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Sharks are among the most persecuted animals on Earth. Nicole’s block-buster story lifts the lid on the shocking details of the trade in shark fins, and raises awareness of the plight of sharks in the 21st century.
In November 2003 a female Great White Shark was tagged near Dyer Island in South Africa. Her tag popped up in February 2004, just south of Western Australia. The shark, later to be named Nicole (after shark enthusiast Nicole Kidman), had swum an epic 11,000 km. Scientists were even more surprised when she was identified back in South Africa in August 2004 – she had covered 22,000 km in less than nine months, using pinpoint navigation both ways.
Since then, many Great Whites have been tagged and have shown a propensity for undertaking long migrations – but none has yet matched Nicole's amazing feat. This story incorporates a blend of science, actual events and real people, along with conjecture as to what might have happened on Nicole's momentous journey.
In January 2000, two wildfires torched more than 8 000 hectares of the Cape Peninsula, swept through the Table Mountain National Park, and burned houses and property. There were more than 120 fires in the region on that one 'fire-storm Sunday'. The challenges faced in the Cape are shared by major cities and nature reserves in similar Mediterranean-type ecosystems in the USA, Australia and Mediterranean Europe. Wildfire has destroyed hundreds of thousands of hectares and killed people in Greece, Australia and the United States. It has become a global, and a local, research and management challenge.
In Burning Table Mountain the author tackles the environmental and social challenges of fire management on the wildland-urban interface of South Africa's Cape Peninsula, where a UNESCO World Heritage Site for Nature protects the unique fynbos vegetation and incorporates the iconic Table Mountain, and abuts the suburbs, townships and informal settlements of South Africa's parliamentary capital. He combines narrative, the history of ecological science in the region and the role of fire in fynbos ecology, to provide the first integrated history of wildfire and its management on the Cape Peninsula. He reflects on the need to use a holistic approach to understanding the range and conjunctions of causes that conspire to cause large fires and increase fire incidence over time.
This book will demonstrate the contribution environmental history can make, through combining scientific and social approaches, to understanding past environments and managing the environment today. It is a seminal contribution to a neglected area of South African history, but also offers an important contribution to global histories of fire.
Great White sharks, attracted by an offshore seal colony, have brought success to the adjacent fishing village of Gansbaai along the southern African coast. A flourishing shark cage diving industry has sprung up, bringing jobs and money, and so benefiting almost the entire community. Tourists come from far and near to experience the thrill of a real-life brush with the legendary ‘Jaws’. Shark Town, as it has become known, is booming. Then one day, the sharks disappear. Slowly at first, but with gathering momentum, the word spreads: cage diving off Gansbaai can no longer promise the thrill of an encounter. The crowds thin, the boats remain at their moorings, and the once bustling community waits as their livelihoods tail off. Entrepreneurs and scientists alike are baffled.
But it’s not long before shark carcasses start washing up on the beaches. These, together with some coincidental sightings of another apex predator in the vicinity, are the first leads to the possible causes and culprits. Against the clamour and thrill of the cage-diving season in full swing, Richard Peirce visits the unfolding drama and explores what’s behind these strange events.
Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives explores a broad-ranging set of questions related to proposed hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' in the Karoo. The book is multidisciplinary, with contributors including natural scientists, social scientists, and academics from the humanities, all concerned with the ways in which scientific facts and debates about fracking have been framed and given meaning. The work comprises four parts: Part 1 provides an international, legal, energy, economic, and revenue overview of the topic. Part 2 has a physio-geographic theme, with chapters on the inter-related aspects of water, geology, geo-hydrology, seismicity and biodiversity, as well as archaeological and palaeontological considerations. Part 3 focuses on public health, and sociological and humanities-related aspects, and Part 4 addresses the relevant laws, emphasising their implementation and the role of governance. The underlying theme of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives is one of caution. The book emphasises the need for collaboration between the natural and social sciences and the responsibilities of those charged with the implementation and governance of the fracking enterprise if South Africa hopes to effectively manage fracking at all.
