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Modern Technologies for Landslide Investigation and Prediction presents eleven contributed chapters from Chinese and Italian authors, as a follow-up of a bilateral workshop held in Shanghai on September 2013. Chapters are organized in three main parts: ground-based monitoring techniques (photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning, ground-based InSAR, infrared thermography, and GNSS networks), geophysical (passive seismic sensor networks) and geotechnical methods (SPH and SLIDE), and satellite remote-sensing techniques (InSAR and optical images). Authors of these contributes are internationally-recognized experts in their respective research fields. Marco Scaioni works in the college of Surveying and Geo-Informatics at Tongji University, Shanghai (P.R. China). His research fields are mainly Close-range Photogrammetry, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, and other ground-based sensors for metrological and deformation monitoring applications to structural engineering and geosciences. In the period 2012-2016 he is chairman of the Working Group V/3 in the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, focusing on `Terrestrial 3D Imaging and Sensors'.
This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground are explained.
This book explores the common language of politics, ecology and risk, and crosses their conceptual divides. It seeks to shed light on the underlying structural factors, processes, players and interactions in the risk scenario, all of which influence decision-making that both increases and reduces disaster risk. The first section explores risk governance under conditions of increasing complexity, diversity and change. The discussion includes chapters on The problem of governance in the risk society; Making sense of decentralization; Understanding and conceptualizing risk in large-scale social-ecological systems; The disaster epidemic and Structure, process, and agency in the evaluation of risk governance. Part II, focused on governance in regions and domains of risk, includes nine chapters with discussion of Climate governance and climate change and society; Climate change and the politics of uncertainty; Risk complexity and governance in mountain environments; On the edge: Coastal governance and risk and Governance of megacity disaster risks, among other important topics. Part III discusses directions for further advancement in risk governance, with ten chapters on such topics as the transition From risk society to security society; Governing risk tolerability; Risk and adaptive planning for coastal cities; Profiling risk governance in natural hazards contexts; Confronting the risk of large disasters in nature and Transitions into and out of a crisis mode of socio-ecological systems. The book presents a comprehensive examination of the complexity of both risk and environmental policy-making and of their multiple-and not always visible-interactions in the context of social-ecological systems. Just as important, it also addresses unseen and neglected complementarities between regulatory policy-making and ordinary individual decision-making through the actions of nongovernmental actors. A range of distinguished scholars from a diverse set of disciplines have contributed to the book with their expertise in many areas, including disaster studies, emergency planning and management, ecology, sustainability, environmental planning and management, climate change, geography, spatial planning, development studies, economy, political sciences, public administration, communication, as well as physics and geology.
This volume discusses the general physics of debris flows and various approaches to modeling - including the SEGMENT-Landslide approach - as well as the pros and cons of these approaches and how other approaches are sub-sets of the SEGMENT-Landslide approach. In addition, this volume will systematically unify the concepts of vadose zone hydrology and geotechnical engineering, with special emphasis on quantifying ecosystem consequences of storm-triggered landslides in a warmer climate setting. The reader will find a comprehensive coverage of concepts ranging from hillslope hydrology, porous granular material rheology and the fundamentals of soil properties, to state-of-the-art concepts of enhanced hydrological cycle with climate warming and a discussion of new approaches for future research.
