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The Italian son of a barber. A failed hydraulic engineer. A giant who performed feats of strength and agility in the circus. Giovanni Belzoni (1778-1824) was all of these before going on to become one of the most controversial figures in the history of Egyptian archaeology. A man of exceptional size with an ego of comparable proportions, he procured for the British Museum some of its largest and still awe-inspiring treasures. Today, however, the typical museum visitor knows nothing of Belzoni, and many modern archaeologists dismiss him as an ignorant vandal. In this captivating new biography, Ivor Noel Hume re-creates an early nineteenth century in which there was no established archaeological profession, only enormous opportunity. Belzoni landed in Egypt, where he was unsuccessful in selling a hydraulic machine of his own invention, and came under the patronage of diplomat Henry Salt, who convinced him to travel to Thebes in search of artifacts. Among the many treasures Belzoni would bring back was the seven-ton stone head of Ramesses II, the "Young Memnon". The book includes gripping accounts of Belzoni's wildly productive, and physically brutal, expeditions, as well as an unforgettable portrait of his wife, Sarah, who suffered the hardships of the Egyptian deserts and later bore the brunt of the disillusionment that came with the declining popular perception of her husband. Including numerous illustrations, many in colour, this volume brings one of archaeology's most fascinating figures vividly to life.
In this provocative collaboration from two Egyptology outsiders, Robert M. Schoch, Ph.D., and Robert Bauval combine their decades of research to show how the Sphinx is thousands of years older than the conventional Egyptological timeline and was built by a long forgotten pre-Pharaonic civilization. They examine the known history of the Sphinx, contrasting what Egyptologists claim with prominent historical accounts and new research, including updates to Schoch's geological water weathering research and reanalysis of seismic studies. Building on Bauval's Orion Correlation Theory, they investigate the archaeoastronomical alignments of the monuments of the Giza Plateau and reveal how the pyramids and Sphinx were built to align with the constellations of Orion and Leo. Analyzing the evidence for a significantly older construction phase at Giza and the restoration and recarving of the Sphinx during the Old Kingdom era, they assert that the Sphinx was first built by an advanced pre-Pharaonic civilization that existed circa 12,000 years ago on the Giza Plateau, contemporaneous with the sophisticated Goebekli Tepe complex.
Recently broadcast on a television documentary, Wayne Herschel's new findings completely challenge the theories on human origins and the pyramids. He provides new evidence identifying a global pyramid/star map pattern and a recurring hidden message encrypted as a rendition of Da Vinci's 'Vitruvian' human blueprint code. Astronomers have tested Herschel's 50 pyramids of Lower Egypt replicating the known constellations as a grand pyramid/star map. Egypt's ultimate monument is positioned as the proverbial "x" that marks the spot. It venerates a star that has been catalogued astronomically as being identical to our Sun. The matching cosmic pattern is found at Stonehenge, Tikal and at Angkor. For the first time ever, a specific star is proposed as a star system of origin of our ancient 'astronaut' ancestors who were later revered as 'gods' when they revisited. The highlight of the book is undoubtedly the rumoured pyramid ruins on Mars providing the most detailed star correlation of all, with a perfect interpretation of the human code. But for whom was the cosmic message intended, as it certainly was not for us? All the pyramid star maps are too massive, face skyward, and the only way to decipher them is to view them from space. This title takes the reader on a riveting journey from one clue to the next, presenting the strongest evidence to date that we have never ever been alone in the universe.
