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Through a life that spanned every decade of the twentieth century, Supreme Court advocate Bessie Margolin shaped modern American labor policy while creating a place for female lawyers in the nation's highest courts. Despite her beginnings in an orphanage and her rare position as a southern, Jewish woman pursuing a legal profession, Margolin became an important and influential Supreme Court advocate. In this comprehensive biography, Marlene Trestman reveals the forces that propelled and the obstacles that impeded Margolin's remarkable journey, illuminating the life of this trailblazing woman. Raised in the Jewish Orphans' Home in New Orleans, Margolin received an extraordinary education at the Isidore Newman Manual Training School. Both institutions stressed that good citizenship, hard work, and respect for authority could help people achieve economic security and improve their social status. Adopting these values, Margolin used her intellect and ambition, along with her femininity and considerable southern charm, to win the respect of her classmates, colleagues, bosses, and judges - almost all of whom were men. In her career she worked with some of the most brilliant legal professionals in America. A graduate of Tulane and Yale Law Schools, Margolin launched her career in the early 1930s, when only 2 percent of America's attorneys were female, and far fewer were Jewish and from the South. According to Trestman, Margolin worked hard to be treated as ""one of the boys."" For the sake of her career, she eschewed marriage - but not romance - and valued collegial relationships, never shying from a late-night brief-writing session or a poker game. But her personal relationships never eclipsed her numerous professional accomplishments, among them defending the constitutionality of the New Deal's Tennessee Valley Authority, drafting rules establishing the American military tribunals for Nazi war crimes in Nuremberg, and, on behalf of the Labor Department, shepherding through the courts the child labor, minimum wage, and overtime protections of the Fair labor Standards Act of 1938. A founding member of that National organisation for Women, Margolin culminated her government service as a champion of the Equal Pay Act, arguing and winning the first appeals. Margolin's passion for her work and focus on meticulous preparation resulted in an outstanding record in appellate advocacy, both in number of cases and rate of success. By prevailing in 21 of her 24 Supreme Court arguments Margolin shares the elite company of only a few dozen women and men who attained such high standing as Supreme Court advocates.
What is the purpose of comparative constitutional law? Comparing constitutions allows us to consider the similarities and differences in forms of government, and the normative philosophies behind constitutional choices. Constitutional comparisons offer 'hermeneutic' help: they enable us to see 'our' own constitution with different eyes and to locate its structural and normative choices by references to alternatives evident in other constitutional orders. This Cambridge Companion presents readers with a succinct yet wide-ranging companion to a modern comparative constitutional law course, offering a wide-ranging yet concise introduction to the subject. Its twenty-two chapters are arranged into five thematic parts: starting with an exploration of the 'theoretical foundations' (Part I) and some important 'historical experiences' (Part II), it moves on to a discussion of the core 'constitutional principles' (Part III) and 'state institutions' (Part IV); finally it analyses forms of 'transnational' constitutionalism (Part V) that have emerged in our 'global' times.
In recent years a new form of populism has taken hold of our politics, turning Britain into an increasingly intolerant and fractious country. As our society grapples with the threat posed by terrorism and the uncertainty that has followed the Brexit referendum and the coronavirus pandemic, cracks have begun to appear in the very foundations of our liberal democracy; the values that we once regarded as sacred are being called into question. Former barrister and judge Inigo Bing examines how the bonds of trust between the British people and our democratic institutions have broken down and the principles that underpin the rule of law are under threat from populist politics. Populism on Trial analyses how politicians have shown an increasing contempt for the principle of judicial independence as they attempt to exercise unrestrained power. Bing seeks to remind us that without law we have only power, and power without law is tyranny. He demonstrates how the rule of law is a fragile yet essential ingredient in our democracy and argues that it must be vigorously upheld or it will be cast aside by the rising tide of populism
Creativity has been integral to the development of the modern State, and yet it is becoming increasingly sidelined, especially as a result of the development of new machinic technologies including 3D printing. Arguing that inner creativity has been endangered by the rise of administrative regulation, James Griffin explores a number of reforms to ensure that upcoming regulations do take creativity into account. The State of Creativity examines how the State has become distanced from individual processes of creativity. This book investigates how the failure to incorporate creativity into administrative regulation is, in fact, adversely impacting the regulation of new technologies such as 3D and 4D printing and augmented reality, by focusing on issues concerning copyright and patents. This is an important read for intellectual property law scholars, as well as those studying computer science who wish to gain a more in-depth understanding of the current laws surrounding digital technologies such as 3D printing in our modern world. Legal practitioners wanting to remain abreast of developments surrounding 3D printing will also benefit from this book.
