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The combination of the words 'international law' and 'crisis' is intriguing and leads to a number of questions. How does international law react to crises and what are the typical conditions under which the term 'crisis' is invoked? Is international law a vivid field of law due to and thanks to crises? Are parts of international law maybe in crisis themselves? To what extent has the focus on crises taken away attention from important legal questions in the day-to-day application of international law? And does the focus on crisis undermine analytic progress amongst scholars, who might think about crises as being something completely new, asking for new answers while ignoring the relevance of the existing 'international law acquis'? This volume includes eight articles, in the domains of human rights law, migration law, environmental law, international criminal law, WTO law and European law, reflecting upon these pertinent questions, basically asking: do international lawyers do the things right or do they the right things? The Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (NYIL) was first published in 1970. It offers a forum for the publication of scholarly articles of a more general nature in the area of public international law including the law of the European Union.
Justice among Nations tells the story of the rise of international law and how it has been formulated, debated, contested, and put into practice from ancient times to the present. Stephen Neff avoids technical jargon as he surveys doctrines from natural law to feminism, and practices from the Warring States of China to the international criminal courts of today. Ancient China produced the first rudimentary set of doctrines. But the cornerstone of later international law was laid by the Romans, in the form of natural law--a universal law that was superior to early laws and governments. As medieval European states came into contact with non-Christian peoples, from East Asia to the New World, practical solutions had to be devised to the many legal quandaries that arose. In the wake of these experiences, international legal doctrine began to assume its modern form in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. New challenges in the nineteenth century encompassed the advance of nationalism, the rise of free trade and European imperialism, the formation of international organizations, and the arbitration of disputes. Innovative doctrines included liberalism, the nationality school, and solidarism. The twentieth century witnessed the formation of the League of Nations and a World Court, but also the rise of socialist and fascist states and the advent of the Cold War. Yet the collapse of the Soviet Union brought little respite. As Neff makes clear, further threats to the rule of law today come from environmental pressures, genocide, and terrorism.
It is a settled rule of international law that a State may not rely on the provisions of its 'internal law' as justification for failing to comply with international obligations. However, the judiciaries of most countries, including those with a high record of compliance with international norms, have increasingly felt the need to preserve the area of fundamental principles, where the State's inclination to retain full sovereignty seems to act as an unbreakable 'counter-limit' to the limitations deriving from international law. This volume explores this trend by adopting a comparative perspective, addressing the question of how conflicts between international law and national fundamental principles are dealt with and resolved within a specific legal system. The contributing authors identify common tendencies and fundamental differences in the approaches and evaluate the implications of this practice for the future of the principle of supremacy of international law.
The Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (NYIL) was first published in 1970. It offers a forum for the publication of scholarly articles of a more general nature in the area of public international law including the law of the European Union. With this volume on 'Legal Equality and the International Rule of Law', the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law celebrates Pieter Kooijmans' academic, diplomatic, and judicial career by picking up on an important subject in his early writings, the principle of legal equality of states. This volume studies if and how the principle of legal equality of states is still important in the international legal order of the early 21st century. In particular, this volume examines the principle's current relevance, e.g., in a pluralistic legal order, its relation to hegemony in international relations and international law, and how it functions in contemporary international organisations. The principle is further explored in the fields of international criminal law, international humanitarian law, and the international law of sovereign immunity.
This work is a translation of de Raynevals 1803 classic The Institutions of Natural Law and the Law of Nations. Having been translated into Spanish shortly after its appearance, The Institutions was the reference point of international law for much of the French- and Spanish-speaking world during the Nineteenth Century. As a result, arguably, it is the single most important text of international law to appear between the 1814 Congress of Vienna and the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. This, the first ever English translation of de Raynevals The Institutions, provides the English-language world with the last text conceived of, and written, during the era of bilaterial, European, Law of Nations; before the waltz into the Concert of Europe and the growth of multilateral diplomacy, with its end point todays United Nations. De Rayneval is a product of the Ancien Regime who turned to writing The Institutions after having been purged from the Quai dOrsay by the French Revolution. It may be said that in brokering the 1782 Peace of Paris which saw the United Kingdom recognise the United States of America, that Rayneval ended the war which his brother started; as it was Conrad-Alexandre de Rayneval who was the architect of the previous French policy of supporting, and later recognising, the American insurgence of the Thirteen Colonies. Through his faithful translation and introductory essay, Jean Allain makes this classic work accessible to the new audience of the English-language World.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 186 is devoted to the Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso/Niger), APDH v. Cote d'Ivoire, Umuhoza v. Rwanda, Anchugov and Gladkov v. Russia, Re Execution of the Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the Case of Anchugov and Gladkov v. Russia, Avotins v. Latvia, BAC v. Greece, Fontevecchia and D'amico v. Argentina, Fontevecchia Case, Request under Regulation 46(3) of the Regulations of the Court, Decision on the 'Prosecution's Request for a Ruling on Jurisdiction under Article 19(3) of the Statute' 'Rohingya Case'), Ezokola v. Canada, B010 v. Canada, Google Inc. v. Equustek Solutions Inc. and Others, Dhakal and Others v. Nepal Government and Others, Re Application by Finucane for Judicial Review.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 150 reports on, amongst others, the 2010 Kosovo Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, the 2012 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Othman v. United Kingdom and the judgments delivered in the Court of Appeal in 2011 and 2012 in Rahmatullah v. Secretary of State (Nos 1 and 2).