Radu Cinamar stunned the world when he released his first book, "Transylvanian Sunrise", which described the greatest archaeological find of all time: a hidden chamber some 50,000 years old with beneath the Romanian Sphinx in the Bucegi Mountains. This chamber includes holographic technology with a visual data bank of infinite DNA permutations in addition to three tunnels: one leading to the inner earth, one to Tibet and one to Egypt. After being allowed to explore some of these artefacts, Radu was befriended by an enigmatic alchemist named Elinor who introduced him to an equally mysterious Tibetan Lama. This book begins with Radu becoming the guardian of Elinor's exotic villa in Bucharest which contains a remarkable alchemical laboratory in the basement. Radu is soon thereafter recruited for Department Zero, Romania's most secret intelligence unit, by his old friend, Cezar Brad, and becomes part of an expedition to explore a mysterious tunnel which leads from the chamber beneath the Romanian Sphinx to a different type of chamber beneath the Giza Plateau which contains ancient artefacts that look more futuristic than they do ancient, one of them being a bioresonant device through which one can visit past and future events. This amazing expedition includes an American from the Pentagon with a top secret laptop computer he is intuitively connected to that not only displays intricate holograms but is also linked to Hilbert (inter-dimensional) Space. Ancient archeology meets future science in this true life adventure that penetrates the secrets of Egypt in a way that has not been previously conceived of in our society.
In this book, Aaron A. Burke explores the evolution of Amorite identity in the Near East from ca. 2500-1500 BC. He sets the emergence of a collective identity for the Amorites, one of the most famous groups in Ancient Near Eastern history, against the backdrop of both Akkadian imperial intervention and declining environmental conditions during this period. Tracing the migration of Amorite refugees from agropastoral communities into nearby regions, he shows how mercenarism in both Mesopotamia and Egypt played a central role in the acquisition of economic and political power between 2100 and 1900 BC. Burke also examines how the establishment of Amorite kingdoms throughout the Near East relied on traditional means of legitimation, and how trade, warfare, and the exchange of personnel contributed to the establishment of an Amorite koine. Offering a fresh approach to identity at different levels of social hierarchy over time and space, this volume contributes to broader questions related to identity for other ancient societies.
From the bestselling author of 1177 B.C., a comprehensive history of archaeology--from its amateur beginnings to the cutting-edge science it is today. In 1922, Howard Carter peered into Tutankhamun's tomb for the first time, the only light coming from the candle in his outstretched hand. Urged to tell what he was seeing through the small opening he had cut in the door to the tomb, the Egyptologist famously replied, "I see wonderful things." Carter's fabulous discovery is just one of the many spellbinding stories told in Three Stones Make a Wall. Written by Eric Cline, an archaeologist with more than thirty seasons of excavation experience, Three Stones Make a Wall traces the history of archaeology from an amateur pursuit to the cutting-edge science it is today by taking the reader on a tour of major archaeological sites and discoveries, from Pompeii to Petra, Troy to the Terracotta Warriors, and Mycenae to Megiddo and Masada. Cline brings to life the personalities behind these digs, including Heinrich Schliemann, the former businessman who excavated Troy, and Mary Leakey, whose discoveries advanced our understanding of human origins. The discovery of the peoples and civilizations of the past is presented in vivid detail, from the Hittites and Minoans to the Inca, Aztec, and Moche. Along the way, the book addresses the questions archaeologists are asked most often: How do you know where to dig? How are excavations actually done? How do you know how old something is? Who gets to keep what is found? Taking readers from the pioneering digs of the eighteenth century to the exciting new discoveries being made today, Three Stones Make a Wall is a lively and essential introduction to the story of archaeology.
Most ancient history focuses on the urban elite. Papyrology explores the daily lives of the more typical men and women in antiquity. Aphrodito, a village in sixth-century AD Egypt, is antiquity's best source for micro-level social history. The archive of Dioskoros of Aphrodito introduces thousands of people living the normal business of their lives: loans, rent contracts, work agreements, marriage, divorce. In exceptional cases, the papyri show raw conflict: theft, plunder, murder. Throughout, Dioskoros struggles to keep his family in power in Aphrodito, and to keep Aphrodito independent from the local tax collectors. The emerging picture is a different vision of Roman late antiquity than what we see from the view of the urban elites. It is a world of free peasants building networks of trust largely beyond the reach of the state. Aphrodito's eighth-century AD papyri show that this world dies in the early years of Islamic rule.
