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Published on the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention, this thematic collection of case studies provides a thorough understanding of World Heritage sites and their Outstanding Universal Value in the context of sustainable development. The case studies describe twenty-six thematically, typologically and regionally diverse World Heritage sites illustrating their benefits to local communities and ecosystems and sharing the lessons learned with the diverse range of stakeholders involved. The volume emphasises a holistic and integrated view of World Heritage, linking it to the role local communities play in management and protection, and to issues of ecosystem sustainability, and the maintenance of biological, linguistic and cultural diversity. Cross-disciplinary in its scope, this book will provide a meeting point for researchers, practitioners, community representatives and the wider public and will promote cultural and natural heritage conservation as a key vector of sustainable development and social cohesion.
This book presents a complete and coherent view of the subject of Common European Sales Law from a range of European perspectives. The book offers a comparison of the CESL with the CISG, as well as pre-existing instruments, including the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) and the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL). It analyses the process of enactment of CESL and its scope of application, covering areas such as the sale of goods, the supplying (licensing) of digital content, the supply of trade-related services, and consumer protection. It examines the design of the CESL bifurcating businesses into large and small-to-medium sized enterprises, and the providing of rules covering digital content and the supply of trade-related services. Lastly, it studies the field of application of the CESL combined with the already existing EU consumer protection laws, as well as nation-specific laws.
The growing economic and political significance of Asia has exposed a tension in the modern international order. Despite expanding power and influence, Asian states have played a minimal role in creating the norms and institutions of international law; today they are the least likely to be parties to international agreements or to be represented in international organizations. That is changing. There is widespread scholarly and practitioner interest in international law at present in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as developments in the practice of states. The change has been driven by threats as well as opportunities. Transnational issues such as climate change and occasional flashpoints like the territorial disputes of the South China and the East China Seas pose challenges while economic integration and the proliferation of specialized branches of law and dispute settlement mechanisms have also encouraged greater domestic implementation of international norms across Asia. These evolutions join the long-standing interest in parts of Asia (notably South Asia) in post-colonial theory and the history of international law. The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Asia and the Pacific brings together pre-eminent and emerging specialists to analyse the approach to and influence of key states of the region, as well as whether truly 'Asian' trends can be identified and what this might mean for international order.
Austerity and Law in Europe presents an interdisciplinary collection of essays that challenge traditional narratives of austerity. The contributions recast austerity as a historically contingent political rationality that operates through law and technocracy. * A collection of essays that tackles the relationship between austerity and law within and outside the European Union * Draws on a set of interdisciplinary contributions, incorporating insights from European law, economic history, legal theory, and economics * Reveals how austerity measures in Europe were not implemented as an outcome of legal or economic necessity, but were a political choice * Presents austerity as a historically contingent political rationality which gained a legal endorsement in the EU law and policy without foreclosing the possibilities for contestation either through law or politics
How could privacy play a key role in protecting digital identities? How could we merge privacy law, policies, regulations and technologies to protect our digital identities in the context of connected devices and distributed systems? In this book, the author addresses major issues of identity protection and proposes a service-oriented layered framework to achieve interoperability of privacy and secure distributed systems. The framework is intended to distill privacy-related digital identity requirements (business interoperability) into a set of services, which in turn can be implemented on the basis of open standards (technical interoperability). The adoption of the proposed framework in security projects and initiatives would decrease complexities and foster understanding and collaborations between business and technical stakeholders. This work is a step toward implementing the author's vision of delivering cyber security as a set of autonomous multi-platform hosted services that should be available upon user request and on a pay-per-use basis.
