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Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. This accessible and concise introduction provides a salient overview of contemporary international environmental law as well as a critical assessment of the controversies that arise when trying to achieve environmental protection through international law. Covering the origins, content, institutional structure and accountability mechanisms of international environmental law, in their social-economic and political context, Ellen Hey discusses substantive and procedural fairness, thus exploring questions of distributive justice, accountability and legitimacy. Providing an invaluable entry point to this complex area of the law, this book enables a rapid understanding of the core principles of this multi-faceted topic. Key features include: * Concise and compact overview * Discusses contemporary developments * Examines IEL's relationship to other areas of international law * Considers the social-economic context.
Through the analysis of Al-Shaybani's most prolific work As-Siyar Al Kabier, this book offers a unique insight into the classic Islamic perspective on international law. Despite being recognised as one of the earliest contributors to the field of international law, there has been little written, in English, on Al-Shaybani's work. This book will go some way towards filling the lacuna. Islamic International Law examines Al-Shaybani's work alongside that of other leading scholars such as Augustine, Gratian, Aquinas, Vitoria and Grotius, proving a full picture of early thinking on international law. Individual chapters provide discussion on Al-Shaybani's writing in relation to war, peace, the consequences of war and diplomatic missions. Khaled Ramadan Bashir uses contemporary international law vocabulary to enable the reader to consider Al-Shaybani's writing in a modern context. This book will be a useful and unique resource for scholars in the field of Islamic International law, bringing together and translating a number of historical sources to form one accessible and coherent text. Scholars researching the historical and jurisprudential origins of public international law topics, such as international humanitarian law, just war, international dispute resolution, asylum and diplomacy will also find the book to be an interesting and valuable text.
International investment law is one of the most dynamic fields of international law, and yet it has been criticised for failing to strike a fair balance between private and public interests. In this valuable contribution to the current debate, Valentina Vadi examines the merits and pitfalls of arbitral tribunals' use of the concepts of proportionality and reasonableness to review the compatibility of a state's regulatory actions with its obligations under international investment law. Investment law scholars have hitherto given greater attention to the concept of proportionality than to reasonableness; this pivotal book combats this trajectory by examining both concepts in such a way that it does not advocate one over the other, but instead enables the reader to make informed choices. The author also explores the intensity of review as one of the main tools to calibrate the different interests underlying investor-state arbitrations. This timely book offers a useful conceptual framework for reconciling the opposing interests at stake, making it a valuable resource for international law scholars and practitioners and other interested readers.
This discerning book examines the challenges, opportunities and solutions for courts adjudicating on environmental cases. It offers a critical analysis of the practice and judgments of courts from various representative and influential jurisdictions. Through the analysis and comparison of court practices and case law across global domestic courts as varied as the National Green Tribunal in India, the Land and Environment Court in Australia, and the District Court of The Hague in the Netherlands, the expert contributors bring together a wealth of knowledge in order to enhance mutual learning and understanding towards an environmental rule of law. In doing so, they illustrate that courts play a vital role in the formation and crystallization of rulings and decisions to protect and conserve the environment. Ultimately, they prove that there are many lessons to be learnt from other legal systems in seeking to maintain and enhance the environmental rule of law. Contemporary and global in scope, Courts and the Environment is essential reading for scholars and students of environmental law, as well as judges, legal practitioners and policymakers interested in understanding the legal challenges to and the legal basis for protecting environmental values in courts.
The UN Human Rights Council provides a detailed insight into this important organization. The UN was founded in the hope that lasting peace would be built on the foundations of human rights and economic and social progress. In 2006 the Commission on Human Rights was replaced by the Human Rights Council as the principal UN body concerned with human rights. It is even possible that the council might eventually become a principal organ of the world organization.
The Human Rights Council is already the subject of major public interest and controversy. The Council has been criticized for having dropped some of the protection strategies of the former commission and this book aims to present a balanced view of the council, outlining its current role, acknowledging where it has made positive contributions, highlighting the deficiencies, and identifying options for improving the body 's future work.
This book is destined to become the leading text on the Human Rights Council and will be essential reading for all those concerned with the future of international relations international organizations and human rights.