Shaft tombs which had only been noted in two brief paragraphs by Howard Carter in 1917 have now been revealed to be burial places of hitherto unrecognised members of the family of Amenhotep III. These architecturally unique shaft tombs had been repeatedly robbed but still contained the shattered remains of the largest collections of canopic jars ever found in Egypt. These and other surviving contents of the tomb seem to have been deliberately destroyed in phaoronic times in an attempt - successful until recently - to remove the names of the dead from history. The tombs were used over several generations and included the burials of the King's Great Wife, son, daughter, another of his wives and at least a dozen women bearing the title `Ornament of the King'. Although now the site of the burials appears remote, it was the site of a major crossroads during the XVIIIth dynasty - traces of plant life within the tombs point to a more fertile climate when they were created. The most pressing question the tombs raise is why and when these burials were destroyed, and why the names of several of the family of Amenhotep III and a group of court women should have been subjected to deliberate, systematic and official destruction.
This book is a vivid reconstruction of the practical aspects of ancient Egyptian religion. Through an examination of artefacts and inscriptions, the text explores a variety of issues. For example, who was allowed to enter the temples, and what rituals were performed therein? Who served as priests? How were they organized and trained, and what did they do? What was the Egyptians' attitude toward death, and what happened at funerals? How did the living and dead communicate? In what ways could people communicate with the gods? What impact did religion have on the economy and longevity of the society? This book demystifies Egyptian religion, exploring what it meant to the people and society. The text is richly illustrated with images of rituals and religious objects.
A unique study of the engineering and tools used to create Egyptian
A brilliant introduction to Egyptology, this book describes the mysterious story of the lost pharaohs. Lowered into a crevice thirty feet deep by the Priests of the Necropolis, the mummies of the lost pharaohs were undisturbed for three thousand years. Their discovery and its incredible impact on the field of Egyptology form just one episode of this fascinating book, which also covers the construction of the pyramids, the City of the Dead, and many other topics. Leonard Cottrell, author of numerous BBC radio documentaries on ancient Egypt, offers the general reader a story that is both entertaining and factual, ably conveying the romance and mystery which draw so many to the study of ancient Egypt.
Published in the year 2005, Everyday Life In Ancient Egypt is a valuable contribution to the field of Ancient Egyptian History.
Take a spectacular armchair voyage to one of earth's most magnificent and ancient sites: Egypt's Valley of the Kings. This exquisitely produced guide is lavishly illustrated with more than 800 pictures (including archeological reconstruction drawings); 6 gatefolds; and the finest paper. Conducted by a team of world-acknowledged experts who provide the most up-to-date information, this virtual guidebook to Egypt's greatest treasures is the perfect mix of artistic brilliance and scholarly research. The Valley of the Kings and the tombs of the nobles are, with the pyramids of Giza, among the world's best-known sites. Yet a significant portion of this remarkable place remains unseen by most who visit--but this illuminating and spectacularly produced volume fully maps both the artistic and the architectural features of the tombs. Renowned photographer Araldo De Luca was granted full access to these ancient wonders, and he provides unrivaled color images of the funerary temples and private necropolises. An exploration of their structures and embellishments features plans, photos, drawings of motifs, and hieroglyphs. To complete the presentation: walking itineraries in the Theban mountains are shown from many unusual vantage points, making this book a visual treat, and an extraordinary adventure, for real and armchair travelers alike.
Now available in paperback, Egyptomania takes us on a historical journey to unearth the Egypt of the imagination, a land of strange gods, mysterious magic, secret knowledge, monumental pyramids, enigmatic sphinxes and immense wealth. Egypt has always exerted a powerful attraction on the Western mind, and an array of figures have been drawn to the idea of Egypt. Even the practical-minded Napoleon dreamed of Egyptian glory and helped open the antique land to explorers. Ronald H. Fritze goes beyond art and architecture to reveal Egyptomania's impact on religion, philosophy, historical study, literature, travel, science and popular culture. All those who remain captivated by the ongoing phenomenon of Egyptomania will revel in the mysteries uncovered in this book.
