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This book describes the rules governing appeals before the Court of Justice of the European Union. The appeal is the judicial remedy by which a party may contest a decision of the General Court of the European Union. It concerns matters in which the Tribunal has jurisdiction such as, competition, mergers, state aids, access to documents, restrictive measures, EU staff, trade marks, and other areas of intellectual property. This form of judicial remedy was created just over 25 years ago. It is specific to the ECJ, and can only be learned through the case-law. This book is a description of the case-law, and of the rules that the lawyers pleading appeal cases are required to know.
Over the past one hundred years, the conceptual and legal aspects
of collective security have been the subject of much debate. Rapid
developments within the United Nations, its precursor the League of
Nations, and regional security institutions, as well as the
interaction between them, mean this debate has not so far succeeded
in capturing the essence and implications of collective security.
Between Fragmentation and Democracy explores the phenomenon of the fragmentation of international law and global governance following the proliferation of international institutions with overlapping jurisdictions and ambiguous boundaries. The authors argue that this problem has the potential to sabotage the evolution of a more democratic and egalitarian system and identify the structural reasons for the failure of global institutions to protect the interests of politically weaker constituencies. This book offers a comprehensive understanding of how new global sources of democratic deficits increasingly deprive individuals and collectives of the capacity to protect their interests and shape their opportunities. It also considers the role of the courts in mitigating the effects of globalization and the struggle to define and redefine institutions and entitlements. This book is an important resource for scholars of international law and international politics, as well as for public lawyers, political scientists, and those interested in judicial reform.
This book argues that since the end of the Cold War an international community of liberal states has crystallised within the broader international society of sovereign states. Significantly, this international community has demonstrated a tendency to deny non-liberal states their previously held sovereign right to non-intervention. Instead, the international community considers only those states that demonstrate respect for liberal democratic standards to be sovereign equals. Indeed the international community, motivated by the theory that international peace and security can only be achieved in a world composed exclusively of liberal states, has engaged in a sustained campaign to promote its liberal values to non-liberal states. This campaign has had (and continues to have) a profound impact upon the structure and content of international law. In light of this, this book deploys the concepts of the international society and the international community in order to construct an explanatory framework that can enable us to better understand recent changes to the political and legal structure of the world order and why violations of international peace and security occur.
This book offers a compendium of diverse essays on emerging legal issues in outer space, written by experts in the field of Space Law from different parts of the globe. The book comprehensively addresses opportunities in space and the inevitable legal challenges that these space activities pose for mankind. It explores the increasing role of private sector in outer space, which calls for a review of policy and legislation; invites opinio juris from law scholars for ensuring the applicability of the Outer Space Treaty on all states without ratification and universal abidance with Space Law without demur; reflects upon the challenges for the global space community involved in implementing a more effective approach to international space governance; and considers the use of domestic laws, and the consequent need for legal reform, to encourage broader engagement with commercial space innovation. Further, the book delves into the adequacy of existing international liability regime to protect space tourists in the event of a space vehicle accidents; examines the increasing use of space for military activities and canvasses how International Law may apply to condition behaviour; highlights the challenges of scavenging space debris; calls for protections of space assets; touches upon the legal regime pertaining to ASAT and discusses other ways of creating normative instruments, which also come from other areas and use other methods. Given its comprehensive coverage of opportunities in space and the inevitable legal challenges that they pose, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, academics and professionals including government officials, industry executives, specialists, and lawyers, helping them understand essential contemporary issues and developments in Space Law.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is one of the central institutions of the EU and has played a decisive role in European integration. As one of the most powerful international courts, at a time when political systems around the world are becoming more judicialized, it is a key actor to understand in world affairs. Yet it is not without controversy. As both an interpreter of law and as a political power influencing policy-making through its bold case law, it has become increasingly criticized in recent years for its perceived activism and distance from the European people. Combining the perspectives of a legal scholar and a political scientist, this important new text gives a uniquely broad-ranging account of the CJEU. It introduces readers to the role and function of the Court and explains how it fits into the broader political system and historical evolution of the European Union. It examines the constitutional contributions made by the Court and the part it plays in policy-making, in areas such as the environment, gender equality and human rights. Drawing on the latest research, the book takes full account of recent changes to the place of the Court in the European political system, and shows how new forms of governance, such as the open method of coordination, have had a significant impact on the role the Court is able to play.