How today's unjust global order is shaped by uncertain expert knowledge-and how to fix it A World of Struggle reveals the role of expert knowledge in our political and economic life. As politicians, citizens, and experts engage one another on a technocratic terrain of irresolvable argument and uncertain knowledge, a world of astonishing inequality and injustice is born. In this provocative book, David Kennedy draws on his experience working with international lawyers, human rights advocates, policy professionals, economic development specialists, military lawyers, and humanitarian strategists to provide a unique insider's perspective on the complexities of global governance. He describes the conflicts, unexamined assumptions, and assertions of power and entitlement that lie at the center of expert rule. Kennedy explores the history of intellectual innovation by which experts developed a sophisticated legal vocabulary for global management strangely detached from its distributive consequences. At the center of expert rule is struggle: myriad everyday disputes in which expertise drifts free of its moorings in analytic rigor and observable fact. He proposes tools to model and contest expert work and concludes with an in-depth examination of modern law in warfare as an example of sophisticated expertise in action. Charting a major new direction in global governance at a moment when the international order is ready for change, this critically important book explains how we can harness expert knowledge to remake an unjust world.
Under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law (now the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition). And Institutum Iurisprudentiae, Academia Sinica, a group of twenty scholars from around the world gathered to study the experiences made with regards to compulsory licensing. The results are demonstrated in this book. Different articles analyze how the international conventions on intellectual property may be interpreted and explore the related doctrinal groundwork surrounding compulsory patent licensing and beyond. It is shown how the compulsory licensing regime could be transformed into a truly workable mechanism facilitating the speedy use and dissemination of innovation and other subject matters of protection.
This book takes the reader on a sweeping tour of the international legal field to reveal some of the patterns of difference, dominance, and disruption that belie international law's claim to universality. Pulling back the curtain on the "divisible college of international lawyers", Anthea Roberts shows how international lawyers in different states, regions, and geopolitical groupings are often subject to distinct incoming influences and outgoing spheres of influence in ways that reflect and reinforce differences in how they understand and approach international law. These divisions manifest themselves in contemporary controversies, such as debates about Crimea and the South China Sea. Not all approaches to international law are created equal, however. Using case studies and visual representations, the author demonstrates how actors and materials from some states and groups have come to dominate certain transnational flows and forums in ways that make them disproportionately influential in constructing the "international". This point holds true for Western actors, materials, and approaches in general, and for Anglo-American (and sometimes French) ones in particular. However, these patterns are set for disruption. As the world moves past an era of Western dominance and toward greater multipolarity, it is imperative for international lawyers to understand the perspectives and approaches of those coming from diverse backgrounds. By taking readers on a comparative tour of different international law academies and textbooks, the author encourages them to see the world through the eyes of others - an essential skill in this fast changing world of shifting power dynamics and rising nationalism.
The structure of the book makes it easy to analyse and compare the rules cross-border. This is relevant due to the close historical and cultural relationship of the five countries and due to decades of practical cooperation in criminal matters between the countries. The trend to extend domestic jurisdiction is also seen outside the Nordic countries, which makes the book relevant both for readers within and outside the Nordic countries.
International arbitration has developed into a global system of adjudication, dealing with disputes arising from a variety of legal relationships: between states, between private commercial actors, and between private and public entities. It operates to a large extent according to its own rules and dynamics - a transnational justice system rather independent of domestic and international law. In response to its growing importance and use by disputing parties, international arbitration has become increasingly institutionalized, professionalized, and judicialized. At the same time, it has gained significance beyond specific disputes and indeed contributes to the shaping of law. Arbitrators have therefore become not only adjudicators, but transnational lawmakers. This has raised concerns over the legitimacy of international arbitration. Practising Virtue looks at international arbitration from the 'inside', with an emphasis on its transnational character. Instead of concentrating on the national and international law governing international arbitration, it focuses on those who practise international arbitration, in order to understand how it actually works, what its sources of authority are, and what demands of legitimacy it must meet. Putting those who practise arbitration into the centre of the system of international arbitration allows us to appreciate the way in which they contribute to the development of the law they apply. This book invites eminent arbitrators to reflect on the actual practice of international arbitration, and its contribution to the transnational justice system.