The original contributions in this Research Handbook provide an introduction to the application of Austrian economics to law. The book begins with chapters on the methodology of law and economics before moving on to chapters which discuss key concepts in Austrian economics such as: dynamic competitive processes, spontaneous order, subjective value, entrepreneurship, and the limited nature of individual knowledge - as they relate to topics in evolutionary law and basic law. This book presents contributions from both economists and legal scholars on topics ranging from methodology of analysis and the evolution of contemporary legal practice, to the teachings of basic law. Taken as a whole, this Research Handbook provides a strong overview of contemporary research in the Austrian school of law and economics. It is an approach that reflects both the examination of how alternative legal arrangements impact economic performance, and how to use the tools of basic economic reasoning to study the operation of legal rules. Scholars working in the fields of law, jurisprudence, economics, and public policy will find this an important resource on the cutting edge of Austrian political economy in application to law and economics.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. Designed to be accessible yet rigorous, they offer concise and lucid surveys of the substantive and policy issues associated with discrete subject areas. This Advanced Introduction offers a fresh critical analysis of various dimensions of law and globalisation, drawing on historical, normative, theoretical, and linguistic methodologies. Its comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach spans the fields of global legal pluralism, comparative legal studies, and international law. Key features include: * Comprehensive treatment of main themes and approaches in law and globalisation discussions * Provides a theoretical basis for evaluating legal globalisation * Includes contemporary developments * Examples from many jurisdictions offer a genuinely global perspective. An ideal concise companion for students and scholars alike, this book sets out an alternative view to law and globalisation that will interest anyone concerned with the future of legal globalisation.
Inspired by Antonio Truyol y Serra's classic work, Doctrines sur le fondement du Droit des gens, this book offers a fully revised and updated examination and discussion of the various doctrines forming the foundations of international law. It offers an accessible insight into the theoretical background of the various legal constructions that characterize the relationship between both international and national legal orders. Written in a clear style, the book's structured chapters provide a comprehensive analysis of the various foundations of obligation in international law: natural law, positivism and sociologism. Through this study, Robert Kolb illustrates how international law has been conceived and shaped over time in relation to its evolving historical and legal-political environment. Split into seven substantive parts, this text is one of the most detailed expositions of the doctrines of international law in the English language to date. Astute and engaging, Robert Kolb's take on Truyol y Serra's Doctrines sur le fondement du Droit des gens will appeal to students and scholars of international law, as well as to practitioners interested in gaining a further grounding with regards to the basis of obligation in international law.
Legal academics in Europe publish a wide variety of materials including books, articles and essays, in an assortment of languages, and for a diverse readership. As a consequence, this variety can pose a problem for the evaluation of academic legal research. This thought-provoking book offers an overview of the legal and policy norms, methods and criteria applied in the evaluation of academic legal research, from a comparative perspective. The expert contributions explore developments relating to professional versus academic publications, editorial review versus peer review, rankings of journals and law schools versus other reputation mechanisms and a range of other evaluation practices and their intended and unintended effects. Analysing research evaluation practices across more than ten jurisdictions and multiple contexts, this insightful book reveals how evaluation practices differ across Europe. Through this analysis, the book exposes a range of possibilities for further debate and study. Engaging and topical, Evaluating Academic Legal Research in Europe will be valuable reading for legal academics, university and faculty managers, higher education policy makers and administrators as well as editors of law journals, legal publishers and research foundation and funding bodies.
