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The highly successful Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology continue to offer high-quality, in-depth reviews covering the full range of modern physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Leading researchers are specially invited to provide a complete understanding of the key topics in these archetypal multidisciplinary fields. In a form immediately useful to scientists, this periodical aims to filter, highlight and review the latest developments in these rapidly advancing fields.
Primum non nocere... The fact that a surgical procedure can leave any kind of pain casts a shadow over this tenet, which is seen as the basis of medical practice and anchor of its principle ethic... It is all the more surprising in that medicine has only paid attention to this paradoxical chronic pain situation for the past few years. Clarifying the knowledge acquired in this field has become all the more urgent for any care-giver today confronted by a legitimate request from patients: Why and how can a surgical procedure, which is supposed to bring relief, leave behind an unacceptable sequela? This is the approach which the contributors to this new subject of major clinical interest invite you to follow as you work your way through this book.
This practical manual presents the main drugs and protocols currently used in the psychopharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders in cancer and palliative care settings and explores the principal issues involved in such treatment. Significant clinical challenges encountered in the psychopharmacological management of various psychiatric conditions are discussed, covering aspects such as side-effects and drug-drug interactions. Attention is also paid to the emerging theme of adjuvant use of psychotropic drugs for the treatment of symptoms or syndromes not primarily related to psychiatric disorders. In addition, practical suggestions are provided for dealing with special populations, including children and the elderly. The book is designed to be easy to read and to reference, with helpful concise tables and boxes. The authors include some of the most renowned clinicians working in the field of psycho-oncology.
Due to the recent explosion of placebo research at many levels the Editors believe that a volume on Placebo would be a good addition to the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology series. In particular, this volume will be built up on a meeting on Placebo which will be held in Tuebingen (Germany) in January 2013, and where the most prominent researchers in this field will present and exchange their ideas. The authors who will be invited to write chapters for this volume will be the very same speakers at this meeting, thus guaranteeing high standard and excellence in the topic that will be treated. The approach of the book is mainly pharmacological, including basic research and clinical trials, and the contents range from different medical conditions and systems, such as pain and the immune system, to different experimental approaches, like in vivo receptor binding and pharmacological/behavioral conditioning. Overall, the volume will give an idea of modern placebo research, of timely concepts in both experimental and clinical pharmacology, as well as of modern methods and tools in neuroscience.
This book will enable the reader to gain a sound understanding of contemporary and futuristic evidence-based interventions and assessment procedures for pelvic floor disorders. It gathers the experiences of some of the most important experts on electrical stimulation techniques, offering a multidisciplinary and problem-oriented approach organized according to therapeutic goals. Interventions are recommended that are consistent with theory and display clinical efficacy for specific disorders, including urinary incontinence or retention, fecal incontinence, constipation, pelvic pain, sexual dysfunction and neurological diseases involving the pelvic floor. All of the surgical or rehabilitative techniques requiring electrical stimulation for the treatment of these disorders are explored and essential background information is provided on functional anatomy, neurophysiology and concepts in electrotherapy. This volume will be a very useful tool for urologists, general or colorectal surgeons, gynecologists and anesthesiologists and also physiotherapists and alternative medicine practitioners (a specific chapter focuses on electroacupuncture). It will assist in their clinical practice as they seek to help the very many patients who suffer from any of the wide range of functional pelvic floor disorders.
A thirty-year quest, from genes to pain-signaling neurons to people with a rare genetic disorder that makes them feel they are on fire. Two soldiers, both with wounds injuring the same nerve, show very different responses: one is disabled by neuropathic pain, unable to touch the injured limb because even the lightest contact triggers excruciating discomfort; the other notices numbness but no pain at all. Could the difference lie in their genes? In this book, described in the foreword by Nobel Laureate James Rothman as "so well written that it reads like a detective novel," Stephen Waxman recounts the search for a gene that controls pain-a search spanning more than thirty years and three continents. The story moves from genes to pain-signaling neurons that scream when they should be silent to people with a rare genetic disorder who feel they are on fire. Waxman explains that if pain-signaling neurons are injured by trauma or disease, they can become hyperactive and send pain signals to the brain even without external stimulus. Studying the hyperactive mutant pain gene in man on fire syndrome has pointed the way to molecules that produce pain more broadly within the general population, in the rest of us. Waxman's account of the many steps that led to discovery of the pain gene tells the story behind the science, of how science happens.
