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Published on the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention, this thematic collection of case studies provides a thorough understanding of World Heritage sites and their Outstanding Universal Value in the context of sustainable development. The case studies describe twenty-six thematically, typologically and regionally diverse World Heritage sites illustrating their benefits to local communities and ecosystems and sharing the lessons learned with the diverse range of stakeholders involved. The volume emphasises a holistic and integrated view of World Heritage, linking it to the role local communities play in management and protection, and to issues of ecosystem sustainability, and the maintenance of biological, linguistic and cultural diversity. Cross-disciplinary in its scope, this book will provide a meeting point for researchers, practitioners, community representatives and the wider public and will promote cultural and natural heritage conservation as a key vector of sustainable development and social cohesion.
Why has U.S. security policy scarcely changed from the Bush to the Obama administration? National Security and Double Government offers a disquieting answer. Michael J. Glennon challenges the myth that U.S. security policy is still forged by America's visible, "Madisonian institutions" - the President, Congress, and the courts. Their roles, he argues, have become largely illusory. Presidential control is now nominal, congressional oversight is dysfunctional, and judicial review is negligible. The book details the dramatic shift in power that has occurred from the Madisonian institutions to a concealed "Trumanite network" - the several hundred managers of the military, intelligence, diplomatic, and law enforcement agencies who are responsible for protecting the nation and who have come to operate largely immune from constitutional and electoral restraints. Reform efforts face daunting obstacles. Remedies within this new system of "double government" require the hollowed-out Madisonian institutions to exercise the very power that they lack. Meanwhile, reform initiatives from without confront the same pervasive political ignorance within the polity that has given rise to this duality. The book sounds a powerful warning about the need to resolve this dilemma-and the mortal threat posed to accountability, democracy, and personal freedom if double government persists. This paperback version features an Afterword that addresses the emerging danger posed by populist authoritarianism rejecting the notion that the security bureaucracy can or should be relied upon to block it.
The UN's capacity as an administrative decision-maker that affects the rights of individuals is a largely overlooked aspect of its role in international affairs. Administrative Justice in the UN explores the potential for a model of administrative justice that might act as a benchmark to which global decision-makers could develop procedural standards. Niamh Kinchin adeptly explores accountability in the context of decision-making within the UN and examines whether its administrative decisions, affecting the rights and obligations of individuals and groups, contain sufficient procedural protections. It is suggested that 'global administrative justice' requires two fundamental elements; administrative decisions made according to law, and to values communities accept as just, which are identified as rationality, fairness, transparency and participation. This model is applied to the UN's Investigations Divisions of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN Security Council and the Internal Formal Justice System in order to measure procedural protections, identify gaps and make recommendations for reform. This insightful book will be vital reading for academics and students of human rights, constitutional, public international, and administrative law. UN-affiliated personnel, as well as those involved in diplomatic departments, will find this book an engaging read.
This is the first book to explore the concept of 'Grotian Moments'. Named for Hugo Grotius, whose masterpiece De jure belli ac pacis helped marshal in the modern system of international law, Grotian Moments are transformative developments that generate the unique conditions for accelerated formation of customary international law. In periods of fundamental change, whether by technological advances, the commission of new forms of crimes against humanity, or the development of new means of warfare or terrorism, customary international law may form much more rapidly and with less state practice than is normally the case to keep up with the pace of developments. The book examines the historic underpinnings of the Grotian Moment concept, provides a theoretical framework for testing its existence and application, and analyzes six case studies of potential Grotian Moments: Nuremberg, the continental shelf, space law, the Yugoslavia Tribunal's Tadic decision, the 1999 NATO intervention in Serbia and the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
The European Union is unique amongst international organisations in that it has a highly developed and coherent system of judicial protection. The rights derived from Union law can be enforced in court, as opposed to other international organisations whereby enforceability is often far less certain. At the heart of the system of judicial protection in the European Union is the core principle of upholding the rule of law. As such, the stakes are high in the sense that the system of the judicial protection in the European Union must live up to its promise in which individuals, Member States and Union institutions are all guaranteed a route by which to enforce Union law rights. This book provides a rigorously structured analysis of the EU system of judicial protection and procedure before the Union courts. It examines the role and the competences of the Union courts and the types of actions that may be brought before them, such as the actions for infringement, annulment, and failure to act, as well as special forms of procedure, for example interim relief, appeals, and staff cases. In doing so, special attention is given to the fields of EU competition law and State aid. In addition it evaluates the relationship between the Court of Justice and the national courts through the preliminary ruling procedure and the interplay between EU law and the national procedural frameworks generally. Throughout, it takes account of significant institutional developments, including the relevant changes brought by the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments to the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice and the General Court.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. Designed to be accessible yet rigorous, they offer concise and lucid surveys of the substantive and policy issues associated with discrete subject areas. This second edition of the Advanced Introduction to International Tax Law provides an updated and succinct, yet highly informative overview of the key issues surrounding taxation and international law from Reuven Avi-Yonah, a leading authority on international tax. This small but powerful book surveys the nuances of the varying taxation systems, offering expert insight into the scope, reach and nature of international tax regimes, as well as providing an excellent platform for understanding how the principles of jurisdiction apply to tax and the connected tools that are used by countries in imposing taxes. New to this edition: * New material on the OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project * Coverage of the EU's Anti Tax Avoidance Package * Analysis of the US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Key features include: * defines and discusses the main types of jurisdiction to tax * explains in depth both inbound and outbound taxation on both passive and active income * delineates the source of income that is crucial for taxing non-residents and foreign tax credit * discussion of transfer pricing, a variant of source-based taxation that lies at the heart of modern efforts to tax corporations at source * explains how the above elements are influenced by tax treaties and looks at the future of the international tax regime. Composed of concise but insightful chapters, this revised second edition will prove to be a key resource for students of international tax law, as well as for scholars within the fields of tax law, international business law and international commercial law.