This humorous collection of stories from life at the Bar and on the Bench in the Cape takes a look back at four decades, starting at the end of World War Two and finishing with the arrival of democracy in South Africa.
These tales and recollections, mostly from Bar members now in their 80s, show what an extraordinary time it was for lawyers. Also, remarkably, how much is of relevance to lawyers practising today.
The anecdotes and reminiscences of members of the Bar during this period were collected and edited by Mr Justice Gerald Friedman and Jeremy Gauntlett SC.
The "rule of law" stands at the heart of the American legal
system. But the rule of law does not require judges slavishly to
follow the letter of the law, unaffected by political or social
influences. Because following the rule of law absolutely is
impossible, it is dismissed by the public as a myth and judges are
Judging Judges refocuses and elevates the debate over judges and the rule of law by showing that personal and professional values matter. Jason E. Whitehead demonstrates that the rule of law depends on a socially constructed attitude of legal obligation that spawns objective rules. Intensive interviews of judges reveal the value systems that uphold or undermine the attitude of legal obligation so central to the rule of law. This focus on the social practices undergirding these value systems demonstrates that the rule of law is ultimately a matter of social trust rather than textual constraints. Whitehead's unique combination of philosophical and empirical investigation is a major advance because it moves beyond the dichotomy of law or politics and shows that the rule of law is a shared social enterprise involving all of society--judges, politicians, scholars, and ordinary citizens alike. Judging Judges' attention to judicial values establishes judges' true worth in a liberal democracy.
This cutting-edge Research Handbook, at the intersection of comparative law and anthropology, explores mutually enriching insights and outlooks. The 20 contributors, including several of the most eminent scholars, as well as new voices, offer diverse expertise, national backgrounds and professional experience. Their overall approach is "ground up" without regard to unified paradigms of research or objects of study. Through a pluralistic definition of law and multidisciplinary approaches, Comparative Law and Anthropology significantly advances both theory and practice. The Research Handbook's expansive concept of comparative law blends a traditional geographical orientation with historical and jurisprudential dimensions within a broad range of contexts of anthropological inquiry, from indigenous communities, to law schools and transitional societies. This comprehensive and original collection of diverse writings about anthropology and the law around the world offers an inspiring but realistic source for legal scholars, anthropologists and policy-makers.
The subject of investment relationships between the European Union and China is an increasingly vital topic to understand, yet academic literature has until now been underexplored. Bringing together expert contributors, this book provides a critical analysis of the current law and policy between the EU and China, which will prove to be vital in the field of international economic law. Divided into three parts, this book deals with the key issues of the EU-China investment partnership and its implications, both internally and internationally. Each chapter in China-European Union Investment Relationships covers a core theme of the subject of international economic law, including competition law, financial regulation, economic integration and dispute resolution. Covering the key topics in the area, and drawing diverse perspectives into a single collection, this book is an important resource for scholars and practitioners in legal and policy fields, and will be invaluable for students of trade and investment law to understand in more detail human rights and environmental law and policy.