This book is one out of 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes, and deals with Landslide processes, including: field data and monitoring techniques, prediction and forecasting of landslide occurrence, regional landslide inventories and dating studies, modeling of slope instabilities and secondary hazards (e.g. impulse waves and landslide-induced tsunamis, landslide dam failures and breaching), hazard and risk assessment, earthquake and rainfall induced landslides, instabilities of volcanic edifices, remedial works and mitigation measures, development of innovative stabilization techniques and applicability to specific engineering geological conditions, use of geophysical techniques for landslide characterization and investigation of triggering mechanisms. Focuses is given to innovative techniques, well documented case studies in different environments, critical components of engineering geological and geotechnical investigations, hydrological and hydrogeological investigations, remote sensing and geophysical techniques, modeling of triggering, collapse, run out and landslide reactivation, geotechnical design and construction procedures in landslide zones, interaction of landslides with structures and infrastructures and possibility of domino effects. The Engineering Geology for Society and Territory volumes of the IAEG XII Congress held in Torino from September 15-19, 2014, analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world and build on the four main themes of the congress: environment, processes, issues, and approaches. The congress topics and subject areas of the 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes are: Climate Change and Engineering Geology. Landslide Processes. River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources. Marine and Coastal Processes. Urban Geology, Sustainable Planning and Landscape Exploitation. Applied Geology for Major Engineering Projects. Education, Professional Ethics and Public Recognition of Engineering Geology. Preservation of Cultural Heritage.
The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 - 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami - inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident management, emergency response, accident recovery and mitigations - and the underlying factors - organizational issues, etc., have been clarified and recommendations in the following areas have been made. - Nuclear safety fundamentals - Direct factors of the accident - Organizational aspects - Common items (R&D, International cooperation, human resources management) - Post-accident management/recovery from the accident.
The March 11 disaster in 2011, known as the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, caused extensive damage in various sectors. Through the recovery process, special lessons are being learned and applied in the affected region. This book attempts to draw lessons from different issues and sectors such as policy perspectives (both national and local), the role of international NGOs, fishing industries and other livelihoods, temporary housing, health, heritage, and lesson sharing. The book outlines the need and approach for sharing the lessons with wider communities in developing those lessons. Based on intensive field research, the book also provides some key lessons from community-based recovery in the affected regions of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. This book has 13 chapters in two parts. The first part of the book, with seven chapters, provides a set of lessons from diverse sectors. The second part, with six chapters, provides case studies from different areas of Tohoku. Six specific issues are addressed in part 1: the role of international agencies, livelihood (namely, fisheries) recovery, temporary housing, health, heritage, and lesson sharing. Part 2 has six case studies from different areas of the Tohoku region, including Fukushima. The primary target groups for this book are students and researchers in the fields of environment, disaster risk reduction, and recovery studies. The book provides them with a good idea of the current research trends in the field and furnishes basic knowledge about these vital topics. Another target group comprises practitioners and policy makers, who will be able to apply the knowledge collected here to policy and decision-making.
The Bled workshops have traditionally produced reference documents providing visions for the future development of earthquake engineering as foreseen by leading researchers in the field. The participants of the 2011 workshop built on the tradition of these events initiated by Professors Fajfar and Krawinkler to honor their important research contributions and have now produced a book providing answers to crucial questions in today s earthquake engineering: What visible changes in the design practice have been brought about by performance-based seismic engineering? What are the critical needs for future advances? What actions should be taken to respond to those needs? The key answer is that research interests should go beyond the narrow technical aspects and that the seismic resilience of society as a whole should become an essential part of the planning and design process.
The book aims to provide essential guidelines for researchers, professionals and students in the field of earthquake engineering. It will also be of particular interest for all those working at insurance companies, governmental, civil protection and emergency management agencies that are responsible for assessing and planning community resilience.
The introductory chapter of the book is based on the keynote presentation given at theworkshop by the late Professor Helmut Krawinkler. As such, the book includes Helmut s last and priceless address to the engineering community, together with his vision and advice for the future development of performance-based design, earthquake engineering and seismic risk management."
The focus of this volume is comprised of the fundamentals, models, and information technologies (IT) methods and tools for disaster prediction and mitigation. A more detailed list of topics includes mathematical and computational modeling of processes leading to or producing disasters, modeling of disaster effects, IT means for disaster mitigation, including data mining tools, knowledge-based and expert systems for use in disaster circumstances, GIS-based systems for disaster prevention and mitigation and equipment for disaster-prone areas. A specific type or class of disasters (natural or human-made), however will not be part of the main focus of this work. Instead, this book was conceived to offer a comprehensive, integrative view on disasters, seeking to determine what various disasters have in common. Because disaster resilience and mitigation involve humans, societies and cultures, not only technologies and economic models, special attention was paid in this volume to gain a comprehensive view on these issues, as a foundation of the IT tool design.