Paul F. Diehl and Charlotte Ku's new framework for international law divides it into operating and normative systems. The authors provide a theory of how these two systems interact, which explains how changes in one system precipitate changes and create capacity in the other. A punctuated equilibrium theory of system evolution, drawn from studies of biology and public policy studies, provides the basis for delineating the conditions for change and helps explain a pattern of international legal change that is often infrequent and sub-optimal, but still influential.
Since 2007 the world has lurched from one crisis to the next. The rise of new powers, the collapse of our global financial system, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and crisis in the Eurozone have led to a build up of risks that is likely to provoke a more general crisis in our system of global governance if it cannot be made fairer, more effective and accountable. In this book, nine leading scholars explore the fault lines and mounting challenges that are putting pressure on existing institutions, the ways in which we are currently attempting to manage them or failing to and the prospects for global governance in the 21st century. In doing so, the contributors offer a fresh look at one of the most important issues confronting the world today and they suggest strategies for adapting current institutions to better manage our mutual interdependence in the future. Contributors include Ha-Joon Chang, Benjamin Cohen, Michael Cox, David Held, George Magnus, Robert Skidelsky, Robert Wade, Martin Wolf and Kevin Young.
Constitutionalism has become a byword for legitimate government, but is it fated to lose its relevance as constitutional states relinquish power to international institutions? This book evaluates the extent to which constitutionalism, as an empirical idea and normative ideal, can be adapted to institutions beyond the state by surveying the sophisticated legal and political system of the European Union. Having originated in a series of agreements between states, the EU has acquired important constitutional features like judicial review, protections for individual rights, and a hierarchy of norms. Nonetheless, it confounds traditional models of constitutional rule to the extent that its claim to authority rests on the promise of economic prosperity and technocratic competence rather than on the democratic will of citizens. Critically appraising the European Union and its legal system, this book proposes the idea of 'functional constitutionalism' to describe this distinctive configuration of public power. Although the EU is the most advanced instance of functional constitutionalism to date, understanding this pragmatic mode of constitutional authority is essential for assessing contemporary international economic governance.
In its first twenty years, the WTO dispute settlement system generated over 350 decisions totalling more than 60,000 pages. These decisions contain many statements by WTO adjudicators regarding the law of treaties, state responsibility, international dispute settlement, and other topics of general public international law. This book is a collection of nearly one thousand statements by WTO adjudicators relating to admissibility and jurisdiction; attribution of conduct to a State; breach of an obligation; conflicts between treaties; countermeasures; due process; evidence before international tribunals; good faith; judicial economy; municipal law; non-retroactivity; reasonableness; sources of international law; sovereignty; treaty interpretation; and words and phrases commonly used in treaties and other international legal instruments. This comprehensive digest presents summaries and extracts organized systematically under issue-specific sub-headings, making this jurisprudence easily accessible to students and practitioners working in any field of international law.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 159 reports on, amongst others, the 2014 Judgment (Just Satisfaction) of the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in Cyprus v. Turkey, the 2013 Order on Request for Provisional Measures of International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in The Arctic Sunrise (Netherlands v. Russian Federation) and the 2014 English Court of Appeal decision in Belhaj v. Straw.
Global climate change is a topic of continuously growing interest. As more international treaties come into force, media coverage has increased and many universities are now starting to conduct courses specifically on climate change laws and policies. This textbook provides a survey of the international law on climate change, explaining how significant international agreements have sought to promote compliance with general norms of international law. Benoit Mayer provides an account of the rules agreed upon through lengthy negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and multiple other forums on mitigation, geoengineering, adaptation, loss and damage, and international support. The International Law on Climate Change is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students studying climate, environmental or international law. It is supported by a suite of online resources, available at www.internationalclimatelaw.com, featuring regularly updated lists of complementary materials, weblinks and regular updates for each chapter.
At the end of the twentieth century, academics and policymakers welcomed a trend toward fiscal and political decentralization as part of a potential solution for slow economic growth and poor performance by insulated, unaccountable governments. For the last two decades, researchers have been trying to answer a series of vexing questions about the political economy of multi-layered governance. Much of the best recent research on decentralization has come from close collaborations between university researchers and international aid institutions. As the volume and quality of this collaborative research have increased in recent decades, the time has come to review the lessons from this literature and apply them to debates about future programming. In this volume, the contributors place this research in the broader history of engagement between aid institutions and academics, particularly in the area of decentralized governance, and outline the challenges and opportunities to link evidence and policy action.