Chronic vulvar pain, or 'vulvodynia', is a common problem that can have a considerable impact on the wellbeing of patients. Despite being seen routinely in everyday clinical practice, it remains a neglected disorder that may take many years to diagnose. This book eases the way for physicians, including General Practitioners and Gynecologists, who are motivated to improve the lives of women suffering from vulvodynia. By offering a concise overview of the latest information on the diagnosis and management of vulvodynia, and its numerous comorbidities, in an easy to read, 'tips and tricks' format, the book empowers physicians to rapidly and effectively address the complex and sensitive issues surrounding the disorder.
Invasive electromyography is a well-established diagnostic tool that has been used for decades by neurologists. Recently, new and alternative devices have increasingly become available that permit diagnosis without the use of needles. This developing area of science and the new tools have not, however, been sufficiently investigated in academic training. Consequently a gap exists between what science is making possible and the competence acquired during graduate studies. This handy volume has the aim of filling this gap by providing the information required by medical practitioners in rehabilitation, sports, and occupational health as well as by rehabilitation therapists, ergonomists, and sport coaches. The techniques that are presented and explained will help in monitoring and recording changes, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and training, evaluating work stations, and preventing and documenting the evolution of occupational disorders of the neuromuscular system.
Pain in a newborn, child, or adolescent is a complex phenomenon that can be acute or chronic, mild or severe, and invoke complex reactions in the patient, family, and clinician. Pain is a feeling that humans find very unpleasant, seek to ameliorate and even stop as soon as possible. Individuals come to their clinicians seeking the cause of their pain and request ways to deal with their discomfort. Clinicians have not always been well-trained to appreciate or prevent pain in their patients, and this seems especially true for young pediatric patients. The underlying theme in this publication is to consider causes and management of pediatric pain. The authors look at different perspectives of pain including fibromyalgia, peripheral neuropathies, sports-related pain, pelvic pain, recurrent headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, dermatologic pain, oncologic pain, and psychosomatic pain. These reflections offer unique and beneficial perspectives for clinicians as they seek to ameliorate pain in their pediatric patients and offer an improved quality of life.
Surgical Pain Management is an essential, step-by-step guide to surgical techniques and the perioperative management of chronic pain patients whose treatment includes implantable therapies. Chapters review the steps necessary for defining a potential candidate for implant and the infrastructure to support the perioperative period and beyond, controversies in approaches for both intrathecal and spinal cord stimulation implants, healthcare education for patients with these devices, neuroaxial drug delivery, electrical stimulation of the peripheral and central nervous system, and a variety of invasive procedures for chronic and cancer pain. Appendices provide supplemental information regarding guidelines, physiology, technologies available, troubleshooting, and documentation required to organize an interventional service. This book details a range of approaches from basic implant therapies to more advanced therapies, making it an ideal companion to an advanced training program in interventional pain management and a useful resource for developing a team that will optimize care for some of the most difficult to treat chronic pain patients.
Chronic pain challenges the central tenet of biomedicine: that
objective knowledge of the human body and mind is possible apart
from subjective experience and social context. Sufferers, finding
that chronic pain alters every aspect of life, often become
frustrated and distrust a profession seemingly unable to explain or
effectively treat their illness. The authors of this innovative
volume offer an entirely different, ethnographic approach,
searching out more effective ways to describe and analyze the human
context of pain.
Until recently, it was thought that the adult brain is modifiable only during early stages of ontogenesis. However, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies now indicate that the mature human brain is under certain conditions capable of substantial neuroplastic changes. The concept of plasticity is complex and can be applied to all levels of neural organisation from molecular to systemic level of neural networks. Neuroplasticity reflects the ability of human brain to alter the pattern of neural activation in response to previous experience, and recent findings indicate that the effects of experience can lead to both structural as well as functional reorganisation. This book presents current research in the study of neural plasticity in chronic pain.
This in-depth text addresses how to approach and treat the chronic pain patient struggling with problematic opioid use. It discusses the approach for patients who may be at high risk of problematic use, such as those with a history of mental illness or substance use disorder. The first part covers diagnosis and treatment, focusing on common best practices that practitioners can adapt to any practice. Two of the chapters detail alternative and replacement therapies for opioid. Two more cover special issues in the treatment of women and older patients. The second part reviews the ethical, legal, regulatory, and policy issues surrounding the treatment of patients with comorbid pain and addiction. The book includes strategies for documentation that mitigate the risk of legal issues or ethical boundary crossings. The last part of the book addresses treating comorbid pain and opioid use disorder in different medical settings and the treatment of co-occurring mental illnesses and substance abuse. Treating Comorbid Opioid Use Disorder in Chronic Pain is of great value to psychiatrists, pain physicians, primary care providers, social workers, drug rehabilitation centers, and other behavioral health professionals.