The Material World of Ancient Egypt examines the objects and artifacts, the representations in art, and the examples of documentation that together reveal the day-to-day physical substance of life in ancient Egypt. This book investigates how people dressed, what they ate, the houses they built, the games they played, and the tools they used, among many other aspects of daily life, paying great attention to the change and development of each area within the conservative Egyptian society. More than any other ancient civilization, the ancient Egyptians have left us with a wealth of evidence about their daily lives in the form of perishable objects, from leather sandals to feather fans, detailed depictions of trades and crafts on the walls of tombs, and a wide range of documentary evidence from temple inventories to personal laundry lists. Drawing on these diverse sources and richly illustrating his account with nearly one hundred images, William H. Peck illuminates the culture of the ancient Egyptians from the standpoint of the basic materials they employed to make life possible and perhaps even enjoyable.
This book examines the interplay between astronomy and dynastic power in the course of ancient Egyptian history, focusing on the fundamental role of astronomy in the creation of the pyramids and the monumental temple and burial complexes. Bringing to bear the analytical tools of archaeoastronomy, a set of techniques and methods that enable modern scholars to better understand the thought, religion, and science of early civilizations, Giulio Magli provides in-depth analyses of the pyramid complexes at Giza, Abusir, Saqqara, and Dahshur, as well as of the Early Dynastic necropolis at Abydos and the magnificent new Kingdom Theban temples. Using a variety of data retrieved from study of the sky and measurements of the buildings, he reconstructs the visual, symbolic, and spiritual world of the ancient Egyptians and thereby establishes an intimate relationship among celestial cycles, topography, and architecture. He also shows how they were deployed in the ideology of the pharaoh's power in the course of Egyptian history.
The Pyramids on the Giza Plateau represent perhaps the most famous archaeological site in the world, capturing on tomb walls frozen moments from almost every aspect of life in ancient Egypt. This book, by one of the foremost experts on the history of Giza, explores new approaches to "cataloging" the site, highlighting efforts at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard University. The site experienced its first "golden age" as the burial place of three pharaohs of the Egyptian Old Kingdom (Dynasty 4, ca. 2640-2510 BCE). A second golden age came almost five millennia later, when the first modern excavators applied their newly devised archaeological craft to the Giza Plateau. Now, with the advent of many new technologies in the twenty-first century, the Giza Necropolis is available in two, three, and even four dimensions. Children and specialized scholars alike may study the material culture of this ancient civilization from afar, often with greater access than could be achieved in person. However, these new approaches do raise questions: Does 3-D modeling and animation truly improve scholarly comprehension and interpretation? Can interacting with animations still be called scholarship? Where is the border between academic knowledge and mere entertainment? Through specific case studies and an in-depth history of this important project, Peter Der Manuelian provides an excellent model for other digital visualization initiatives. He also offers more general philosophical reflection on the nature of visualization in archaeology and speculates about emerging technologies and how they may be useful in the future.
Written by the late keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities in the British MuseumRa - Sun God - Almighty, Immortal and Invisible. Osiris - God of Resurrection Isis and HorusCreation, Judgement and Resurrection concepts
Cracking the Egyptian Code is the first biography in English of Jean-Francois Champollion, the impoverished, arrogant and brilliant child of the French Revolution who made the vital breakthrough in deciphering the Egyptian hieroglyphs. This finely illustrated account charts Champollion's dramatic life and achievements: by turns a teenage professor, a supporter of Napoleon, an exile, a fanatical decipherer and a curator at the Louvre, he lived life to the full but drove himself into an early grave. Andrew Robinson's full-blooded account brings the man, his setbacks and his ultimate triumphs vividly to life.