`A formidable, brave and important book' Robert Macfarlane Who owns England? Behind this simple question lies this country's oldest and best-kept secret. This is the history of how England's elite came to own our land, and an inspiring manifesto for how to open up our countryside once more. This book has been a long time coming. Since 1086, in fact. For centuries, England's elite have covered up how they got their hands on millions of acres of our land, by constructing walls, burying surveys and more recently, sheltering behind offshore shell companies. But with the dawn of digital mapping and the Freedom of Information Act, it's becoming increasingly difficult for them to hide. Trespassing through tightly-guarded country estates, ecologically ravaged grouse moors and empty Mayfair mansions, writer and activist Guy Shrubsole has used these 21st century tools to uncover a wealth of never-before-seen information about the people who own our land, to create the most comprehensive map of land ownership in England that has ever been made public. From secret military islands to tunnels deep beneath London, Shrubsole unearths truths concealed since the Domesday Book about who is really in charge of this country - at a time when Brexit is meant to be returning sovereignty to the people. Melding history, politics and polemic, he vividly demonstrates how taking control of land ownership is key to tackling everything from the housing crisis to climate change - and even halting the erosion of our very democracy. It's time to expose the truth about who owns England - and finally take back our green and pleasant land.
The food we eat is as diverse as the cultures and lifestyles of the people consuming it. But the issues underlying food run much deeper than the whims of our cultures or palates. Until now, the subject of food security has mostly been viewed as a rural issue, with research and development work honing in on subsistence farming. But with the massive influx into cities, the focus needs to shift to the metropolis. The hungry season takes science writer Leonie Joubert and photographer Eric Miller to eight different cities and towns around southern Africa as they explore the complex issues around food security, including: Childhood stunting and malnutrition; The transition from traditional ‘African’ to ‘Western’ diets; Chronic lifestyle-related illnesses associated with a modern diet; Nutritional literacy, behaviour and choices; Large-scale food production and urban food gardens; Poverty, joblessness and the geography of the city; Urban planning, supermarkets and the full food value chain; and food wastage. Ultimately, The Hungry Season looks at the crisis of hunger and malnutrition surrounding us in the city, hidden behind layers of affluence and comfort. It tackles the fundamental question: Why is it that in southern Africa we produce enough calories and nutrients to keep the region full, satisfied and well nourished, and yet we still have such high levels of hunger and malnutrition?
Do you know your fission from your fusion? You will have heard of Einstein's theory of relativity and his synonymous equation E=mc2, but do you really understand what they mean? With renewable energy a hot topic of conversation, arm yourself with the 50 most significant theories and developments that will allow you to contribute to any debate about this integral force in the universe. 30-Second Energy charts the fascinating and fundamental topics behind this phenomenon that resides in everywhere and in everything. Exploring energy as it is best understood - by example - discover how it cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed, and how plankton and other ocean-dwelling organisms can be used to power your car. From the nuclear fusion reactor at the heart of the sun to the elusive dark energy which makes up most of the content of the universe, each topic is summarized in just half a minute using no more than two pages, 300 words and one picture.
Long considered one of the most respected authorities on the history and geography of the Adirondack region, award-winning author and conservationist Barbara McMartin focuses on the uniqueness of the forty-four individual tracts that make up the two-and-one-half-million-acre Forest Preserve within the Adirondack Park.
In The Adirondack Park McMartin has aptly likened the various wild forests, wilderness, recreation and primitive areas to a patchwork quilt, with landscapes connecting to jagged boundaries following rivers and narrow valleys.
Sidebars of "views and visits" give readers an insider's advantage to making the most of any Adirondack expedition. With a storyteller's ease, McMartin provides a brief history and description of each area. She chronicles the preserve's unusual origins, people, politics, and economics that created what is now one of the most important wilderness areas in the eastern United States.
Skillfully combining the results of meticulous research and her life-long passion and advocacy for the Adirondack region, she illuminates the story of how the land parcels were pieced together to become the most sought-after and protected acreage in the east. The book is generously interspersed with maps and vivid geographic descriptions of the forest cover, lakes, mountains, and natural and human history.
Over 7 billion people depend on plants for healthy, productive, secure lives, but few of us stop to consider the origin of the plant kingdom that turned the world green and made our lives possible. And as the human population continues to escalate, our survival depends on how we treat the plant kingdom and the soils that sustain it. Understanding the evolutionary history of our land floras, the story of how plant life emerged from water and conquered the continents to dominate the planet, is fundamental to our own existence. In Making Eden David Beerling reveals the hidden history of Earth's sun-shot greenery, and considers its future prospects as we farm the planet to feed the world. Describing the early plant pioneers and their close, symbiotic relationship with fungi, he examines the central role plants play in both ecosystems and the regulation of climate. As threats to plant biodiversity mount today, Beerling discusses the resultant implications for food security and climate change, and how these can be avoided. Drawing on the latest exciting scientific findings, including Beerling's own field work in the UK, North America, and New Zealand, and his experimental research programmes over the past decade, this is an exciting new take on how plants greened the continents.