International energy law is an elusive but important concept. There is no body of law called 'international energy law', nor is there any universally accepted definition for it, yet many specialised areas of international law have a direct relationship with energy policy. The Research Handbook on International Energy Law examines various aspects of international energy law and offers a comprehensive account of its basic concepts and processes. Adopting a practical approach, the Handbook traces the wide and somewhat informal notion of international energy law and covers the latest developments in the field. The expert contributors offer original research and analysis on pertinent topics such as energy investment, international energy disputes and energy trade. In addition to examining public international law issues and their application to energy activities, the Handbook also includes studies focused on private contractual arrangements and provides an angle on the human rights aspects of energy. This book will be a valuable tool for the expert audience - both academics and practitioners - and will provide students and early career practising lawyers with a good understanding of what 'international energy law' really means.
The Holocaust, Corporations, and the Law explores the challenge posed by the Holocaust to legal and political thought by examining the issues raised by the restitution class action suits brought against Swiss banks and German corporations before American federal courts in the 1990s. Although the suits were settled for unprecedented amounts of money, the defendants did not formally assume any legal responsibility. Thus, the lawsuits were bitterly criticized by lawyers for betraying justice and by historians for distorting history. Leora Bilsky argues class action litigation and settlement offer a mode of accountability well suited to addressing the bureaucratic nature of business involvement in atrocities. Prior to these lawsuits, legal treatment of the Holocaust was dominated by criminal law and its individualistic assumptions, consistently failing to relate to the structural aspects of Nazi crimes. Engaging critically with contemporary debates about corporate responsibility for human rights violations and assumptions about ""law,"" she argues for the need to design processes that make multinational corporations accountable, and examines the implications for transitional justice, the relationship between law and history, and for community and representation in a post-national world. In an era when corporations are ever more powerful and international, Bilsky's arguments will attract attention beyond those interested in the Holocaust and its long shadow.
A Guide to State Succession in International Investment Law is the first work of its kind to provide a comprehensive analysis of State succession issues arising in the context of international investment law. The book examines the legal consequences in the field of investor-State arbitration arising from the disappearance or the creation of a State, or from a transfer of territory between States. Specifically, it analyses whether a successor State is bound by the investment treaties (bilateral and multilateral) and the State contracts which had been signed by the predecessor State before the event of succession. Key features include: * Much-needed examination of the practice of States in the context of succession to bilateral, multilateral treaties and State contracts * comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of international arbitration cases involving issues of State succession * practical guidance on the application of the rules of State succession in investment arbitration cases, including when succession occurs during arbitral proceedings * assessment of the theoretical reasoning behind previously unexplored issues in State succession. Actors who are called upon to apply the rules of State succession in investment arbitration cases will find this book a valuable source of practical guidance. Researchers in the field of international investment law will also find this to be a compelling text, with strong theoretical foundations.
Secession in International Law argues that the effective development of criteria on secession is a necessity in today's world, because secessionist struggles can be analyzed through the legal lens only if we have specific legal rules to apply. Without legal rules, secessionist struggles are dominated by politics and sui generis approaches, which validate secessionist attempts based on geo-politics and regional states' self-interest, as opposed to the law. By using a truly comparative approach, Milena Sterio has developed a normative international law framework on secession, which focuses on several factors to assess the legitimacy of a separatist quest. By comparing and contrasting various situations and cases of self-determination leading toward secession in different parts of the world, including the recent cases of Scotland, Crimea, and Catalonia, this book serves as an illuminating illustration of past and attempted secessions. Sterio approaches her novel framework with the goal of reconciling the international law norm of territorial integrity with the right to external self-determination, proposing specific and useable guidelines. This unique book will appeal not only to academic audiences, but to state actors, politicians, government members and policy makers as well.
EU Telecommunications Law provides a comprehensive overview of the current European regulatory framework as it applies to telecommunications and examines the challenges facing regulators in this sector. Key chapters focus on the selection of appropriate regulatory models that serve to encourage effective investment in next-generation networks and ensure their successful deployment. Andrej Savin provides an up to date overview of all the relevant sources which relate to EU telecoms regulation, guiding the reader through these disparate materials in a simple and systematised way. In particular, the book provides analysis of the 2016 proposal for a European Electronic Communications Code (EECC). Using the 2009 Regulatory Framework on electronic communications as a basis the author analyses each of the 2009 framework's five main directives, comparing them with the changes proposed in the EECC. Providing a comprehensive introduction to the main areas of EU telecoms regulation, this book will be of great value to telecoms and IT lawyers. It will also appeal to academics carrying out research in IT law or competition law as it relates to IT and telecoms.