This new book examines the issue of pain in individuals with intellectual disabilities by introducing the topic, as well as suggesting a model for pain in this population. A couple of articles suggest different approaches to the complex subject of evaluation in this group of clients, and also in depth approaches to specific syndromes. In this yearbook for 2010, you will find research published from the Journal of Pain Management by leading researchers from all over the world, which produces sound and evidence-based research that can help mankind to suffer less and enjoy a good quality of life.
Written by a professional musician who is also a certified occupational therapist, Teaching Healthy Musicianship both helps music educators avoid common injuries that they themselves encounter and equips them with the tools they need to instill healthy musicianship practices in their students. Author Nancy Taylor combines her two unique skill sets to provide a model for injury prevention that is equally cognizant of the needs of music educators and their students. Through practical explanation of body mechanics, ergonomics, and the performance-related health problems and risk factors unique to musicianship, Taylor gives music educators the tools they need to first practice healthy posture, body mechanics, environmental safety, and ergonomics, and then to introduce these same practices to their students. Taylor also provides practical guidance for healthy musicianship practices in the wrists and shoulders, the most common site of music-related injuries. The final sections address issues of vocal and hearing health, both of which are at high risk in music classroom environments. Working from the dual observations that busy music teachers sometimes overlook taking care of themselves, and that music teachers are not always able to guide students through instrument-related stresses, Taylor provides here a book that addresses injury prevention for the music student and the music educator alike. Thoroughly illustrated with 125 photographs, Teaching Healthy Musicianship is a key resource for preservice and inservice teachers of middle school and high school band, orchestra, choir and general music.
Pain is a response of the body to the action of injuring stimuli. Notwithstanding an unpleasant experience, it appears to be an important component of the defence system of the organism and a permanent regulator of homeostatic reaction. The organism's reaction to pain is a multi-component one and involves sensory-discriminative, emotional-affective and cognitive characteristics. Clinically, neuropathic pain is characterised by spontaneous ongoing or shooting pain and evoked amplified pain responses after nocuous or innocuous stimuli. The study of pain, therefore, and search for the treatment strategies have a paramount role in modern neurobiology. Numerous anatomy-physiological studies have revealed a number of brain structures involved in the shaping of pain and endogenous analgesia. This book presents and examines current research discovered in a behavioural study of 'non-opioid' tolerance.
This comprehensive guide covers prescribing controlled substances for patients with acute or chronic pain and provides a balanced discussion on appropriate treatment, addiction, safety and complications. Chapters feature evidence-based strategies and clinical modalities that address diagnostic challenges, treatment guidance, alternatives to opioid management and the significant legal risks within the current regulatory environment. Authored by leaders in pain medicine, physicians and appropriate health care professionals will find Controlled Substance Management in Chronic Pain to be an indispensable resource.
Chronic pain costs the nation up to $635 billion each year in medical treatment and lost productivity. The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act required the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to enlist the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in examining pain as a public health problem. In this report, the IOM offers a blueprint for action in transforming prevention, care, education, and research, with the goal of providing relief for people with pain in America. To reach the vast multitude of people with various types of pain, the nation must adopt a population-level prevention and management strategy. The IOM recommends that HHS develop a comprehensive plan with specific goals, actions, and timeframes. Better data are needed to help shape efforts, especially on the groups of people currently underdiagnosed and undertreated, and the IOM encourages federal and state agencies and private organizations to accelerate the collection of data on pain incidence, prevalence, and treatments. Because pain varies from patient to patient, healthcare providers should increasingly aim at tailoring pain care to each person's experience, and self-management of pain should be promoted. In addition, because there are major gaps in knowledge about pain across health care and society alike, the IOM recommends that federal agencies and other stakeholders redesign education programs to bridge these gaps. Pain is a major driver for visits to physicians, a major reason for taking medications, a major cause of disability, and a key factor in quality of life and productivity. Given the burden of pain in human lives, dollars, and social consequences, relieving pain should be a national priority.
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