Your cart is empty
Skuif handel oor die evolusie van ons węreld vanaf die begin van lewe tot in die toekoms. Die boek gee ’n ongelooflike oorsig van elke tydperk in die aarde se tektoniese geskiedenis. Hierdie verstommende visuele voorstelling van die aarde se geologiese geskiedenis beskryf die verskuiwing van landmassas en die ontwikkeling van die kontinente soos ons dit vandag ken.
Met pragtige węreldkaarte en illustrasies wat die oorsprong van lewe uitbeeld en die aarde se moontlike toekoms vorspel, is Skuif die ideale gids tot ons planeet se geskiedenis. Martin Ince beskryf op toeganklike wyse wat die impak van geologiese veranderinge op die lewe op aarde is.
This volume is an excellently written and beautifully illustrated textbook compiled by a multidisciplinary group of experts examining the production, transport and deposition of volcaniclasts (tephra and epiclasts) as well as their economic geology.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
The inner core is a planet within a planet: a hot sphere with a mass of one hundred quintillion tons of iron and nickel that lies more than 5000 kilometres beneath our feet. It plays a crucial role in driving outer core fluid motion and the geodynamo, which generates the Earth's magnetic field. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive review of past and contemporary research on the Earth's inner core from a seismological perspective. Chapters cover the collection, processing and interpretation of seismological data, as well as our current knowledge of the structure, anisotropy, attenuation, rotational dynamics, and boundary of the inner core. Reviewing the latest research and suggesting new seismological techniques and future avenues, it is an essential resource for both seismologists and non-seismologists interested in this fascinating field of research. It will also form a useful resource for courses in seismology and deep Earth processes.
Exploration seismology uses seismic imaging to form detailed images of the Earth's interior, enabling the location of likely petroleum targets. Due to the size of seismic datasets, sophisticated numerical algorithms are required. This book provides a technical guide to the essential algorithms and computational aspects of data processing, covering the theory and methods of seismic imaging. The first part introduces an extensive online library of MATLAB (R) seismic data processing codes maintained by the CREWES project at the University of Calgary. Later chapters then focus on digital signal theory and relevant aspects of wave propagation and seismic modelling, followed by deconvolution and seismic migration methods. Presenting a rigorous explanation of how to construct seismic images, it provides readers with practical tools and codes to pursue research projects and analyses. It is ideal for advanced students and researchers in applied geophysics, and for practicing exploration geoscientists in the oil and gas industry.
Perfect for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in geophysics, physics, mathematics, geology and engineering, this book is devoted exclusively to seismic wave theory. The result is an invaluable teaching tool, with its detailed derivations of formulas, clear explanations of topics, exercises along with selected answers, and an additional set of exercises with derived answers on the book's website. Some highlights of the text include: a review of vector calculus and Fourier transforms and an introduction to tensors, which prepare readers for the chapters to come; and a detailed discussion on computing reflection and transmission coefficients, a topic of wide interest in the field; a discussion in later chapters of plane waves in anisotropic and anelastic media, which serves as a useful introduction to these two areas of current research in geophysics. Students will learn to understand seismic wave theory through the book's clear and concise pedagogy.
This book aims to give an overview on the present state of volcanic lake research, covering topics such as volcano monitoring, the chemistry, dynamics and degassing of acidic crater lakes, mass-energy-chemical-isotopic balance approaches, limnology and degassing of Nyos-type lakes, the impact on the human and natural environment, the eruption products and impact of crater lake breaching eruptions, numerical modeling of gas clouds and lake eruptions, thermo-hydro-mechanical and deformation modeling, CO2 fluxes from lakes, volcanic lakes observed from space, biological activity, continuous monitoring techniques, and some aspects more. We hope to offer an updated manual on volcanic lake research, providing classic research methods, and point towards a more high-tech approach of future volcanic lake research and continuous monitoring.
Seismology is rated the Queen of Earth Sciences due to its ability to provide detailed structural information bearing on the Earth interior and on-going dynamic processes. This is due to the advanced theoretical foundation of seismology and the extensive cooperation among seismologists on recording and disseminating of data worldwide. In contrast, some 40 years ago seismology was a backward science and hence funding was poor.
This abruptly changed with the political interest in seismology as the principal tool for monitoring compliance with a potential Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban treaty (CTBT) banning nuclear testing in any environment.