The centrality of natural resources to global economic growth has placed the debate over their ownership and control at the forefront of legal, territorial and political disputes. Combining both legal and policy expertise with academic and practitioner perspectives this book considers the dimensions of natural resource governance at a time when disputes over their use grow more acute. Focusing on the law, regulation and governance of natural resources, this timely work examines in detail the conflicts and contradictions arising at the intersection between international economic law, sustainable development and other areas of international law, most notably human rights law and environmental law. Exploring the views of different stakeholder groups in the natural resources sectors, key chapters consider whether their differing interests and concerns are adequately addressed under national and international law. This book will appeal to scholars of law, political science and development studies. It will also benefit policy practitioners and advocacy specialists in development NGOs, research institutes and international organisations.
Antidumping trade protection is one of the most frequent and ubiquitous trade policies in the global economy. This volume brings together the key reference pieces in the antidumping literature that have critically defined and shaped what we know about this important and unique form of trade protection. An introductory chapter by the editors, both scholars in this area, critically analyzes the literature and discusses its future directions. This is an important reference volume not only for new and established scholars in international economics, but also policymakers and legal intellectuals.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 178 is devoted to the 2017 judgment of the United Kingdom Supreme Court in Rahmatullah v. Ministry of Defence and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (No 2); 'The Iraqi Civilian Claimants' v. Ministry of Defence and Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Mohammed (Serdar) and Others v. Ministry of Defence, the 2017 judgment of the United Kingdom Supreme Court in Al-Waheed v. Ministry of Defence; Mohammed (Serdar) v. Ministry of Defence, and the 2017 judgment of the United Kingdom Supreme Court in Belhaj and Boudchar v. Straw and Others; Rahmatullah v. Ministry of Defence and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (No 1).
The European Convention on Human Rights is one of the world's most important and influential human rights documents. It owes its value mainly to the European Court of Human Rights, which applies the Convention rights in individual cases. This book offers a clear insight into the concepts and principles that are key to understanding the European Convention and the Court's case-law. It explains how the Court generally approaches the many cases brought before it and which tools help it to decide on these cases, illustrated by numerous examples taken from the Court's judgements. Core issues discussed are the types of Convention rights (such as absolute rights); the structure of the Court's Convention rights review; principles and methods of interpretation (such as common ground interpretation and the use of precedent); positive and negative obligations; vertical and horizontal effect; the margin of appreciation doctrine; and requirements for the restriction of Convention rights.
The boundaries between international crimes and transnational crimes are blurring. Should prosecution and trial of transnational crimes be transferred from national to international jurisdictions? Or should criminal law repression in respect of such crimes remain the prerogative of the state? Cutting-edge contributions in this book demonstrate that there is no 'one-size-fits-all' answer to these questions. Addressing the distinctions and commonalities of transnational and international crimes, renowned contributors discuss the implications of this relationship in the realm of law enforcement. This book critically reflects on the connection between the 'core crimes' of the International Criminal Court, namely; war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, aggression, and several newly emerging transnational crimes. In view of this gradual merger of the categories, one of the major questions is whether the distinction in legal regime is still warranted. Significantly, the human rights consequences of transnational criminal law enforcement are brought to attention in this timely study. Academics and students of law, officials, policy makers and practising criminal lawyers, will all greatly benefit from this crucial insight into the future of handling transnational crime.