This book contains the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries, ISCRAM-med 2014, held in Toulouse, France, in October 2014. The aim of ISCRAM-med was to gather researchers and practitioners working in the area of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, with a special but not limited focus on Mediterranean crises. These include political crises, economic crises, natural hazards, and fatal industrial incidents. The 15 full papers included in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions. The contributions are organized in topical sections on supply chain and distribution; modeling and training; human interactions in the crisis field; coordination and agility; and social aspects in crisis management.
This book focuses on land and disaster governance in Asian countries. The Asian region has become increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters, including floods, cyclones, storms, earthquakes, drought, typhoons and tsunamis. Further, as a result of unsustainable changes being made in patterns of land use, catchment and coastal zones, increasing population density, migration patterns, and the spread of consumer culture across countries, the impact of natural disasters has increased manifold. The book addresses two major concerns in this field. Firstly, it discusses topics intended to raise awareness among all stakeholders of the critical aspects of disaster management in the context of Asia. Secondly, it calls upon policymakers, researchers, academics, practitioners, private enterprises and civil society organizations, as well as all those who have been, are and will be affected by natural disasters to search for innovative and novel approaches to reducing risk and managing disasters.
This book discusses the science, causes, impacts and risk reduction strategies for climate change and disasters. It focuses on the use of traditional knowledge, new innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels in order to promote sustainable development goals in general and disaster risk reduction in particular. The global climate has changed substantially over the last century. There is strong evidence of global climate change in the form of increase in air and sea surface temperature, recession of glaciers, changes and shifting of climate regimes, increasing number of extreme events and sea levels changes. The increasing frequency of climate change induced disasters in particular is posing a threat to resilience, lives and livelihoods at global, regional and local levels. Major ecosystems of the world have experienced several climate induced disaster events in recent past. This book provides new insights into the occurrence and impacts of climatic extremes and strategies for disaster risk reduction. It includes studies on rainfall and temperature trends, floods and drought disasters, weather and climatic related disasters in mountains, changes in plant activities, risk assessment and responses in different ecosystems of the world. The book is particularly useful for environmental and disaster managers, researchers and graduate students, as well as policy makers.
During the last decades, the monitoring and modelling of various geodynamic processes have gained ever increasing importance. In particular, temporal variations of the deformation and gravity fields recorded by new types of geodetic measuring techniques and reflecting isostatic, tectonic or volcanic processes in the earth's interior as well as climatologically induced changes on its surface have opened new avenues. The present volume succeeds a similar topical volume published in 2007 and reflects the most recent developments in these fields of research.
Part of the papers in this book were presented at the second workshop on 'Deformation and Gravity Change: Indicators of Isostasy, Tectonics, Volcanism and Climate Change' that took place at the Casa de los Volcanes on Lanzarote, Spain, during March 27-30, 2007. It was jointly organized and supported by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, the Spanish Council for Scientific Research and the Cabildo Insular de Lanzarote. The workshop also served as the second meeting of the members of the IAG Working Group ICCT2 on 'Dynamic Theories of Deformation and Gravity Fields'.
This book documents the outcomes of a study designed to explore ways of increasing resilience in a complex city system against disasters by focusing on the transportation system in London. A survey was undertaken comprising interviews with upper level decision makers as well as questionnaires to personnel in the field and the general public. The results of this survey are presented, together with a brief description of the past and current situation in the city with respect to transportation, flood risk and other vulnerabilities. The sources of problems in responding adequately to disasters are analyzed and important lessons drawn. In particular, it is explained how failures derive from insistence upon the application of written plans in preference over redefinition of strategies and priorities and how flexible systems represent a better approach to crisis situations. The book will be of interest to all who are concerned with disaster planning and management and the societal response to disasters.