Major countries like USA, UK and USSR launched large-scale research programs including deployment of modern seismograph stations and arrays and these developments are detailed in the book for CTBTO (UN), IRIS (USA), MedNet (Italy), Geofon (Germany) and the tiny Karelia network, NW Russia. Station and network operations require near real time record analysis and topics dealt with here are 2-D signal detector, epicenter location and earthquake monitoring. Balkan is seismically the most active part of Europe due to multiple plate interactions in the Aegean Sea. The tectonic evolution and on-going geodynamic deformations are described in 2 articles. Earthquake hazard analysis and topographic site effects are discussed and likewise large earthquake hazards in the Aegean and the Marmara seas relate to practical applications of such procedures. Foremost; the book gives a good account of past, present and likely future seismological developments in Balkan countries and various kinds of network operations on local to global scales.
The second edition of Principles of Seismology has been extensively revised and updated to present a modern approach to observation seismology and the theory behind digital seismograms. It includes: a new chapter on Earthquakes, Earth's structure and dynamics; a considerably revised chapter on instrumentation, with new material on processing of modern digital seismograms and a list of website hosting data and seismological software; and 100 end-of-chapter problems. The fundamental physical concepts on which seismic theory is based are explained in full detail with step-by-step development of the mathematical derivations, demonstrating the relationship between motions recorded in digital seismograms and the mechanics of deformable bodies. With chapter introductions and summaries, numerous examples, newly drafted illustrations and new color figures, and an updated bibliography and reference list, this intermediate-level textbook is designed to help students develop the skills to tackle real research problems.
The Gulf of Mexico Basin is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world, with an estimated endowment of 200 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the basin, spanning the US, Mexico and Cuba. Topics covered include conventional and unconventional reservoirs, source rocks and associated tectonics, basin evolution from the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Era, and different regions of the basin from mature onshore fields to deep-water subsalt plays. Cores, well logs and seismic lines are all discussed providing local, regional and basin-scale insights. The scientific implications of seminal events in the basin's history are also covered, including sedimentary effects of the Chicxulub Impact. Containing over 200 color illustrations and 50 stratigraphic cross-sections and paleogeographic maps, this is an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, as well as graduate students and researchers interested in basin analysis, sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics and petroleum geology.
In 1816, the climate went berserk. The winter brought extreme cold, and torrential rains unleashed massive flooding in Asia. Western Europe and North America experienced a 'year without a summer', while failed harvests in 1817 led to the 'year of famine'. At the time, nobody knew that all these disturbances were the result of a single event: the eruption of Mount Tambora in what is now Indonesia - the greatest volcanic eruption in recorded history. In this book, leading climate historian Wolfgang Behringer provides the first globally comprehensive account of a climate catastrophe that would cast the world into political and social crises for years to come. Concentrating on the period between 1815 and 1820, Behringer shows how this natural occurrence led to worldwide unrest. Analysing events as diverse as the persecution of Jews in Germany, the Peterloo Massacre in the United Kingdom, witch hunts in South Africa and anti-colonial uprisings in Asia, Behringer demonstrates that no region on earth was untouched by the effects of the eruption. Drawing parallels with our world today, Tambora and its aftermath become a case study for how societies and individuals respond to climate change, what risks emerge and how they might be overcome. This comprehensive account of the impact of one of the greatest environmental disasters in human history will be of interest to a wide readership and to anyone seeking to understand better how we might mitigate the effects of climate change.
This third edition provides a concise yet approachable introduction to seismic theory, designed as a first course for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students. It clearly explains the fundamental concepts, emphasizing intuitive understanding over lengthy derivations, and outlines the different types of seismic waves and how they can be used to resolve Earth structure and understand earthquakes. New material and updates have been added throughout, including ambient noise methods, shear-wave splitting, back-projection, migration and velocity analysis in reflection seismology, earthquake rupture directivity, and fault weakening mechanisms. A wealth of both reworked and new examples, review questions and computer-based exercises in MATLAB (R)/Python give students the opportunity to apply the techniques they have learned to compute results of interest and to illustrate Earth's seismic properties. More advanced sections, which are not needed to understand the other material, are flagged so that instructors or students pressed for time can skip them.