Since the rise of the nation-state in the nineteenth century, constitutions have been seen as an embodiment of national values and identity. However, individuals, ideas, and institutions from abroad have always influenced constitutions, and so the process is better described as transnational. As cross-border interaction is increasing in intensity, a dominant transnational legal order for constitutions has emerged, with its own norms, guidelines and shared ideas. Yet both the process and substance of constitution-making are being contested in divergent and insurgent constitutional orders. Bringing together leading scholars from the United States, Europe, Latin America, and Asia, this volume addresses the actors, networks, norms and processes involved in constitution-making, as well as the related challenges, from a transnational and comparative perspective. Drawing from the research on transnational legal orders, this work explores and examines constitution-making in every region of the world.
Die Europ ische Union hebt sich durch ausdifferenzierte Rechtsetzungsmechanismen und Handlungsformen vom klassischen, durch zwischenstaatliche Vertr ge gepr gten V lkerrecht ab. Angesichts dessen erstaunt es, dass zwischen den einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten nach wie vor ein dichtes Netz v lkerrechtlicher Vertr ge besteht. Eine Auswertung der Vertragspraxis zeigt, dass die Abkommen passgenau auf gleichzeitig geltendes einschl giges Unionsrecht abgestimmt sind. Sie konkurrieren in aller Regel nicht mit ihm, sondern sind Bestandteil eines ebenen bergreifenden Rechts des Europ ischen Verbunds. Soweit mit der Rechtserzeugung au erhalb der Unionsorgane Gefahren f r die Einheit des Unionsrechts und die Inklusivit t unionaler Rechtsetzung verbunden sind, begegnet ihnen das Europ ische Verfassungsrecht mit den bew hrten Instrumenten der Kompetenzordnung, des Loyalit tsgebots und des Vorrangs.
This is the first legal monograph analysing multilevel governance of global `aggregate public goods' (PGs) from the perspective of democractic, republican and cosmopolitan constitutionalism by using historical, legal, political and economic methods. It explains the need for a `new philosophy of international law' in order to protect human rights and PGs more effectively and more legitimately. 'Constitutional approaches' are justified by the universal recognition of human rights and by the need to protect `human rights', `rule of law', `democracy' and other `principles of justice' that are used in national, regional and UN legal systems as indeterminate legal concepts. The study describes and criticizes the legal methodology problems of `disconnected' governance in UN, GATT and WTO institutions as well as in certain areas of the external relations of the EU (like transatlantic free trade agreements). Based on 40 years of practical experiences of the author in German, European, UN, GATT and WTO governance institutions and of simultaneous academic teaching, this study develops five propositions for constituting, limiting, regulating and justifying multilevel governance for the benefit of citizens and their constitutional rights as `constituent powers', `democratic principals' and main `republican actors', who must hold multilevel governance institutions and their limited `constituted powers' legally, democratically and judicially more accountable.
This book provides a broad set of information and data on the rise of private actors in the space sector, organized into different topics covering the various trends that have shaped the space sector during the last decade. The book, written in a descriptive fashion, concludes with recommendations for future analytical research on the topic.
With the rising relevance of international organizations in international affairs, and the general turn to litigation to settle disputes, international institutional law issues have increasingly become the subject of litigation, before both international and domestic courts. The judicial treatment of this field of international law is addressed in Judicial Decisions on the Law of International Organizations through commentary on excerpts of the most prominent international and domestic judicial decisions that are relevant to the law of international organizations, providing in-depth analysis of judicial decisions. The commentaries written and edited by leading experts in the field of international institutional law, they are opinionated and critically engage with the decision in question, with commentators' and stakeholders' reactions thereto, and with later decisions, codifications, and reports.