Water is an essential resource for mankind, yet many countries around the world are currently facing mounting freshwater management challenges, with climate change and new regional imbalances threatening to aggravate this situation further. This timely book offers a unique interdisciplinary inquiry into the issues and challenges water regulation will face in the coming years. The book brings together economists, political scientists, geographers, and legal scholars to offer a number of proposals for the future of water regulation. The contributions in this book are grouped around specific themes. In the Part I, the contributions address the challenges which water poses to public international law. In Part II, the authors explore the most pressing ethical, legal, and social issues. Finally, the discussion in Part III covers the economic drivers shaping the future of water. This discerning book covers all of the primary actors in the water world, including governments, companies, international organizations, and citizens. With an original introduction by the editor and bringing a diverse collection of perspectives into a single collection, the book will be an essential resource for scholars and practitioners in legal and policy fields such as trade and investment, human rights and the environment, as well as in international relations.
Water security has received increasing attention in the scientific and public policy communities in recent years. The Handbook on Water Security is a much-needed resource that helps the reader navigate between the differing interpretations of water security. It explains the various dimensions of the topic by approaching it both conceptually and thematically, as well as in relation to experiences in different regions of the world. The international contributors explore the various perspectives on water security to show that it has multiple meanings that cannot easily be reconciled. Topics discussed include: challenges from human security to consumerism, how trade policies can help to achieve water security in a transboundary setting, the potential of risk-based governance arrangements and the ecology of water security. Scholars and postgraduate students in the social sciences working on water-related issues will find this book to be of substantial interest. It will strongly appeal to policymakers and practitioners looking at the strengths and limitations of water security.
Sustainability assessment refers to any process that directs decision-making towards sustainability. This groundbreaking Handbook presents state of the art thinking and research on the theory and practice of this broad and rapidly evolving field. Emphasizing how traditional impact assessment practices can be improved to contribute to sustainable outcomes, the overall aim is to enhance the effectiveness of sustainability assessment practice. Based on original contributions from world-leading researchers and practitioners, the book examines sustainability assessment in five sections: the first explores the conceptual foundations of sustainability assessment from different perspectives; the second section introduces some of the different scales and decision-contexts to which sustainability assessment can be applied; third, sectoral approaches to sustainability assessment are investigated, focusing in particular on energy as a key area of future focus; the fourth section introduces several tools used within sustainability assessment, including ecosystem services, multi-criteria analysis, systems analysis, and objectives-driven approaches; finally, key aspects of sustainability assessment governance are considered, including managing decision complexity and community engagement. This essential and comprehensive exploration of sustainability, including strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, will be invaluable to students, academics and practitioners.
This is a practical manual to managing woodland. It includes a Foreword written by HRH Prince Charles. It comes from conservation expert Charles Flower, author of highly acclaimed Where Have all the Flowers Gone? Charles Flower is passionate about restoring the countryside. He has spent many years working on and writing about the restoration of wild flowers to grasslands and has now turned his attention to ancient woodlands, many of which, though derelict, are treasure houses of diversity, an asset unrecognised by almost everyone including those in Government. Yet with a little effort glades and rides, which may represent less than ten per cent of the wood, can be opened up with remarkable results. Once light penetrates some wild flowers will reappear and all will thrive attracting back the insects, birds and animals that once flourished there. This book is not only a beautiful record of the ancient woodlands that, thanks to good management, have continued to thrive, it also constitutes a practical manual and provides inspiration for those working to preserve our existing ancient woodlands and those managing recently planted woods and planting the trees that will constitute our future woodland heritage.
A consumer's guide to the food system, from local to global: our part as citizens in the interconnected networks, institutions, and organizations that enable our food choices. Everybody eats. We may even consider ourselves experts on the topic, or at least Instagram experts. But are we aware that the shrimp in our freezer may be farmed and frozen in Vietnam, the grapes in our fruit bowl shipped from Chile, and the coffee in our coffee maker grown in Nicaragua, roasted in Germany, and distributed in Canada? Whether we know it or not, every time we shop for food, cook, and eat, we connect ourselves to complex supply networks, institutions, and organizations that enable our food choices. Even locavores may not know the whole story of the produce they buy at the farmers market. In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, food writer and scholar Fabio Parasecoli offers a consumer's guide to the food system, from local to global. Parasecoli describes a system made up of open-ended, shifting, and unstable networks rather than well-defined chains; considers healthy food and the contradictory advice about it consumers receive; discusses food waste and the implications for sustainability; explores food technologies (and "culinary luddism"); and examines hunger and food insecurity in both developing and developed countries. Parasecoli reminds us that we are not only consumers but also citizens, and as citizens we have more power to improve the food system than we do by our individual food choices.