There is a wealth of material that shapes the law of State responsibility for breaches of investment contracts. First impressions of an unsettled or uncertain law have thus far gone unchallenged. But unchallenged first impressions point to the need for a detailed study that investigates and analyses the sources, the content, the characteristics, and the evolution of this law. The argument at the heart of this monograph is that the law of state responsibility for breaches of investment contracts has carved a unique and distinct trajectory from the traditional route for the creation of international law, developing principally from arbitral awards, and mimicking, to a considerable extent, the general international law on the protection of aliens and alien property. This book unveils the remarkable journey of the law of state responsibility for breaches of investment contracts, from its origins, to its formation, to its arrival at the cusp of maturity.
The European Union is unique amongst international organisations in that it has a highly developed and coherent system of judicial protection. The rights derived from Union law can be enforced in court, as opposed to other international organisations whereby enforceability is often far less certain. At the heart of the system of judicial protection in the European Union is the core principle of upholding the rule of law. As such, the stakes are high in the sense that the system of the judicial protection in the European Union must live up to its promise in which individuals, Member States and Union institutions are all guaranteed a route by which to enforce Union law rights. This book provides a rigorously structured analysis of the EU system of judicial protection and procedure before the Union courts. It examines the role and the competences of the Union courts and the types of actions that may be brought before them, such as the actions for infringement, annulment, and failure to act, as well as special forms of procedure, for example interim relief, appeals, and staff cases. In doing so, special attention is given to the fields of EU competition law and State aid. In addition it evaluates the relationship between the Court of Justice and the national courts through the preliminary ruling procedure and the interplay between EU law and the national procedural frameworks generally. Throughout, it takes account of significant institutional developments, including the relevant changes brought by the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments to the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice and the General Court.
Traditionally the issues concerning the exercise of administrative powers by public authorities were considered a type of national enclave. It was the responsibility of the state to ensure that adequate procedural safeguards were in place to prevent the government from interfering with the rights of its citizens. During the last few decades, however, a variety of sets of rules regarding procedural due process has developed to govern the conduct of those public authorities who operate on a regional or world regulatory footing, such as the European Union and the World Trade Organization. Analysing the procedural due process requirements applicable to administrative procedure beyond the borders of the States, this volume demonstrates how regional and global regulatory regimes impose requirements that are strikingly similar to those set out by the most developed legal systems of the world. The book argues that such requirements of administrative procedure are justified not only by the traditional concerns for the protection of individual interests against the misuse of power by public authorities, but also by other values, such as good governance and cooperation between public authorities. Finally, the book conceptualizes such rules as legal requirements which arbitral tribunals and other agencies should respect when interpreting standards of justice.
Most intrastate peace agreements are implemented inadequately or not at all. This leads to renewed tensions and often to a resumption of armed conflict. This book examines why the record of implementation of peace agreements between governments and population groups within their state is so poor, and what is being and can be done to change this. Most of the authors write from first hand experience, having played major roles in the negotiation and implementation of intrastate peace agreements in different parts of the world. They provide unique insights into the difficulties faced by parties to peace agreements and explore ways to overcome these. The diversity of authors and of the peace processes in which they have been involved ensures a rich, new and important contribution to the understanding of intrastate peace processes.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 158 reports on, amongst others, the 2014 judgment of the Nepalese Supreme Court in JuRI-Nepal (Justice and Rights Organization) v. Government of Nepal, the 2014 judgment of English Court of Appeal in Regina v. Newell (following on from judgment of European Court of Human Rights in Vinter v. United Kingdom reported in 156 ILR 115) and the Retrial judgment of International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in Prosecutor v. Haradinaj, Balaj and Brahimaj.
We are in a moment where peoples and states are interested, directly or indirectly, in asserting their "national interest," unilaterally if necessary. In the White House, the national security policy is premised on "America First," while Catalans and Iraqi Kurds have taken steps to unilaterally declare their independence. All of these actions have generated tension both domestically and internationally. However, even though the potential for unilateral action has been receiving a lot of attention, the larger issue of the legality of unilateral acts is often hard to discern. This book provides a history of the doctrine of unilateral acts in international law, tracing their treatment in the international sphere from consent based acts, to obligations erga omnes, to acts of estoppel. Through chapter-by-chapter case studies, this book traces the "legalization" of the category of unilateral acts from its 19th Century foundations into a broad category of obligation. To understand why and how this occurred, this book examines the history of the legal doctrine of unilateral acts, which shows that in spite of efforts to progressively make unilateral acts "legal" they are still not precisely defined or easy to apply, challenging the very commitment these acts are meant to establish.
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