The application of international law by domestic courts has gained increasing attention in recent years. In an ever-more interconnected world, domestic courts now make reference to judgments by foreign courts when faced with similar or identical legal problems involving international law. Their judgments see increasing recognition of their pivotal role in shaping and interpreting international law. Understanding them will be of use for any practitioner and scholar in international law. International Law in Domestic Courts, Oxford's online collection of domestic court decisions which apply international law, has been providing scholars with at-your-fingertips access to analysis and commentary for more than a decade. First established in 2006, it now includes over 1,700 judgments of cases involving international law-related aspects from nearly 100 countries and continues to expand. This Casebook is the perfect companion, presenting a selection of the most important cases along with a commentary to give a holistic overview of the use of international law in national courts, and how the jurisprudence has developed international law itself. Practitioners, students, and academics will find this an invaluable resource when faced with the complex questions of applying international law in domestic courts.
This book describes the rules governing appeals before the Court of Justice of the European Union. The appeal is the judicial remedy by which a party may contest a decision of the General Court of the European Union. It concerns matters in which the Tribunal has jurisdiction such as, competition, mergers, state aids, access to documents, restrictive measures, EU staff, trade marks, and other areas of intellectual property. This form of judicial remedy was created just over 25 years ago. It is specific to the ECJ, and can only be learned through the case-law. This book is a description of the case-law, and of the rules that the lawyers pleading appeal cases are required to know.
This book empirically explores whether and under what conditions the judicial process is efficient. Three specific issues are addressed: first, disputants self-select into litigation. Do they tend to bring cases with merit? Second, filed cases differ in their social import. Do courts select more important cases to devote more resource to? Third, courts establish precedents, affect resource allocation in the cases at hand, and influence future behaviours of transacting parties. Do courts, like Judge Posner asserts, tend to make decisions that enhance allocative efficiency and reduce transaction costs? Positive answers to the above questions attest to the efficiency of the judicial process. What drive efficient or inefficient outcomes are the selections and decisions by litigants, litigators, and judges. Their earlier selections and decisions affect later ones. Eleven chapters in this book, authored by leading empirical legal scholars in the world, deal with these issues in the US, Europe, and Asia.
The vitality or, alternatively, vitiation of the international arbitral process remains a pressing subject. The explosion of inter-State, investor-State, and international commercial arbitration in recent years magnifies the importance of the subject. This second edition combines the historical analysis of the first edition with a survey of the continued salience and contemporary developments for each of the three problems identified: (i) the severability of the arbitration agreement; (ii) denial of justice (and now other possible breaches of international law) by governmental negation of arbitration; and (iii) the authority of truncated international arbitral tribunals. The international arbitral process continues to be fortified against unilateral attempts to derail it and, to that end, this book will be a valuable guide for practitioners and scholars alike.
This book traces the role of human rights concerns in US foreign policy during the 1980s, focusing on the struggle among the Reagan administration and members of Congress. It demonstrates how congressional pressure led the administration to reconsider its approach to human rights and craft a conservative human rights policy centered on democracy promotion and anti-communism - a decision which would have profound implications for American attention to human rights. Based on extensive archival research and interviews, Rasmus Sinding Sondergaard combines a comprehensive overview of human rights in American foreign relations with in-depth case studies of how human rights shaped US foreign policy toward Soviet Jewry, South African apartheid, and Nicaragua. Tracing the motivations behind human rights activism, this book demonstrates how liberals, moderates, and conservatives selectively invoked human rights to further their agendas, ultimately contributing to the establishment of human rights as a core moral language in US foreign policy.
The universal promise of contemporary international law has long inspired countries of the Global South to use it as an important field of contestation over global inequality. Taking three central examples, Sundhya Pahuja argues that this promise has been subsumed within a universal claim for a particular way of life by the idea of 'development'. As the horizon of the promised transformation and concomitant equality has receded ever further, international law has legitimised an ever-increasing sphere of intervention in the Third World. The post-war wave of decolonisation ended in the creation of the developmental nation-state, the claim to permanent sovereignty over natural resources in the 1950s and 1960s was transformed into the protection of foreign investors, and the promotion of the rule of international law in the early 1990s has brought about the rise of the rule of law as a development strategy in the present day.