Agriculture as a social-ecological system embraces many disciplines. This book breaks through the silos of individual disciplines to bring ecologists and economists together to consider agriculture through the lens of resilience. It explores the economic, environmental and social uncertainties that influence the behaviour of agricultural producers and their subsequent farming approach, highlighting the importance of adaptability, innovation and capital reserves in enabling agriculture to persist under climate change and market volatility. The resilience concept and its relation to complexity theory is explained and the characteristics that foster resilience in agricultural systems, including the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are explored. The book discusses modelling tools, metrics and approaches for assessing agricultural resilience, highlighting areas where interdisciplinary thinking can enhance the development of resilience. It is suitable for those researching sustainable agriculture or those engaged in agricultural policy decisions and analysis, as well as students of ecology, agriculture and socioeconomics.
This textbook presents key theoretical approaches to understanding issues of sustainability and environmental management, perfectly bridging the gap between engineering and environmental science. It begins with the fundamentals of environmental modelling and toxicology, which are then used to discuss qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, and environmental assessments of product design. It discusses how business and government can work towards sustainability, focusing on managerial and legal tools, before considering ethics and how decisions on environmental management can be made. Students will learn quantitative methods while also gaining an understanding of qualitative, legal, and ethical aspects of sustainability. Practical applications are included throughout, and there are study questions at the end of each chapter. PowerPoint slides and jpegs of all the figures in the book are provided online. This is the perfect textbook on environmental studies for engineering and applied science students.
Making the case that we can use nuclear power to combat climate change even as we reduce the risks of nuclear terror. Humanity faces two existential threats: nuclear annihilation and catastrophic climate change. Both have human origins, and both are linked to the use of nuclear energy. Inherent in the use of atomic fission is the risk that the technology and materials can be diverted to terrorists or hostile nations and used to make nuclear weapons. The key question is whether we can use nuclear energy to reduce the threat of climate change without increasing the risk that nuclear weapons will be used. In Double Jeopardy, Daniel Poneman argues that the world needs an "all-of-the-above" energy policy, one that advances the goal of decarbonizing the environment through all available means-including nuclear power. Poneman makes a compelling case that we can enhance the ability of nuclear power to combat climate change even as we reduce the risks of nuclear terror. Doing so will require well-crafted laws and policies, implemented with an ethos of constant vigilance and embedded in a culture that weaves safety and security goals into the fabric of our nuclear programs. This will enable government and industry to work together to maximize energy and climate benefits while minimizing safety and security risks.
If you are concerned about the health of our planet then turn your attention to what lies under your feet. In the soil below are creatures at work that play a pivotal role in producing the food we eat and impacting the quality of our food crops. Earthworms were described by Darwin as the most important species on our planet and by Aristotle as 'the intestines of the earth'. The beginner's guide to earthworm farming provides you with all the information you need on these remarkable creatures and how important they are to the functioning of all life on Earth. In addition to this, this title contains simple and easy-to-implement tips on many of the important environmental issues currently facing us, including: How earthworms benefit the environment, your garden and the economy; the role earthworms play in reducing carbon emissions and removing heavy metals and toxins from our soil; how you can set up your own earthworm farm or compost heap; recycling, how waste negatively impacts water and the environment and how to effectively reduce waste and much more.