Volcanoes have fascinated-and terrified-people for ages. They have destroyed cities and ended civilizations. John Dvorak, the acclaimed author of Earthquake Storms, looks into the early scientific study of volcanoes and the life of the man who pioneered the field, Thomas Jaggar. Educated at Harvard, Jaggar went to the Caribbean after Mount Pelee exploded in 1902, killing more than 26,000 people. Witnessing the destruction and learning about the horrible deaths these people had suffered, Jaggar vowed to dedicate himself to a study of volcanoes. What followed was fifty years of global travel to eruptions in Italy, Alaska, Central America, Japan and the Pacific. In 1912, he built a small science station at the edge of a lake of molten lava at Kilauea volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, with the goal of solving the mystery of why volcanoes erupt and how they could be predicted. Jaggar found something else at Kilauea: true love. She was Isabel Maydwell, a widowed school teacher who came to Kilauea to restart her life. For more than twenty ears, she and Jaggar ran the science station, living in a small house at the edge of a high cliff that overlooked the lava lake. Maydwell would quickly becoming one of the world's most astute observers of volcanic activity. Mixed with tales of myths and rituals, as well as the author's own experiences and insight into volcanic activity, The Last Volcano reveals the lure and romance of confronting nature in its most magnificent form-the edge of a volcanic eruption.
In recent years there has been growing recognition that disaster risk cannot be reduced by focusing solely on physical hazards without considering factors that influence socio-economic impact. Vulnerability: the susceptibility to the damaging impacts of hazards, and resilience: the ability to recover, have become popular concepts in natural hazard and risk management. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the concepts of vulnerability and resilience and their application to natural hazards research. With contributions from both physical and social scientists it provides an interdisciplinary discussion of the different types of vulnerability and resilience, the links between them, and concludes with the remaining challenges and future directions of the field. Examining global case studies from the US coast to Austria, this is a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students working in natural hazard and risk reduction from both the natural and social sciences.
Volcanoes & Earthquakes features the earth sciences at their most spectacular. It reveals the massive internal forces that create and change the Earth's surface, with dramatic and sometimes beautiful consequences. The authors explain what fuels the power of volcanoes and earthquakes and explore how the gradual shifting of tectonic plates has transformed the Earth over its four and a half thousand million year existence. Written in a jargon-free style and fully illustrated with photographs, diagrams and maps, this is a cutting-edge introduction to earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics, incorporating all the latest research developments.Chiara Maria Petrone is a Research Leader in Petrology and Volcanology in the Earth Sciences Department of the Natural History Museum, London. Roberto Scandone is a Research Associate at the Vesuvius Observatory, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples. Alex Whittaker is a Senior Lecturer in Tectonics in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering at Imperial College, London.
Seismic Risk Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants addresses the needs of graduate students in engineering, practicing engineers in industry, and regulators in government agencies, presenting the entire process of seismic risk analysis in a clear, logical, and concise manner. It offers a systematic and comprehensive introduction to seismic risk analysis of critical engineering structures focusing on nuclear power plants, with a balance between theory and applications, and includes the latest advances in research. It is suitable as a graduate-level textbook, for self-study, or as a reference book. Various aspects of seismic risk analysis - from seismic hazard, demand, and fragility analyses to seismic risk quantification, are discussed, with detailed step-by-step analysis of specific engineering examples. It presents a wide range of topics essential for understanding and performing seismic risk analysis, including engineering seismology, probability theory and random processes, digital signal processing, structural dynamics, random vibration, and engineering risk and reliability.
In December 2016, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists moved their iconic "Doomsday Clock" thirty seconds forward to two and a half minutes to midnight, the latest it has been set since 1952, the year of the first United States hydrogen bomb test. But a group of scientists-geologists, engineers, and physicists-has been fighting to turn back the clock. Since the dawn of the Cold War, they have advocated a halt to nuclear testing, their work culminating in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which still awaits ratification from China, Iran, North Korea-and the United States. The backbone of the treaty is every nation's ability to independently monitor the nuclear activity of the others. The noted seismologist Lynn R. Sykes, one of the central figures in the development of the science and technology used in monitoring, has dedicated his career to halting nuclear testing. In Silencing the Bomb, he tells the inside story behind scientists' quest for disarmament. Called upon time and again to testify before Congress and to inform the public, Sykes and his colleagues were, for much of the Cold War, among the only people on earth able to say with certainty when and where a bomb was tested and how large it was. Methods of measuring earthquakes, researchers realized, could also detect underground nuclear explosions. When politicians on both sides of the Iron Curtain attempted to sidestep disarmament or test ban treaties, Sykes was able to deploy the nascent science of plate tectonics to reveal the truth. Seismologists' discoveries helped bring about treaties limiting nuclear testing, but it was their activism that played a key role in the quest for peace. Full of intrigue, international politics, and hard science used for the global good, Silencing the Bomb is a timely and necessary chronicle of one scientist's efforts to keep the clock from striking midnight.
