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Cerebral Cortex - Models of Cortical Circuits (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999) Loot Price: R5,248
Discovery Miles 52 480
Cerebral Cortex - Models of Cortical Circuits (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999): Philip S. Ulinski

Cerebral Cortex - Models of Cortical Circuits (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999)

Philip S. Ulinski

Series: Cerebral Cortex, 13

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Loot Price R5,248 Discovery Miles 52 480 | Repayment Terms: R480 pm x 12*

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Thisisthefirstvolumeinthe CerelJral Cortexseriesdevotedtomathematicalmodels ofthecortex. Itwasmotivatedbytherealizationthatcomputationalmodelsof individualneuronsandensemblesofneuronsareincreasinglyusedinresearchon corticalorganizationandfunction. Thisis,inpart,becauseofthenowubiquitous presenceofpowerfulandaffordablecomputers. Suitablemachineswereformerly rareinresearchlaboratoriesandrequiredsubstantialprogrammingexpertisetobe usedinconstructingandusingneuronalmodels. However,computersarenow routinelyusedinallareasofneurobiologyandanumberofsoftwarepackagesallow scientistswithminimalcomputerscienceandmathematicalbackgroundstocon- structseriousneuronalmodels. Asecondfactorleadingtotheproliferationof modelingstudiesisthedevelopmentoftechnologiesthatallowthekindsofdata collectionneededtodeveloprealisticmodelsofcorticalneurons. Characterization ofthekineticsofvoltage-andligand-gatedchannelsandreceptorshadbeenlim- itedtorelativelylargeneurons. However,therapiddevelopmentofsliceprepara- tions,patch-clampmethods,andimagingmethodsbasedonvoltage-sensitivedyes andintracellularcalciumindicatorshasresultedinasignificantdatabaseonthe biophysicalfeaturesofcorticalneurons. Thescopeofmodelingapproachestocorticalneuronsandfunctionsiswide anditseemednecessarytolimitthepurviewofthevolume. Thefocusisonattempts tounderstandthepropertiesofindividualcorticalneuronsandneuronalcircuitry throughmodelsthatincorporatesignificantfeaturesofcellularmorphologyand physiology. Noattemptwasmadetoincludemodelingapproachestounderstanding corticaldevelopmentandplasticity. Thus,workdealingwiththedevelopmentof oculardominancecolumnsandtheorientationselectivityofneuronsinvisualcortex isnotconsidered. Similarly,modelsdealingwiththecellularmechanismsunderlying long-termplasticityandwithapproachestolearningandmemorybasedonmodifica- tionofHebbiansynapsesarenotconsidered. Relativelyabstractattemptstounder- standhigherlevelandcognitiveprocessesbasedonneuralnetsrepresentasecond, majorareaofworkthatisnottreated. Modelsofcognitiveprocessesbasedon dynamicalsystemsmethodsinwhichnoattemptismadetoincludethebiophysical featuresofindividualneuronsarealsonotconsidered. vii viii Thetenmajorchaptersfallintothreegroups. Thefirstgroupdealswith compartmentalmodelsofindividualcorticalneurons. LyleBorg-Grahamprovides PREFACE anintroductiontothemethodsinvolvedinconstructingcompartmentalmodels andthenreviewstheexistingmodelsofhippocampalpyramidalcells. Becauseof theeffectivenessofhippocampalslicepreparations,theseneuronshavewell-ehar- acterizedbiophysicalproperties. Thischapterillustrateshowcompartmentalmod- elscanbeusedtosynthesizeexperimentaldataandprovideanintegrativeviewof thepropertiesofindividualneurons. PaulRhodescontinuesthethemebyfocusing ontheroleofvoltage-gatedchannelslocatedonthedendritesofcorticalneurons. Thisisanareainwhichtechnologicaladvancesinthevisualizationofneuronsin slicepreparationsbasedoninfraredmicroscopyhavegreatlyexpandedtheinfor- mationavailableondendriticfunctioninjustafewyears. Thechapterbothreviews theexperimentaldataonactivedendriticconductancesandemphasizestheirpo- tentialfunctionalroles. Thesecondgroupofchaptersdealwiththegenerationofreceptivefield propertiesofneuronswithinvisualcortex. Theyaddressissuesstemmingfromthe originalattempttounderstandhowthereceptivefieldpropertiesofneuronsincat andmonkeyprimaryvisualcortexaregeneratedbyinteractionsbetweengenicu- lateafferentsandcorticalneurons. ThechapterbyFlorentinWorgotterevaluates