For thirty years David G. Campbell has explored the Amazon, an enchanting terrain of forest and river that is home to the greatest diversity of plants and animals to have ever existed, anywhere at any time, during the four-billion-year history of life on Earth. With great artistic flair, Campbell describes a journey up the Rio Moa, a remote tributary of the Amazon River, 2,800 miles from its mouth. Here he joins three old friends: Arito, a caiman hunter turned paleontologist; Tarzan, a street urchin brought up in a bordello; and Pimentel, a master canoe pilot. They travel together deep into the rainforest and set up camp in order to survey every woody plant on a two-hectare plot of land with about as many tree species as in all of North America. Campbell introduces us to two remarkable women, Dona Cabocla, a widow who raised six children on that lonely frontier, and Dona Ausira, a Nokini Native American who is the last speaker of her tribe's ages-old language. These pioneers live in a land whose original inhabitants were wiped out by centuries of disease, slavery, and genocide, taking their traditions and languages with them. He explores the intimate relationship between the extinction of native language and the extirpation of biological diversity. "It's hard for a people to love a place that is not defined in words and thus cannot be understood. And it's easy to give away something for which there are no words, something you never knew existed." In elegant prose that enchants and entrances, Campbell has written an elegy for the Amazon forest and its peoples-for what has become a land of ghosts.
By making available the almost unlimited energy stored in prehistoric plant matter, coal enabled the industrial age - and it still does. Coal today generates more electricity worldwide than any other energy source, helping to drive economic growth in major emerging markets. And yet, continued reliance on this ancient rock carries a high price in smog and greenhouse gases. We use coal because it is cheap: cheap to scrape from the ground, cheap to move, cheap to burn in power plants with inadequate environmental controls. In this book, Mark Thurber explains how coal producers, users, financiers, and technology exporters drive this supply chain, while fragmented environmental movements battle for full incorporation of environmental costs into the global calculus of coal. Delving into the politics of energy versus the environment at local, national, and international levels, Thurber paints a vivid picture of the multi-faceted challenges associated with continued coal production and use in the twenty-first century.
Includes a foreword by Giles Coren. Explore the rich stories, symbolism, and traditions that come wrapped up in the food on our plates - food that not only feeds our bodies but also makes up our culture. In The Story of Food; An Illustrated History of Everything We Eat our millennia-old relationship with nearly 200 foods - from nuts and seeds to noodles and meat - is sumptuously illustrated, with tales from all over the world. Food is the cornerstone of daily life, culture, and even religion. Staples like bread, rice, and salt are part of our culinary history, used in many ways all over the world. The Story of Food tells the extraordinary stories behind the foods we eat: from salt to sushi and rice to ravioli. It reveals, for example, that Pope Clement XIV was assassinated with poisoned drinking chocolate and tells the story of how coffee went being from a banned substance in some European countries to become the world's favourite hot drink. A true celebration of food in all its forms, this book explores the early efforts of humans in their quest for sustenance through the stories of individual foods. Covering all food types including nuts and grains, fruit and vegetables, meat and fish, and herbs and spices, this fascinating reference provides the facts on all aspects of a food's history. It explains how foods have become a part of our culture from their origins to how they are eaten and their place in world cuisine. The Story of Food is packed glorious images to create a feast for the eyes, while the stories intrigue, surprise, and enthrall. This is essential reference for every foodie.
Over roughly the past decade, oil and gas production in the United States has surged dramatically--thanks largely to technological advances such as high-volume hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as "fracking." This rapid increase has generated widespread debate, with proponents touting economic and energy-security benefits and opponents highlighting the environmental and social risks of increased oil and gas production. Despite the heated debate, neither side has a monopoly on the facts. In this book, Daniel Raimi gives a balanced and accessible view of oil and gas development, clearly and thoroughly explaining the key issues surrounding the shale revolution. The Fracking Debate directly addresses the most common questions and concerns associated with fracking: What is fracking? Does fracking pollute the water supply? Will fracking make the United States energy independent? Does fracking cause earthquakes? How is fracking regulated? Is fracking good for the economy? Coupling a deep understanding of the scholarly research with lessons from his travels to every major U.S. oil- and gas-producing region, Raimi highlights stories of the people and communities affected by the shale revolution, for better and for worse. The Fracking Debate provides the evidence and context that have so frequently been missing from the national discussion of the future of oil and gas production, offering readers the tools to make sense of this critical issue.
The book contains papers presented at a meeting by eucalyptus experts, scholars, consultants and company managers from different countries and regions. The authors report: (1) the most recent advances in eucalyptus research from different perspectives -- genetics, breeding, cultivation techniques, soil nutrition, plantation management, wood utilization, etc.; (2) the world-wide extension and development of the cultivated eucalyptus as a strategic forest tree with great economic, environmental and social significance; (3) plantation management merging ecological, environmental and legal concerns in operations practised by the private sector; (4) new approaches to utilization of eucalyptus woods. This book also represents a successful combination of academic research and practical operation in managing commercial eucalyptus plantations.
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