extracts organized systematically under issue-specific sub-headings, making this jurisprudence easily accessible to students and practitioners working in any field of international law.
Under what conditions does a post-conflict government have authority? What challenges to its legitimacy does it face? To what standards can it be held accountable? Via case studies of Sierra Leone and Afghanistan and detailed accounts of extant international law, Matthew Saul explores the international legal framework which regulates popular governance of post-conflict reconstruction.
A World of Struggle reveals the role of expert knowledge in our political and economic life. As politicians, citizens, and experts engage one another on a technocratic terrain of irresolvable argument and uncertain knowledge, a world of astonishing inequality and injustice is born. In this provocative book, David Kennedy draws on his experience working with international lawyers, human rights advocates, policy professionals, economic development specialists, military lawyers, and humanitarian strategists to provide a unique insider's perspective on the complexities of global governance. He describes the conflicts, unexamined assumptions, and assertions of power and entitlement that lie at the center of expert rule. Kennedy explores the history of intellectual innovation by which experts developed a sophisticated legal vocabulary for global management strangely detached from its distributive consequences. At the center of expert rule is struggle: myriad everyday disputes in which expertise drifts free of its moorings in analytic rigor and observable fact. He proposes tools to model and contest expert work and concludes with an in-depth examination of modern law in warfare as an example of sophisticated expertise in action. Charting a major new direction in global governance at a moment when the international order is ready for change, this critically important book explains how we can harness expert knowledge to remake an unjust world.
Constitutionalism has become a byword for legitimate government, but is it fated to lose its relevance as constitutional states relinquish power to international institutions? This book evaluates the extent to which constitutionalism, as an empirical idea and normative ideal, can be adapted to institutions beyond the state by surveying the sophisticated legal and political system of the European Union. Having originated in a series of agreements between states, the EU has acquired important constitutional features like judicial review, protections for individual rights, and a hierarchy of norms. Nonetheless, it confounds traditional models of constitutional rule to the extent that its claim to authority rests on the promise of economic prosperity and technocratic competence rather than on the democratic will of citizens. Critically appraising the European Union and its legal system, this book proposes the idea of 'functional constitutionalism' to describe this distinctive configuration of public power. Although the EU is the most advanced instance of functional constitutionalism to date, understanding this pragmatic mode of constitutional authority is essential for assessing contemporary international economic governance.
Justice among Nations tells the story of the rise of international law and how it has been formulated, debated, contested, and put into practice from ancient times to the present. Stephen Neff avoids technical jargon as he surveys doctrines from natural law to feminism, and practices from the Warring States of China to the international criminal courts of today. Ancient China produced the first rudimentary set of doctrines. But the cornerstone of later international law was laid by the Romans, in the form of natural law--a universal law that was superior to early laws and governments. As medieval European states came into contact with non-Christian peoples, from East Asia to the New World, practical solutions had to be devised to the many legal quandaries that arose. In the wake of these experiences, international legal doctrine began to assume its modern form in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. New challenges in the nineteenth century encompassed the advance of nationalism, the rise of free trade and European imperialism, the formation of international organizations, and the arbitration of disputes. Innovative doctrines included liberalism, the nationality school, and solidarism. The twentieth century witnessed the formation of the League of Nations and a World Court, but also the rise of socialist and fascist states and the advent of the Cold War. Yet the collapse of the Soviet Union brought little respite. As Neff makes clear, further threats to the rule of law today come from environmental pressures, genocide, and terrorism.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 167 reports on, amongst others, the arbitration award in the Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary Arbitration (Bangladesh v. India), the European Court of Human Rights Grand Chamber 2011 and 2015 decisions in Chiragov v. Armenia and the judgment of the Supreme Court of Uganda in Uganda v. Kwoyelo.
The history of international adjudication is all too often presented as a triumphalist narrative of normative and institutional progress that casts aside its uncomfortable memories, its darker legacies and its historical failures. In this narrative, the bulk of 'trials' and 'errors' is left in the dark, confined to oblivion or left for erudition to recall as a curiosity. Written by an interdisciplinary group of lawyers, historians and social scientists, this volume relies on the rich and largely unexplored archive of institutional and legal experimentation since the late nineteenth century to shed new light on the history of international adjudication. It combines contextual accounts of failed, or aborted, as well as of 'successful' experiments to clarify our understanding of the past and present of international adjudication.
International and national armed conflicts are usually preceded by a media campaign in which public figures foment ethnic, national, racial or religious hatred, inciting listeners to acts of violence. Incitement on Trial evaluates the efforts of international criminal tribunals to hold such inciters criminally responsible. This is an unsettled area of international criminal law, and prosecutors have often struggled to demonstrate a causal connection between speech acts and subsequent crimes. This book identifies 'revenge speech' as the type of rhetoric with the greatest effects on empathy and tolerance for violence. Wilson argues that inciting speech should be handled under the preventative doctrine of inchoate crimes, but that once international crimes have been committed, then ordering and complicity are the most appropriate forms of criminal liability. Based in extensive original research, this book proposes an evidence-based risk assessment model for monitoring political speech.
Domestic law has long been recognised as a source of international law, an inspiration for legal developments, or the benchmark against which a legal system is to be assessed. Academic commentary normally re-traces these well-trodden paths, leaving one with the impression that the interaction between domestic and international law is unworthy of further enquiry. However, a different - and surprisingly pervasive - nexus between the two spheres has been largely overlooked: the use of domestic law in the interpretation of international law. This book examines the practice of five international courts and tribunals to demonstrate that domestic law is invoked to interpret international law, often outside the framework of Articles 31 to 33 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. It assesses the appropriateness of such recourse to domestic law as well as situating the practice within broader debates regarding interpretation and the interaction between domestic and international legal systems.
Democratic countries, such as Australia, face the dilemma of preserving public and national security without sacrificing fundamental freedoms. In the context where the rule of law is an underlying assumption of the constitutional framework, Emergency Powers in Australia provides a succinct analysis of the sorts of emergency which have been experienced in Australia and an evaluation of the legal weapons available to the authorities to cope with these emergencies. It analyses the scope of the defence power to determine the constitutionality of federal legislation to deal with wartime crises and the 'war' on terrorism, the extent of the executive power and its relationship to the prerogative, the deployment of the defence forces in aid of the civil power, the statutory frameworks regulating the responses to civil unrest, and natural disasters. The role of the courts when faced with challenges to the invocation of emergency powers is explained and analysed.
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