.Tells the story of the tomb of Tutankhamun, placing the discoveries in their historical context and includes many historical documents that are being published here for the first time .Includes painstaking recreations, in color, of a number of key contemporary photographs taken at the time by Harry Burton .Published to accompany an exhibition at The Ashmoleam Museum, Oxford, UK from July 24th to October 26th 2014 Howard Carter's excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922 was one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. The name of Egypt's 'boy king' is now synonymous with the glories of this ancient civilization, and the spectacular contents of his tomb continue to capture the public's imagination. This book tells the story of the search for Tutankhamun's tomb and its discovery using Howard Carter's original excavation records that were deposited in the archives of the Griffith Institute at the University of Oxford. The meticulous recording process and conservation work on the thousands of objects took Carter and his team an astonishing 10 years and for its time the entire enterprise was a model of archaeological investigation. Against this backdrop of painstaking scholarship, the book also explores the phenomenon of 'Tut-mania', when the world was gripped by all things Tutankhamun, from jewelry and clothing to dance music and curses. In the final section, the authors re-evaluate what the tomb's contents can tell us about the king and his time, and explore various projects that have in recent years sought to ensure the preservation of Tutankhamun's tomb and its contents for future generations. For all of these projects, the Howard Carter archive in the Griffith Institute remains an invaluable resource."
The Great Pyramid Manual takes the technical description and historical interpretation of the last 'Great Wonder of the Ancient World' to the next level. Lavishly illustrated with the most accurate architectural diagrams and three-dimensional reconstructions currently available, the book pays tribute to the greatest iconic work of human culture. The Great Pyramid was the world's tallest monument for nearly 4,000 years. Until the 19th century, it was also the heaviest structure ever built. It was the central component of a huge funerary complex called Akhet Khufu, 'Khufu's Horizon', by the ancient Egyptians. Over time, the plateau around it developed into an enormous necropolis, a true city of the dead. While many great monuments were built alongside it, none have surpassed it.
This book is an impressive collection of some of the earliest literature still extant from the great Ancient Egyptian civilization. Much of the material contained in this work -- poems, narratives, songs and prayers -- was translated here and made accessible to lovers of antiquity for the first time. Covering a range of topics including schools, religion and love, the collected works here provide the reader with a deeper understanding of ancient life along the Nile.
Very Short Introductions: Brilliant, Sharp, Inspiring The ancient Egyptians are an enduring source of fascination - mummies and pyramids, curses and rituals have captured the imagination of generations. We all have a mental picture of ancient Egypt, but is it the right one? How much do we really know about this great civilization? This second edition of Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction explores the history and culture of pharaonic Egypt, inlcuding ideas about Egyptian kingship, ancient Egyptian writing systems, and the history of Egyptology. Ian Shaw introduces the reader to issues relating to ethnicity, race, gender, and sexual relations; the latest ideas about death, funerary rites and mummification; and thoughts on religion and ethics in ancient Egypt. He also looks at the phenomenon of Egyptomania, whereby certain books and films have sensationalised aspects of Egyptian culture. Finally, Shaw takes the story to the present day by illustrating the impact of the Arab Spring on approaches to Egyptian museums and cultural heritage. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This book draws on ancient Egyptian inscriptions in order to theorize the relationship between accounting and order. It focuses especially on the performative power of accounting in producing and sustaining order in society. It explores how accounting intervened in various domains of the ancient Egyptian world: the cosmos; life on earth (offerings to the gods; taxation; transportation; redistribution for palace dependants; mining activities; work organization; baking and brewing; private estates and the household; and private transactions in semi-barter exchange); and the cult of the dead. The book emphasizes several possibilities through which accounting can be theorized over and above strands of theorizing that have already been explored in detail previously. These additional possibilities theorize accounting as a performative ritual; myth; a sign system; a signifier; a time ordering device; a spatial ordering device; violence; and as an archive and a cultural memory. Each of these themes are summarized with further suggestions as to how theorizing might be pursued in future research in the final chapter of the book. This book is of particular relevance to all accounting students and researchers concerned with theorize accounting and also with the relevance of history to the project of contemporary theorizing of accounting.
First published in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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