In recent years States have made more and more extensive use of the International Court of Justice for the judicial settlement of disputes. Despite being declared by the Court's Statute to have no binding force for States other than the parties to the case, its decisions have come to constitute a body of jurisprudence that is frequently invoked in other disputes, in international negotiation, and in academic writing. This jurisprudence, covering a wide range of aspects of international law, is the subject of considerable ongoing academic examination; it needs however to be seen against the background, and in the light, of the Court's structure, jurisdiction and operation, and the principles applied in these domains. The purpose of this book is thus to provide an accessible and comprehensive study of this aspect of the Court, and in particular of its procedure, written by a scholar who has had unique opportunities of close observation of the Court in action. This distillation of direct experience and expertise makes it essential reading for all those who study, teach or practise international law.
Higher Education operates in an increasingly global context, and yet the examination of what drives and moves the field has remained largely focused on domestic campus leaders, national governments and institutional actors. International Organizations and Higher Education Policy expands the analysis to include the global drivers behind higher education policy, including a full array of influential organizations such as the World Bank, UNESCO, OECD, WTO, bilateral aid agencies and major private foundations. The significance of these organizations is especially pronounced in the developing world, where the expansion of higher education is happening in conjunction with the broadening influence of globalization. International Organizations and Higher Education Policy critically analyses the impact that these influential organizations have at different levels of policy development and implementation around the world. It examines their role in higher education institutions, examines the strength of these relationships, and exposes both the positive and negative implications. This edited volume is composed of scholars and members of these organizations from around the world. They address: How international organizations represent the interests of the developed world and subsequently have an impact on the developing world. How these organizations drive and shape the global agenda for higher education How higher education as an international industry is subject to a myriad of influences, from the international to the regional level What ethical issues emerge when international organizations intervene in national policy-making processes.
In contemporary missions, soldiers often face unconventional opponents rather than enemy armies. How do Western soldiers deal with war criminals, rioters, or insurgents? What explains differences in behavior across military organizations in multinational missions? How does military conduct impact local populations? Comparing troops from the United States, Britain, Germany, and Italy at three sites of intervention (Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan), this book shows that militaries in the field apply idiosyncratic organizational routines. Friesendorf uses the concept of routines to explain, for example, why US soldiers are trigger-happy, why British soldiers patrol on foot, and why German soldiers avoid risk. Despite convergence in military structures and practices, militaries continue to fight differently, often with much autonomy. This bottom-up perspective focuses on different routines at the level of operations and tactics, thus contributing to a better understanding of the implementation of military missions, and highlighting failures of Western militaries to protect civilians.
This book introduces readers to the topical area of CSI: critical space infrastructure, which is defined as an emerging domain of systems-of-systems encompassing hardware, workforce, environment, facilities, business and organizational entities. Further, it includes unmanned air systems, satellites, rockets, space probes, and orbital stations, and involves multi-directional interactions essential for maintenance of vital societal functions (i.e., health, safety, economic and social well-being), the loss or disruption of which would have significant impact on virtually any nation. The topics covered include the main elements of CSI, CSI taxonomy, effects of CSI on other infrastructure systems, establishing quantitative and qualitative parameters, global and national effects of CSI failure, cascading disruptive phenomena, chilling effects in various fields, CSI protection, deliberate threats to space systems (e.g., electromagnetic pulse attacks), space governance, and a path forward for CSI research. Modern society is highly dependent on the continuous operation of critical infrastructure systems for the supply of crucial goods and services including, among others, the power supply, drinking water supply, and transportation systems; yet space systems - which are critical enablers for several commercial, scientific and military applications - are rarely discussed. This book addresses this gap.