In the minds of some, complying with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and related laws is easy: 'you just don't bribe.' The reality, as sophisticated professionals should know, is not so simple. This book is for professionals across various disciplines who can assist in risk management and want to learn strategies for minimizing risk under aggressively enforced bribery laws. Written by a leading expert with real-world practice experience, this book elevates knowledge and skills through a comprehensive analysis of all legal authority and other relevant sources of information. It also guides readers through various components of compliance best practices from the fundamentals of conducting a risk assessment, to effectively communicating compliance expectations, to implementing and overseeing compliance strategies. With a focus on active learning, this book allows readers to assess their acquired knowledge through various issue-spotting scenarios and skills exercises and thereby gain confidence in their specific job functions. Anyone seeking an informed and comprehensive understanding of the modern era of enforcement of bribery laws and related risk management strategies will find this book to be a valuable resource including in-house compliance personnel, FCPA and related practitioners, board of director members and executive officers.
The World Ocean Assessment - or, to give its full title, The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment - is the outcome of the first cycle of the United Nations' Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects. The Assessment provides vital, scientifically-grounded bases for the consideration of ocean issues, including climate change, by governments, intergovernmental agencies, non-governmental agencies and all other stakeholders and policymakers involved in ocean affairs. Together with future assessments and related initiatives, it will support the implementation of the recently adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly its ocean-related goals. Moreover, it will also form an important reference text for marine science courses.
When considering the structures that drive the global diffusion of human rights norms, Brian Greenhill argues that we need to look beyond institutions that are explicitly committed to human rights and instead focus on the dense web of international government organizations (IGOs)-some big, some small; some focused on human rights; some not-that has arisen in the last two generations. While most of these organizations have no direct connection to human rights issues, their participation in broader IGO networks has important implications for the human rights practices of their member states. Featuring a rigorous empirical analysis, Transmitting Rights shows that countries tend to adopt similar human rights practices to those of their IGO partners, whether for better or worse. Greenhill argues that IGOs constitute a tightly-woven fabric of ties between states and that this network provides an important channel through which states can influence the behavior of others. Indeed, his analysis suggests that a policy of isolating "rogue" states is probably self-defeating given that this will reduce their exposure to some of the more positive IGO-based influences on their human rights. Greenhill's analysis of the role of IGOs in rights diffusion will not only increase our understanding of the international politics of human rights; it will also reshape how we think about the role of international institutions in world politics.
Commercial Uses of Space and Space Tourism combines the perspectives of academics, policy makers and major industry players around three central themes: the international legal challenges posed by the dramatic changes to the spacefaring landscape; the corresponding legal and regulatory responses to these challenges at the national level; and topical questions of global space governance. Chapters cover emerging activities in commercial spacefaring, including space tourism and space transportation, and identify the regulatory issues that may arise in the absence of a clear boundary between airspace and outer space. By taking a pragmatic, inductive approach, the book aims to breathe new life into the discussion of the air-space boundary, while informing readers about the many exciting recent developments in commercial spacefaring. This book will appeal to lecturers, academics and students in space law and air law, as well as policy makers and industry practitioners involved in the regulation of orbital and suborbital commercial spaceflight, both manned and unmanned.
Human rights are at a crossroads. This book considers how these rights can be reconstructed in challenging times, with changes in the pathways to the realization of human rights and new developments in human rights law and policy, illustrated with case studies from Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Contesting Human Rights traces the balance between the dynamics of diffusion, resistance and innovation in the field. The book examines a range of issues from the effectiveness of norm-promotion by advocacy campaigns to the backlash facing human rights advocates. The expert contributors suggest that new opportunities at and below the state level, and creative contests of global governance, can help reconstruct human rights in the face of modern challenges. Critical case studies trace new pathways emerging in the United Nations' Universal Periodic Review, regional human rights courts, constitutional incorporation of international norms, and human rights cities. With its innovative approach to human rights and comprehensive coverage of global, national and regional trends, Contesting Human Rights will be an invaluable tool for scholars and students of human rights, global governance, law and politics. It will also be useful for human rights advocates with a keen interest in the evolution of the human rights landscape.
Much has been written, discussed, advocated and litigated about human rights and the environment over the last two decades. With 45 structured entries from a global collection of expert scholars, this volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law provides an authoritative source of reference and features new commentary on the role of the rule of law in responding to the variegated impacts of environmental challenges on the human condition. This comprehensive volume offers fresh perspectives to the conversation by focusing especially on four subjects that shed new light on the subject of environmental human rights: the challenges of identifying the fundamental legal sources for the protection of human rights and the environment, the recognition of the indivisibility of human rights and environmental law, the centrality of the right to human dignity as the lodestar of human rights law, and the uniqueness of geographic particularities. Fundamentally, the entries demonstrate that there is much to do, learn and share on this vital topic. Offering thoughtful critical perspectives on a timely subject, this volume will be an essential resource for academics and students, as well as policymakers and practitioners.