Die arbeidswetgewing wat betrekking het op die onderwysomgewing is omvattend en dek 'n groot verskeidenheid aspekte waarmee almal binne hierdie omgewing op een of ander stadium te doen kry. Waar daar in die verlede moontlik 'n vae begrip van veral wette en regulasies ten opsigte van diensvoorwaardes by meeste werknemers in die onderwys teenwoordig was, is dit nou onontbeerlik om 'n basiese begrip van alle relevante wetgewing en regulasies wat van toepassing is, te he. Veral onderwysers kan hulle in die spreekwoordelike mynveld bevind indien hulle nie seker maak dat hulle oor die basiese kennis van onderwysreg beskik nie. Dit word gestaaf deur die talle hofsake, dispute, mediasie, dissiplinere verhore en die dikwels onaangename implikasies daarvan vir indiwidue (en hul gesinne) wat voortspruit uit aanklagte teen oortreders in alle sektore van die onderwys. Wetswysigings na aanleiding van veranderde omstandighede binne die onderwys, lei tot die behoefte om voortdurend op die hoogte van die implikasies en toepassing daarvan te wees. Hierdie dringende behoefte geld nie alleen vir skoolhoofde nie, maar vir elkeen betrokke by onderwys. Aan die een kant berus die korrekte toepassing en implementering by die beheerliggaam en die hoof van 'n inrigting, maar aan die anderkant raak dit die mense wat daar werksaam is. Die skrywers van hierdie boek het nie alleen 'n deeglike besef van hierdie noodsaaklike behoefte nie, hulle spreek dit ook baie effektief aan deur middel van hulle uiters waardevolle ervaring. Hierdie ervaring spruit voort uit praktiese betrokkenheid by die onderwys asook deeglike navorsing op die terrein van onderwysreg. Kennis van al die aspekte wat in hierdie boek aangespreek word, verbeter ongetwyfeld die kwaliteit van die onderrig- en leerproses in die klaskamer - 'n broodnodige doelwit om na te streef. Dit skep ook 'n veiliger omgewing waarbinne elkeen funksioneer. Persoonlik is ek baie dankbaar vir die bydrae wat deur middel van hierdie handige handleiding gemaak word tot die uiteindelike kwaliteit van onderwys in Suid Afrika. Dr. Jopie Breed President: SAOU
The age of human rights has been kindest to the rich. Even as state violations of political rights garnered unprecedented attention due to human rights campaigns, a commitment to material equality disappeared. In its place, economic liberalization has emerged as the dominant force in national and global economies. In this provocative book, Samuel Moyn analyzes how and why we chose to make human rights our highest ideals while simultaneously neglecting the demands of a broader social and economic justice. Moyn places the human rights movement in relation to this disturbing shift from an embrace of the welfare state to the neoliberal globalization of today and explores why the rise of human rights has occurred alongside exploding inequality. "Samuel Moyn breaks new ground in examining the relationship between human rights and economic fairness." -George Soros "[The book's] critical-and self-critical-energy is consistently bracing, and is surely a condition of restoring the pursuit of equality and justice as an indispensable modern tradition." -Pankaj Mishra, London Review of Books "No one has written with more penetrating skepticism about the history of human rights... Moyn asks whether human-rights theorists and advocates, in the quest to make the world better for all, have actually helped to make things worse...Sure to provoke a wider discussion." -Adam Kirsch, Wall Street Journal
This text deals with the basic concepts of the law and explains the operation of the law and the administration of justice. It features practical exercises at the end of each chapter to help the student develop the ability to analyse information and apply knowledge. Another feature is the appendixes in which step-by-step explanations are given of how to research and apply primary sources of the law such as statutes and decisions in court.
Offering an interdisciplinary, international and philosophical perspective, this comprehensive Research Handbook explores both perennial and recent legal issues that concern the modern state and its interaction with religious communities and individuals. Providing in-depth, original analysis the book includes studies of a wide array of nation states, such as India and Turkey, which each have their own complex issues centred on law, religion and the interactions between the two. Longstanding issues of religious liberty are explored such as the right of conscientious objection, religious confession privilege and the wearing of religious apparel. The contested meanings of the secular state and religious neutrality are revisited from different perspectives and the reality of the international human rights protections for religious freedom are analysed. Timely and astute, this discerning Research Handbook will be a valuable resource for both academics and researchers interested in the many topics surrounding law and religion. Lawyers and practitioners will also appreciate the clarity with which the rights of religious liberty, and the challenges in making these compatible with state law, are presented.
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