Controversy over Iranian nuclear policy has been mounting in both legal and political circles since the early 2000s. Most recently, the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA), tasked with verifying compliance of Member States with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, has been expressing concern that Iran's nuclear efforts are directed not solely toward peaceful uses, but also for military purposes. In response, various States have tried, individually and collectively, to engage Iran in agreed frameworks of action that would include an Iranian self-imposed restraint regarding its nuclear development. This volume documents the Iranian nuclear issue, tracing the evolution of international interest and concern with Iran's nuclear policy since the 1970s, when Iran began earnest efforts to acquire nuclear capabilities. Emphasis is nonetheless placed on events since 2002-2003, when it was established that Iran had concealed certain aspects of its nuclear activities from the IAEA. Alongside reports of the IAEA and Security Council documents, the volume covers diverse sources rather than relying solely on UN organs and agencies, international organizations, or dedicated ad hoc bodies.
A disconnection has historically existed between international and domestic justice. In China, international justice and domestic justice were long treated as two autonomous yet interconnected systems, akin to the concept of Yin and Yang. With the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002, the two systems began to increasingly work in tandem. The principle of complementarity is one of the cornerstones of the ICC's architecture, according to which states have primary jurisdiction over the ICC. So long as the legal system of a state can efficiently investigate and prosecute the core international crimes prohibited in the Rome Statute, the ICC will not intervene. However, if a state is unwilling or unable to investigate and prosecute these crimes, the ICC will invoke the principle of complementarity to step in. Thus, the principle of complementarity has an impact on the national implementation of international criminal law, as well as on its exercise of jurisdiction in many aspects, including for third party states. As a third party state to the ICC, China has ratified a number of international conventions, including those on genocide and torture; China is therefore obliged to prosecute these international crimes by implementing these international conventions into national law. However, the core crimes have thus far not been incorporated into Chinese criminal law. This research work focuses on the possible impact of the principle of complementarity on the implementation of international criminal law in China as a third party state and the future prospects of the relationship between China and the ICC based on this analysis. By so doing, it aims to contribute to the discourse on complementarity for both scholars and practitioners.
Using case studies ranging from cross-border bank resolution to sovereign debt, the author analyzes the role of international law in protecting financial sovereignty, and the risks for the global financial system posed by the lack of international cooperation. Despite the post-crisis reforms, the global financial system is still mainly based on a logic of financial nationalism. International financial law plays a major role in this regard as it still focuses more on the protection of national interests rather than the promotion of global objectives. This is an inefficient approach because it encourages bad domestic governance and reduces capital mobility. In this analysis, Lupo-Pasini discusses some of the alternatives (such as the European Banking Union, Regulatory Passports, and international financial courts), and offers a new vision for the role of international law in maintaining and fostering global financial stability. In doing so, he fills a void in the law and economics literature, and puts forward a solution to tackle the problems of international cooperation in finance based on the use of international law.
This book provides an overview of the space sector in African countries, from a legal and policy point of view, analysing how the African Union's Space Policy and Strategy (ASPS) is implemented and highlighting the various space activities in each country. Against this backdrop, it investigates the ASPS, identifying its policy goals identified and discussing its strategy. Moreover, it explores the on-going regional cooperation programmes, the continent's leading space actors and their roles, and the space-related regional fora and organizations, reflecting on various initiatives, including the African Leadership Conference on Space Science and Technology for Sustainable Development (ALC), the Regional African Satellite Communications Organisation (RASCOM), and the African Resource Management Satellite Constellation (ARMS-C). As such, it is a valuable source of information on space capacities in African countries.
Several international mass claims programmes have recently been established to process individual claims arising from armed conflicts. These entities possess specific institutional and structural features allowing for an effective and efficient resolution of claims. Moreover, violation of international law protecting property during war gives rise to inter-State and individual reparation, mostly partial, for which monetary compensation is more frequent than return of property. These programmes have also developed specific procedures to handle the administration of evidence and new techniques to decide all of the claims within a reasonable period of time. This 2-volume set reviews modern-day mass claims practice. Volume I shows how new mass claims programmes have built upon traditional dispute resolution mechanisms, and also examines the substantive law rules protecting property rights. Volume II focuses on the administration of evidence and the techniques developed to decide mass claims, including the use of statistical sampling.