Adelle Blackett tells the story behind the International Labour Organization's (ILO) Decent Work for Domestic Workers Convention No. 189, and its accompanying Recommendation No. 201 which in 2011 created the first comprehensive international standards to extend fundamental protections and rights to the millions of domestic workers laboring in other peoples' homes throughout the world. As the principal legal architect, Blackett is able to take us behind the scenes to show us how Convention No. 189 transgresses the everyday law of the household workplace to embrace domestic workers' human rights claim to be both workers like any other, and workers like no other. In doing so, she discusses the importance of understanding historical forms of invisibility, recognizes the influence of the domestic workers themselves, and weaves in poignant experiences, infusing the discussion of laws and standards with intimate examples and sophisticated analyses. Looking to the future, she ponders how international institutions such as the ILO will address labor market informality alongside national and regional law reform. Regardless of what comes next, Everyday Transgressions establishes that domestic workers' victory is a victory for the ILO and for all those who struggle for an inclusive, transnational vision of labor law, rooted in social justice.
Using case studies ranging from cross-border bank resolution to sovereign debt, the author analyzes the role of international law in protecting financial sovereignty, and the risks for the global financial system posed by the lack of international cooperation. Despite the post-crisis reforms, the global financial system is still mainly based on a logic of financial nationalism. International financial law plays a major role in this regard as it still focuses more on the protection of national interests rather than the promotion of global objectives. This is an inefficient approach because it encourages bad domestic governance and reduces capital mobility. In this analysis, Lupo-Pasini discusses some of the alternatives (such as the European Banking Union, Regulatory Passports, and international financial courts), and offers a new vision for the role of international law in maintaining and fostering global financial stability. In doing so, he fills a void in the law and economics literature, and puts forward a solution to tackle the problems of international cooperation in finance based on the use of international law.
This book attempts to systematise the present interrelationship between fundamental rights and the EU internal market in the field of positive integration. Its intention is simple: to examine the way in which, and the extent to which, fundamental rights protection is realised through EU internal market legislation. To that end, the analysis is conducted around four rights or sets of rights: data protection, freedom of expression, fundamental labour rights and the right to health. The book assesses not only what substantive level of protection is achieved for these fundamental rights, but it also estimates whether there is a `fundamental rights culture' that informs current legislative practice. Finally, it asks the overarching question whether the current state of harmonisation amounts to a `fundamental rights policy'. The book offers a much more varied picture of the EU's fundamental rights policy in and through the EU internal market than perhaps initially expected. Moreover, it builds the case for a more conscious approach to dealing with and enhancing fundamental rights protection in and through internal market legislation, and advocates a leading role for the legislature in the establishment of an internal market that is firmly based on respect for fundamental rights.
Due to the continuing expansion of the notion of security, various national, regional and international institutions now find themselves addressing contemporary security issues. While institutions may evolve by adjusting themselves to new challenges, they can also fundamentally alter the intricate balance between security and current legal frameworks. This volume explores the tensions that occur when institutions address contemporary security threats, in both public and international law contexts. As part of the Connecting International with Public Law series, it provides important and valuable insights into the legal issues and perspectives which surround the institutional responses to contemporary security challenges. It is essential reading for scholars, practitioners and policy makers seeking to understand the legal significance of security institutions and the implications of their evolution on the rule of law and legitimacy.
The use of third-party countermeasures is an increasingly common phenomenon in international relations, yet their legal position remains uncertain. Providing the first systematic and comprehensive study of this key concept in international law, Martin Dawidowicz explores the position of third-party countermeasures and their safeguards regime based on the development of ideas on countermeasures in the UN International Law Commission and a thorough examination of state practice. The book clarifies the position of third-party countermeasures in international law, and in doing so challenges some widely held assumptions about the likely impact of a regime of third-party countermeasures on international relations. It will be of interest to international law and relations scholars and students, diplomats, policy makers, international civil servants and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the field of human rights.