Disaster risk is increasing, not only in number of events, but also in incurred losses. Such increases are being driven also by the growing exposure of assets, due to the rapid urban growth, because vulnerability decreases as countries develop, but not enough to compensate. The situation will be more and more critical, due to the growth of the amount of the building stock. Thus we need new initiatives to foster upgrading of existing building and enhancement of land planning strategies. "Safe Home" scheme is aimed at increasing urban safety requirements against hazards under an advanced labeling approach. It provides a quantitative evaluation of building performance through an objective, reproducible approach, assessing risks at a land, urban and building scale. Aim of this rating system is to result in useful information to different users, like land planning decision makers, owners, purchasers, tenants or property and real estate managers.
This book presents key lessons from community-based risk-reduction practices in Japan, a country that is often hit by disasters and that also has shown strong resilience in coping with those disasters. Japan has a strong governance system for disaster risk reduction. However, the Kobe earthquake of 1995 showed the importance of community involvement in disaster response as well as recovery. With several examples from different parts of Japan, the book elaborates on the importance of community-based risk reduction and the innovations required for sustaining some of the community approaches. The book has 13 chapters and is divided into three parts: (1) Evolution of community-based risk reduction in Japan; (2) Community-based risk-reduction issues; and (3) Case studies.
The primary target groups for this book are students and researchers in the fields of environment, disaster risk reduction, and climate change studies. The book provides them with a good idea of the current research trends in the field and furnishes basic knowledge about these vital topics. Another target group comprises practitioners and policy makers, who will be able to apply the knowledge collected here to policy and decision-making.
With increased climate variability, aggravated natural hazards in the form of extreme events are affecting the lives and livelihoods of many people. This work serves as a basis for formulating a `preparedness plan' to ensure the effective policy formulation for planned development. Increased demand and competition with a high degree of variability have forced people to struggle in order to prosper. Good governance and innovative policy formulation are necessary to create a resilient society. This may promote a paradigm shift in the mindset on and perceptions of natural hazards and their impacts on development and growth. This new perspective will make people more concerned about minimizing the loss of life, property, and environmental damage and directly safeguard the development process. This book presents a detailed methodological approach to monitoring meteorological, hydrological, and climate change aspects to help resolve issues related to our environment, resources, and economies in the changing climate situation.
Disaster Risk Governance offers the first extensive engagement with disaster risk governance in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade and a half Kenya, Jamaica, Dominica, and Zanzibar have all suffered massive destruction from disasters caused by natural hazards. Despite the tremendous investments in disaster risk reduction (DRR), disasters have wiped out the developmental gains of these countries. In this book, Denise Thompson argues that disaster risk governance (DRG) as a practical and academic matter has not been given the attention it deserves, and as a result, this neglect has undermined the time, money and resources invested in DRR in developing countries since the late 1970s and early 1980s. Thompson proposes that properly conceptualizing DRG based on context will help to address some of the deficiencies. Consequently, DRG needs to become a central focus, particularly for developing countries. Written with real-life implications for developing countries, Disaster Risk Governance, is perfectly suited for practitioners and researchers in area studies, disaster risk reduction and disaster governance, as well as students of disaster studies.
The classical field dealing with earthquakes is called "earthquake engineering" and considered to be a branch of structural engineering. In projects dealing with strategies for earthquake risk mitigation, urban planning approaches are often neglected. Today interventions are needed on a city, rather than a building, scale. This work deals with the impact of earthquakes, including also a broader view on multihazards in urban areas. Uniquely among other works in the field, particular importance is given to urban planning issues, in conservation of heritage and emergency management. Multicriteria decision making and broad participation of those affected by disasters are included.