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union is a highly exceptional component of the EU legal order. This constitutionalised foreign policy regime, with legal, diplomatic, and political DNA woven throughout its fabric, is a distinct sub-system of law on the outer-most sphere of European supranationalism. When contrasted against other Union policies, it is immediately clear that EU foreign policy has a special decision-making mechanism, making it highly exceptional. In the now depillarised framework of the EU treaties, issues of institutional division arise from the legacy of the former pillar system. This is due to the reality that of prime concern in EU external relations is the question of `who decides?' By engaging a number of legal themes, cutting across foreign affairs exceptionalism, executive prerogatives, parliamentary accountability, judicial review, and the constitutionalisation of European integration; the book lays bare how EU foreign affairs has become highly legalised, leading to ever-greater coherence in how Europe exerts itself on the global stage. In this first monograph dedicated exclusively to the law of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy in modern times, the book argues that the legal framework for EU foreign affairs must adapt in a changing world as to ensure the EU treaties can cater for a more assertive Europe in the wider world.
Offering a more accessible alternative to casebooks and historical commentaries, Law Among Nations explains issues of international law by tracing the field's development and stressing key principles, processes, and landmark cases. This comprehensive text eliminates the need for multiple books by combining discussions of theory and state practice with excerpts from landmark cases. The book has been updated in light of the continuing revolution in communication technology, the dense web of linkages between countries that involve individuals and bodies both formal and informal; and covers important and controversial areas such as human rights, the environment, and issues associated with the use of force. Renowned for its rigorous approach and clear explanations, Law Among Nations remains the gold standard for undergraduate introductions to international law. New to the Eleventh Edition Added or expanded coverage of timely issues in international law: Drones and their use in the air and in space Immigration Islamic views of international law Inviolability and the difference between diplomatic immunity and sovereignty, in light of the Benghazi attack Thoroughly rewritten chapters in areas of great change: International criminal law Just war and war crime law New cases, statutes, and treaties on many subjects
With the resurgence of Asian nations such as China, current West-centric international law is changing in the twenty-first century. There is a pressing need to address these changes within international legal studies and overcome potential conflicts between existing and emerging powers. This structural transformation also demands a change in understanding of existing ideas and institutions. This book explores a 'trans-civilizational' approach to international law, supplementing and modifying two other prevalent perspectives: international and transnational. By considering these three layered viewpoints, this book highlights the complex phenomena surrounding the history and development of international law. The author also considers how international law operates and functions within diverse forums such as diplomatic negotiation, international organizations, and domestic political processes. This book will appeal to international law scholars and students, as well as those interested in the rise of non-Western powers and its impact on the prevalent ideas and institutions of the world.
This timely book offers revealing insights into the changing role of China in world governance as exemplified by the Silk Road Initiative, the People's Republic's first published major initiative for external affairs. Focusing on various aspects of the Silk Road Initiative, particularly those that are largely neglected in current discussions, including culture and philosophy, finance and investment, environmental protection and social responsibility, judiciary and lawyers, the authors explore a wide range of contexts in which China's role as an emerging power in international relations and international law is examined. In the current era of ever-increasing populism, protectionism and challenges to globalization, the authors explore the Chinese philosophy underpinning Chinese norms of regional and international development. Bearing in mind the political and economic uncertainties hampering the establishment of such norms, the authors offer crucial insights into how the Silk Road Initiative could or should be developed and regulated.Given its depth of coverage, the book is an indispensable read for anyone interested in the Initiative and its social-legal implications.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 156 reports on, amongst others, the 2012 Provisional Measures Order of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in The ARA Libertad (Argentina v. Ghana) together with the 2013 judgment of the Supreme Court of Ghana on the immunity of warships, the 2013 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Vinter and Others v. United Kingdom, and the 2011 and 2012 judgments of the English High Court in Mutua and Others v. Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of decisions of international courts and arbitrators as well as judgments of national courts. Volume 159 reports on, amongst others, the 2014 Judgment (Just Satisfaction) of the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in Cyprus v. Turkey, the 2013 Order on Request for Provisional Measures of International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in The Arctic Sunrise (Netherlands v. Russian Federation) and the 2014 English Court of Appeal decision in Belhaj v. Straw.
Jurisprudence has up until recently largely neglected international law as a subject of philosophizing. The Nature of International Law tries to offset against this deficiency by providing a comprehensive explanatory account of international law. It does so within an analytical tradition, albeit within the one which departs from the nowadays dominant method of the metaphysically-driven conceptual analysis. Instead, it adopts the prototype theory of concepts, which is directed towards determining typical features constitutive of the nature of international law. The book's central finding is that those features are: normativity, institutionalization, coercive guaranteeing, and justice-aptness. Since typical features are context sensitive, their specificities at the international level are further elucidated. The book, finally, challenges the often raised claim that fragmentation is international law's unique feature by demonstrating that international institutional actors, particularly adjudicative ones, largely perceive themselves as officials of a unified legal order.
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