International justice has become a crucial part of the ongoing political debates about the future of shattered societies like Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Cambodia, and Chile. Why do our governments sometimes display such striking idealism in the face of war crimes and atrocities abroad, and at other times cynically abandon the pursuit of international justice altogether? Why today does justice seem so slow to come for war crimes victims in the Balkans? In this book, Gary Bass offers an unprecedented look at the politics behind international war crimes tribunals, combining analysis with investigative reporting and a broad historical perspective. The Nuremberg trials powerfully demonstrated how effective war crimes tribunals can be. But there have been many other important tribunals that have not been as successful, and which have been largely left out of today's debates about international justice. This timely book brings them in, using primary documents to examine the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, the Armenian genocide, World War II, and the recent wars in the former Yugoslavia.
Bass explains that bringing war criminals to justice can be a military ordeal, a source of endless legal frustration, as well as a diplomatic nightmare. The book takes readers behind the scenes to see vividly how leaders like David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Bill Clinton have wrestled with these agonizing moral dilemmas. The book asks how law and international politics interact, and how power can be made to serve the cause of justice.
Bass brings new archival research to bear on such events as the prosecution of the Armenian genocide, presenting surprising episodes that add to the historical record. His sections on the former Yugoslavia tell--with important new discoveries--the secret story of the politicking behind the prosecution of war crimes in Bosnia, drawing on interviews with senior White House officials, key diplomats, and chief prosecutors at the war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Bass concludes that despite the obstacles, legalistic justice for war criminals is nonetheless worth pursuing. His arguments will interest anyone concerned about human rights and the pursuit of idealism in international politics.
International Law as a Belief System considers how we construct international legal discourses and the self-referentiality at the centre of all legal arguments about international law. It explores how the fundamental doctrines (such as sources, responsibility, statehood, personality, interpretation and jus cogens) constrain legal reasoning by inventing their own origin and dictating the nature of their functioning. In this innovative work, d'Aspremont argues that these processes constitute the mark of a belief system. This book invites international lawyers to temporarily suspend some of their understandings about the fundamental doctrines they adhere to in their professional activities. It aims to provide readers with new tools to reinvent the thinking about international law and combines theory and practice to offer insights that are valuable for both theorists and practitioners.
In Europe and throughout the world, competence in English is spreading at a speed never achieved by any language in human history. This apparently irresistible growing dominance of English is frequently perceived and sometimes indignantly denounced as being grossly unjust. Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World starts off arguing that the dissemination of competence in a common lingua franca is a process to be welcomed and accelerated, most fundamentally because it provides the the struggle for greater justice with an essential weapon: a cheap medium of cross-border communication and mobilization. However, the resulting linguistic situation is arguably unjust in three distinct senses. Firstly, the adoption of one natural language as the lingua franca implies that its native speakers are getting a free ride by benefiting costlessly from the learning effort of others. Secondly, Anglophones gain greater opportunities as a result of competence in their native language becoming a more valuable asset. Thirdly, the privilege given to one language failes to show equal respect for the various langauges with which different portions of the population concerned identify. The book spells out the corresponding interpretations of linguistic justice as cooperative justice, distributive justice, and parity of esteem. It discusses a wide range of policies that might help achieve linguistic justice in these three senses, from a linguistic tax on Anglophone countries to the banning of dubbing or the linguistic territoriality principle. It also argues that linguistic diversity, though not valuable in itself, will nonetheless need to be protected as a by-product of the pursuit of linguistic justice as parity of esteem.
This collection brings together selected articles on key areas in the field of cultural heritage rights discourse. Contributed by an international group of scholars, the papers address conceptual and political issues and explore themes in contemporary literature on cultural heritage such as repatriation, looting and illicit trade, the effects of armed conflict and the relationship between tourism, economic development and cultural heritage. The legal regulation of cultural heritage is also discussed, with articles on regulatory challenges, current practices around the world and issues and challenges in common. Topics which are likely to become increasingly important in the future, such as climate change, cultural globalisation, human genomic science and the shift to a post-liberal, post-rights politics and law of cultural heritage, are also explored. This volume, which presents the most up-to-date scholarship in an area of increasing interest and relevance, is an indispensable reference resource for libraries, lecturers and students.