This comprehensive book provides a thorough analytical overview of the European Union's existing law and policy in the field of international trade. Considering the history and context of the law's evolution, it offers an adept examination of its common commercial policy competence through the years, starting with the Treaty of Rome up until the Treaty of Lisbon, as a background for understanding the EU's present role in the World Trade Organization (WTO) framework. Accessible and thought-provoking, chapters offer a legal analysis of EU trade policy after the Treaty of Rome, after the conclusion of the WTO Agreement, at the Treaty of Amsterdam, at the Treaty of Nice, and at the Treaty of Lisbon, taking into account the most recent constitutional developments by the Lisbon Treaty on division of competences between the EU and its Member States. Additional thought is given to the role of major EU institutions and their balance within EU trade law and policy, and the tension between efficiency and accountability in decision-making processes in EU trade policy is further considered. Students and scholars working in the field of European and international trade law and policy, and international economic law and policy more generally, will find this a clear and useful resource. Practitioners seeking a clear and up-to-date insight into the area will also appreciate this important work.
This detailed and perceptive book examines the extent and scope of how rules for accession to the WTO may vary between countries, approaching the concerns that some countries enter with a better deal than others. Dylan Geraets critiques these additional 'rules' and aims to answer the question of whether new Members of the WTO are under stricter rules than the original Members, whilst analysing the accession process to the multilateral trading system. Taking an integrated approach, the author combines the results of a Mapping Exercise of all 36 Protocols of accession with a legal analysis of the decisions by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body involving Protocols of Accession. In doing so, this book provides the first comprehensive analysis of the issue of Member-specific 'WTO-Plus' commitments in Protocols of Accession. Whilst addressing the institutional and historical aspects of the WTO accession process, it provides a vital update to the existing scholarship on WTO accession, offering coverage of all accessions including those of Afghanistan, Kazakhstan and Liberia. Accession to the World Trade Organization will be invaluable reading for academics interested in WTO accession practice, as well as lawyers, practitioners and government officials in the field of WTO accession.
This authoritative book provides a holistic overview of terrorist groups and finances, including consideration of the necessity and differing financial needs of different groups. For over a decade international efforts by law enforcement, government and financial regulatory authorities have been deployed in combatting terrorist financing, in good faith and with dedication beyond reproach. This book surveys the methods of financing of numerous terrorist groups and organisations - including the Chinese and Asian dimension - and considers why ultimately international efforts to combat the financing of terror are failing. Nick Ridley expertly illustrates the scale of the problem by first outlining the strategies of anti terrorist financing, the pre and post 9/11 differences in scope and extent of terrorist attacks, the financial support and the national and international efforts to implement and carry out countermeasures. He then goes on to set out a detailed analysis of the apparent failure of such counter measures to date. Including operational case studies and details from the authors own experience, studies and access to law enforcement and private sector sources, this book will prove insightful for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying criminology, history and law disciplines. Those in the legal profession will also find plenty of useful information in this topical compendium.
Epistemic Forces in International Law presents a comprehensive examination of the methodological choices made by international lawyers and provides a discerning insight into the ways in which lawyers shape their arguments to secure validation within the international legal community. International law is defined in this book as an argumentative practice, articulated around a set of foundational doctrines and deployed through rhetorical techniques. Taking an original approach, Jean d'Aspremont focuses on five key foundational doctrines of international legal theory and five key techniques deployed in international legal argumentation. He argues that mastering these foundational principles and argumentative procedures shapes the discourse of international lawyers as much as these discourses shape these foundational doctrines and techniques of legal argumentation. This book is a pertinent contribution to the methodology and theory of international law, illustrating the rationale of the choices made by lawyers in the doctrines of statehood, sources, law-making, international organisations and effectivity. This accessible reflection on the conceptual, theoretical and methodological perspectives of international law will be a salient point of reference for legal academics, researchers and practitioners alike.
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