Jurisprudence has up until recently largely neglected international law as a subject of philosophizing. The Nature of International Law tries to offset against this deficiency by providing a comprehensive explanatory account of international law. It does so within an analytical tradition, albeit within the one which departs from the nowadays dominant method of the metaphysically-driven conceptual analysis. Instead, it adopts the prototype theory of concepts, which is directed towards determining typical features constitutive of the nature of international law. The book's central finding is that those features are: normativity, institutionalization, coercive guaranteeing, and justice-aptness. Since typical features are context sensitive, their specificities at the international level are further elucidated. The book, finally, challenges the often raised claim that fragmentation is international law's unique feature by demonstrating that international institutional actors, particularly adjudicative ones, largely perceive themselves as officials of a unified legal order.
Well-selected and authoritative, Palgrave Core Statutes provide the key materials needed by students in a format that is clear, compact and very easy to use. They are ideal for use in exams.
How do international organizations procure goods, services and works to carry out their institutional mission? How does this procurement activity affect individuals? Does the procurement relationship between international organizations and private subjects bring an even distribution of rights and duties? Are international organizations accountable to private subjects and states when allocating their resources through procurement? The book explores the complex phenomenon of procurement by international organizations from the point of view of the relationship between international organizations and private subjects. It provides, for the first time, a systematization and conceptualization of the emerging rules and practices of procurement by international organizations. It also identifies the international political dynamics and interplay of interests underlying these rules and practices. In doing so, it shows how these dynamics shape the exercise of international public authority over private subjects, and the scope of private subjects' rights vis-a-vis international organizations.
Russian interference in the 2016 US presidential election produced the biggest political scandal in a generation, marking the beginning of an ongoing attack on democracy. In the run-up to the 2020 election, Russia was found to have engaged in more "information operations," a practice that has been increasingly adopted by other countries. In Election Interference, Jens David Ohlin makes the case that these operations violate international law, not as a cyberwar or a violation of sovereignty, but as a profound assault on democratic values protected by the international legal order under the rubric of self-determination. He argues that, in order to confront this new threat to democracy, countries must prohibit outsiders from participating in elections, enhance transparency on social media platforms, and punish domestic actors who solicit foreign interference. This important book should be read by anyone interested in protecting election integrity in our age of social media disinformation.
The Court of Justice of the European Union has exclusive jurisdiction over European Union law and holds a broad interpretation of these powers. This, however, may come into conflict with the jurisdiction of other international courts and tribunals, especially in the context of so-called mixed agreements. While the CJEU considers these 'integral parts' of EU law, other international courts will also have jurisdiction in such cases. This book explores the conundrum of shared jurisdiction, analysing the international legal framework for the resolution of such conflicts, and provides a critical and comprehensive analysis of the CJEU's far-reaching jurisdiction, suggesting solutions to this dilemma. The book also addresses the special relationship between the CJEU and the European Court of Human Rights. The unique interaction between these two bodies raises fundamental substantive concerns about overlaps of jurisdiction and interpretation in the courts. Conflicts of interpretation manage largely to be avoided by frequent cross-referencing, which also allows for much cross-fertilization in the development of European human rights law. The link between these two courts is the subject of the final section of the book.
This edited volume examines the role of international law in a changing global order. Can we, under the current significantly changing conditions, still observe an increasing juridification of international relations based on a universal understanding of values? Or are we, to the contrary, facing a tendency towards an informalization or a reformalization of international law, or even an erosion of international legal norms? Would it be appropriate to revisit classical elements of international law in order to react to structural changes, which may give rise to a more polycentric or non-polar world order? Or are we simply observing a slump in the development towards an international rule of law based on a universal understanding of values? In eleven chapters, distinguished scholars reflect on how to approach these questions from historical, system-oriented and actor-centered perspectives. The contributions engage with the rise of European international law since the 17th century, the decay of the international rule of law, compliance as an indicator for the state of international law, international law and informal law-making in times of populism, the rule of environmental law and complex problems, human rights in Europe in a hostile environment, the influence of the BRICS states on international law, the impact of non-state actors on international law, international law's contribution to global justice, the contestation of value-based norms and the international rule of law in light of legitimacy claims.