The monograph covers the fundamentals and the consequences of extreme geophysical phenomena like asteroid impacts, climatic change, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, flooding, and space weather. This monograph also addresses their associated, local and worldwide socio-economic impacts. The understanding and modeling of these phenomena is critical to the development of timely worldwide strategies for the prediction of natural and anthropogenic extreme events, in order to mitigate their adverse consequences. This monograph is unique in as much as it is dedicated to recent theoretical, numerical and empirical developments that aim to improve: (i) the understanding, modeling and prediction of extreme events in the geosciences, and, (ii) the quantitative evaluation of their economic consequences. The emphasis is on coupled, integrative assessment of the physical phenomena and their socio-economic impacts. With its overarching theme, Extreme Events: Observations, Modeling and Economics will be relevant to and become an important tool for researchers and practitioners in the fields of hazard and risk analysis in general, as well as to those with a special interest in climate change, atmospheric and oceanic sciences, seismo-tectonics, hydrology, and space weather.
The Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, officially designated the "Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan Earthquake" by the Japan Meteorological Agency caused an unprecedentedly severe disaster in the northeastern part (Tohoku) of the Japanese island of Honshu. This first volume of the series Natural Disaster Science and Mitigation Engineering: DPRI Reports covers various aspects of investigations of scientific findings as well as issues related to the disaster and the subsequent evacuation necessitated by the earthquake. The series presents recent advances in natural disaster sciences and mitigation technologies developed in Japan, which will be valuable for the mitigation of disasters of a similar kind resulting from future events around the world.
For most of us, the impression of the word "tsunami" is a combination of multiple elements of action movie, thriller, drama and science fiction, which can only be experienced through movies such as "The Poseidon Adventure", "The Impossible", "Bait 3D", and "Haewundae, 2012". However, we have now indeed witnessed a tsunami in 2011. People are now very concerned and some are afraid of the realisation of movie scenes in our real life. More research fields have started to give attention and thought to the tsunami itself and its impact on economics, disaster management and future challenges. This book discloses the close relationship between the tsunami and all aspects of our real life: communities, markets, economic systems, industrial operations, the natural environment, medical care, emergency response, and whole societies. This book is timely and in some ways timeless; the issues discussed within its pages are matters that are of interest to all people across the world and really across time. The chapters presented focus on the theoretical positions and cognition about engineering, and different segments of research fields: the innovative integration of geographic information system with point-of-care testing for emergency response and disaster management after tsunami (Chapter 1), the adaptive capacity building through public participation (Chapter 2), the modelling and simulation of mixing and sediment processes induced by tsunamis propagating upriver (Chapter 3), the perspective of risk quantification for commercial nuclear power plants (Chapter 4), and the future role of mathematical modelling for local energy shortage recovery after tsunamis (Chapter 5). These chapters demonstrate the complexities involved in attempting to understand the impact of tsunamis in different aspects. Furthermore, it will also help to improve disaster management systems for better preparedness and future challenges.
This book presents a unique, interdisciplinary approach to disaster risk research, combining cutting-edge natural science and social science methodologies. Bringing together leading scientists, policy makers and practitioners from around the world, it presents the risks of global hazards such as volcanoes, seismic events, landslides, hurricanes, precipitation floods and space weather, and provides real-world hazard case studies from Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific region. Avoiding complex mathematics, the authors provide insight into topics such as the vulnerability of society, disaster risk reduction policy, relations between disaster policy and climate change, adaptation to hazards, and (re)insurance approaches to extreme events. This is a key resource for academic researchers and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines linked to hazard and risk studies, including geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, atmospheric science, geomorphology, oceanography and remote sensing, and for professionals and policy makers working in disaster prevention and mitigation.
Storms, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami -- all New Zealanders will encounter at least one of these hazards in their lives. Informative, generously illustrated, and written by some of New Zealand's leading scientists, this massively revised and updated edition of Te Papa Press's bestselling title is now more relevant than ever. With all-new information on climate change and the social and emotional impact of disasters, this book is a fascinating encounter and valuable resource on one of the most raw, volatile landscapes in the world.
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