Private International Law is often criticized for failing to curb private power in the transnational realm. The field appears disinterested or powerless in addressing global economic and social inequality. Scholars have frequently blamed this failure on the separation between private and public international law at the end of the nineteenth century and on private international law's increasing alignment with private law. Through a contextual historical analysis, Roxana Banu questions these premises. By reviewing a broad range of scholarship from six jurisdictions (the United States, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, and the Netherlands) she shows that far from injecting an impetus for social justice, the alignment between private and public international law introduced much of private international law's formalism and neutrality. She also uncovers various nineteenth century private law theories that portrayed a social, relationally constituted image of the transnational agent, thus contesting both individualistic and state-centric premises for regulating cross-border inter-personal relations. Overall, this study argues that the inherited shortcomings of contemporary private international law stem more from the incorporation of nineteenth century theories of sovereignty and state rights than from theoretical premises of private law. In turn, by reconsidering the relational premises of the nineteenth century private law perspectives discussed in this book, Banu contends that private international law could take centre stage in efforts to increase social and economic equality by fostering individual agency and social responsibility in the transnational realm.
This book offers a concise yet comprehensive review of the principles of EU external relations law. By carefully examining the role of the Union on the global scene, it provides a systematic overview of the relevant rules and competences, reflecting on the legal developments in their political and societal context. In addition to up-to-date analyses of, inter alia, the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the Common Security and Defence Policy and the Common Commercial Policy, it highlights the EU's external powers with regard to the environment, fundamental rights and development cooperation. Moreover, it includes dedicated chapters exploring the relations with neighbouring countries, and explaining the complex interplay between rules of domestic, European and international provenance. The second edition of this established text (the first edition was published under the title Layered Global Player in 2011) has been geared even more specifically towards students, for example through the inclusion of chapter overviews, clarifying boxes, and supplementary examples, while a meticulous review of the narrative has further enhanced its accessibility. As before, the book's compact dimensions, transparent structure and engaging style of writing enable readers to master the main features of this gripping field of law with ease. It thus remains an invaluable resource for students and lecturers alike.
In the second of two volumes Jerome Alan Cohen and Hungdah Chiu have presented in a comprehensive form the views of the People's Republic of China on all the major questions of public international law. The material chosen includes official acts and statements from every level of the Chinese government, editorials and major articles from the People's Daily, dispatches of the New China News Agency and other government media, the writings of Chinese scholars, and the speeches of China's leaders. In an extensive introduction, Professors Cohen and Chiu discuss the experience of previous Chinese governments with international law, and the relationship of China's domestic public order and its foreign policy to its views of international law. Originally published in 1974. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
International military interventions can be extremely costly in terms of monetary resources, logistical challenges, and possible soldier and civilian casualties, as well as the potential for catastrophic results to international relations and agreements. In one such example of these enormous potential costs, the US and UK wished to stop a Russian ship from delivering ammunition to the Assad regime in Syria in 2012. Intercepting or confronting a Russian ship in transit could have erupted into open conflict, so they sought an alternative, non-confrontational maneuver: instead of military intervention, the UK persuaded the ship's insurer, London's Standard Club, to withdraw the ship's insurance. This loss of insurance caused the ship to return to Russia, thus avoiding an international clash as well as the delivery of deadly weapons to Syria. This use of legal maneuvering in lieu of armed force is known as "lawfare" and is becoming a critical strategic platform. In Lawfare, author Orde Kittrie's draws on his experiences as a lawfare practitioner, US State Department attorney, and international law scholar in analyzing the theory and practice of the strategic leveraging of law as an increasingly powerful and effective weapon in the current global security landscape. Lawfare incorporates case studies of recent offensive and defensive lawfare by the United States, Iran, China, and by both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and includes dozens of examples of how lawfare has thus been waged and defended against. Kittrie notes that since private attorneys can play important and decisive roles in their nations' national security plans through their expertise in areas like financial law, maritime insurance law, cyber law, and telecommunications law, the full scope of lawfare's impact and possibilities are just starting to be understood. With international security becoming an ever complicated minefield of concerns and complications, understanding this alternative to armed force has never been more important.
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