modelsthathavebeenusedtoanalyzethegenerationofreceptivefieldproperties. RodneyDouglasandhiscolleaguesaddressaspecificsetofissuesdealingwiththe roleofintracorticalexcitationmediatedbypyramidalcellcollaterals. Animportant featureofthischapterisitsrelationtoattempttoconstructfabricatedcircuitsthat duplicatethefunctionsofcorticalcircuits. ThechapterbyPhilipUlinskifocuseson thegenerationofmotion-selectivepropertiesincorticalneurons. Itseekstoidenti- tycellularmechanismsusedbyneuronsthatrespondpreferentiallytovisualstimuli movingwithparticularspeedsordirections. MatteoCarandiniandhiscolleagues discussthefeatureofcorticalneurons,knownasgaincontrol,thatallowsneurons torespondeffectivelytovisualstimulibypoolinginformationacrosspopulationsof corticalneurons. ThechapterbyHughWilsondealswiththereceptivefieldproper- tiesofextrastriateareasandintroducesnewworkanalyzingface-selectiveneurons. Thefinalsetofchaptersconsidermodelsofensemblesofthalamicandcortical neurons. ThechapterbyWilliamLyttonandElizabethThomasusesthetheoryof dynamicalsystemstoanalyzethetemporalrelationshipsbetweenthalamicand corticalneurons. Animportantfeatureoftheinteractionbetweenthalamusand cortexisthepresenceofoscillationsthatdependinpartuponthevoltage-gated conductancespresentonindividualneuronsandinpartonthestructureofthe overallnetwork. PaulBushcontinuesthisemphasisonoscillationsbydiscussinga modelthatdealswiththegenerationofsynchronizedoscillationsinvisualcortex. Oscillationsofthiskindhaveattractedsubstantialattentioninrecentyearsbecause oftheirpotentialroleincognitiveprocesses. Thelastchapter,byMichaelHasselmo andChristianeLinster,reviewstheirworkonmodelingpiriformcortex,emphasiz- ingtheroleofcholinergicmechanismsinmodulatingtheactivityofcorticalneu- rons. Anattempthasbeenmadethroughouttomakethevolumeaccessibleto readerswithminimalmathematicalbackgrounds. Thevolumethusbeginswitha shorthistoryofmodelsofcorticalneuronsandcircuitrythatintroducestheprinci- palmodelingstyles. ThechaptersbyWorgotterandUlinskicontainmoreextensive ix introductionstosomeofthemodelingmethodsthathavebeenusedtostudyvisual cortex,andthemathematicallychallengedreaderwillfindthatthechapterby PREFACE LyttonandThomascontainsareadableintroductiontotheuseofdynamical systemstheoryinneurobiology. PhilipS. Ulinski EdwardG. Jones Chicago and Davis Contents Chapter 1 ModelingCorticalCircuitry:AHistoryandProspectus PhilipS. Ulinski 1. Introduction "...1 2. LorentedeNothroughDynamicalSystemsModels...2 2. 1. LorentedeNo...2 2. 2. CellAssembliesandNeuralNets...3 2. 3. DynamicSystemsModels...8 3. HodgkinandHuxleythroughNetworkModels...11 3. 1. HodgkinandHuxley...11 3. 2. WilfridRall...11 3. 3. SoftwarePackages...13 3. 4. RealisticModelsofCorticalNetworks...14 4. Prospectus...14 5. References...15 Chapter 2 InterpretationsofDataandMechanismsforHippocampalPyramidal CellModels LyleJ Borg-Graham 1. Introduction...19 1. 1. NeuronModelEvolution-followingElectrophysiology...19 1. 2. NeuronModelEvaluation-followingtheParameters...21 1. 3. WhyHippocampus? 21 1. 4. OrganizationofThisChapter...22 xi xii 2. TheDatabaseforSingle-NeuronModels...23 2. 1. VoltageClampversusCurrentClamp...23 CONTENTS 2. 2. Single-ChannelversusMacroscopicCurrents...24 2. 3. TypeofPreparation...24 2. 4. KineticandPharmacologicalDissection...25 2. 5. TemperatureDependence...26 2. 6. AgeDependence...27 2. 7. HippocampalSubfieldDependence...27 2. 8. DifferencesinFiringPropertiesbetweenSharpversusPatch Recordings...28 2. 9. TheMeasuredVoltage...

General

Imprint: Springer-Verlag New York
Country of origin: United States
Series: Cerebral Cortex, 13
Release date: September 2012
First published: 1999
Editors: Philip S. Ulinski
Dimensions: 254 x 178 x 31mm (L x W x T)
Format: Paperback
Pages: 573
Edition: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999
ISBN-13: 978-1-4613-7223-3
Categories: Books > Medicine > Surgery > Cardiothoracic surgery
Books > Science & Mathematics > Biology, life sciences > Life sciences: general issues > Neurosciences
LSN: 1-4613-7223-2
Barcode: 9781461372233

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