Scholars have long argued that transparency makes international rule violations more visible and improves outcomes. Secrets in Global Governance revises this claim to show how equipping international organizations (IOs) with secrecy can be a critical tool for eliciting sensitive information and increasing cooperation. States are often deterred from disclosing information about violations of international rules by concerns of revealing commercially sensitive economic information or the sources and methods used to collect intelligence. IOs equipped with effective confidentiality systems can analyze and act on sensitive information while preventing its wide release. Carnegie and Carson use statistical analyses of new data, elite interviews, and archival research to test this argument in domains across international relations, including nuclear proliferation, international trade, justice for war crimes, and foreign direct investment. Secrets in Global Governance brings a groundbreaking new perspective to the literature of international relations.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 156 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 Provisional Measures Order of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in The ARA Libertad (Argentina v. Ghana) together with the 2013 judgment of the Supreme Court of Ghana on the immunity of warships, the 2013 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Vinter and Others v. United Kingdom, and the 2011 and 2012 judgments of the English High Court in Mutua and Others v. Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
This collection brings together selected articles on key areas in the field of cultural heritage rights discourse. Contributed by an international group of scholars, the papers address conceptual and political issues and explore themes in contemporary literature on cultural heritage such as repatriation, looting and illicit trade, the effects of armed conflict and the relationship between tourism, economic development and cultural heritage. The legal regulation of cultural heritage is also discussed, with articles on regulatory challenges, current practices around the world and issues and challenges in common. Topics which are likely to become increasingly important in the future, such as climate change, cultural globalisation, human genomic science and the shift to a post-liberal, post-rights politics and law of cultural heritage, are also explored. This volume, which presents the most up-to-date scholarship in an area of increasing interest and relevance, is an indispensable reference resource for libraries, lecturers and students.
This book represents a unique endeavor to elucidate the story of Kosovo's unilateral quest for statehood. It is an inquiry into the international legal aspects and processes that shaped and surrounded the creation of the state of Kosovo. Being created outside the post-colonial context, Kosovo offers a unique yet controversial example of state emergence both in the theory and practice of creation of states. Accordingly, the book investigates the legal pathways, strategies, developments and policy positions of international agencies/actors and regional players (in particular the EU) that helped Kosovo to establish its independence and gradually acquire statehood. Although contested, Kosovo, and its quest for statehood, represents a unique example of successful unilateral secession. The book therefore explores and analyses patterns of state formation and nation-building in Kosovo, and its transition to democracy. It presents a three-level assessment. First, seen from a historical perspective, the book examines the validity of the right of Kosovar-Albanians to self-determination and remedial secession. Second, from a legal positivist perspective, it scrutinizes all of the legalist arguments that support Kosovo's right to statehood, and claims that both traditional and legality-based criteria for statehood remain insufficient to determine whether Kosovo has achieved statehood. Third, from a post-factum perspective, the book analyzes the scope and extent to which the internationally blended element was decisive in Kosovo's state-formation and state-building processes. It explains how the EU's involvement as an 'internationally blended element' in Kosovo's efforts to achieve statehood was instrumental and played a crucial role in shaping the emerging state. In particular, the book elaborates on how the EU was able to streamline its mode of intervention in the context of state-building and reform.
Well-selected and authoritative, Macmillan Core Statutes provide the key materials needed by students in a format that is clear, compact and very easy to use. They are ideal for use in exams.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 153 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 decision of the Special Immigration Appeals Commission in Othman (Abu Qatada), the 2012 decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Hungary v. Slovakia, and the 2011 decision of the Netherlands Court of Appeal of The Hague in Nuhanovic.
This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 157 reports on, amongst others, the International Court of Justice Legality of Use of Force cases, the December 2013 Final Award and Decision on the Request for Clarification of the Court of Arbitration in the Indus Waters Kishenganga Arbitration, and the Translation of the German Decision of the Federal Prosecutor General to Terminate Proceedings in the Aerial Drone Deployment case.
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