This issue contains 16 papers, presenting work on tsunami hazards, earthquakes, and related computational infrastructure. The integration of multihazard simulations and remotely sensed observations is providing enormous benefits to earthquake and tsunami research. Earthquakes cause damage, but also generate tsunamis, which create additional damage. Remotely sensed observations coupled with geologic field measurements and simulations contribute to our understanding of earthquake processes, which is necessary for mitigating loss of life and property from these damaging events. This book focuses on assimilation of remotely sensed observations to advance multihazards simulation. This capability provides a powerful virtual laboratory to probe earthquake behavior and the earthquake cycle. Hence, it offers a new opportunity to gain understanding of the earthquake nucleation process, precursory phenomena, and space-time seismicity patterns needed for breakthrough advances in earthquake forecasting and hazard quantification.
This book illustrates how mine seismology can be used to improve underground safety standards. It describes several preventive actions that have been put into practice at the 5B Area of No. 5 Shaft Vaal Reefs gold mine after issuing seismic warnings. These included additional safety pillars, changes in mining sequences and directions, and a review of the mining strategy for the entire 5B area. The presented experiment with seismic warning concept was a success because it was an internal mine project. Further, the Vaal Reefs management adopted the philosophy that the success rate should be measured in the preventive actions taken, not in the success of the prediction itself. Reviewing these and other aspects, the book clearly demonstrates how mine seismology can effectively improve underground safety standards. Stefan Glazer's book (...) addresses in a very comprehensive manner both technical and practical problems of implementing and then effectively using microseismic networks and data. (...) Stefan proves that through comprehensive microseismic data analysis the location of potential rock burst can be assessed and then prevention action plans can be developed, providing more confidence to management and workers that deposit[s] can be mine[d] safely. Michal Stawski, VP Strategic Geomechanical Specialist, PT Freeport Indonesia I began reading this story expecting to find a technical review of the science of seismology and its application in mining, [but] this book is much more than that. (...) This is a must-read for those managing seismically active mines and should provide a wake-up call to the industry as the complex morality surrounding the management of seismic risk needs to be clarified in order for this to advance. Eric Strom, Director Underground Mining, New Gold Inc. As a mining geotechnical practitioner having experience in large open pit and underground massive mining operations, I have learned that mining induced seismicity can have a significant impact on the safety and economics of operations. However, seismicity is a complex field that is generally left to specialists with little input from geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists. (...) This is a must read for mine seismologists, geotechnical practitioners and mining engineers alike, and will be a welcome and much needed addition to my own book cabinet. This will be [an] invaluable work as our industry progresses to the mining of new depths in both the underground and open pit environments. Desmond Mossop Pr.Sci.Nat., Principal Engineering Geologist, SRK Consulting
Recent theoretical developments, acquisitions of large seismic and other data sets, detailed geological studies, and novel laboratory experiments offer new opportunities for advancing the understanding of fault zone and earthquake processes. The present and a follow up volume provide broad state-of-the-art perspectives on earthquakes and crustal fault zones. Subjects discussed in this volume include fluids and faulting, characterization of fault zone materials, seismic ground motion, geodetic deformation, seismicity and hazard, imaging fault zone structures, experiments on fault evolution, and damage-based rheologies for shear deformation. The volume will be useful to students and professional researchers from Earth Sciences, Material Sciences, Physics and other disciplines, who are interested in properties and processes of earthquakes and faults.
This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.
By developing the scale that bears his name, Charles Richter not only invented the concept of magnitude as a measure of earthquake size, he turned himself into nothing less than a household word. He remains the only seismologist whose name anyone outside of narrow scientific circles would likely recognize. Yet few understand the Richter scale itself, and even fewer have ever understood the man. Drawing on the wealth of papers Richter left behind, as well as dozens of interviews with his family and colleagues, Susan Hough takes the reader deep into Richter's complex life story, setting it in the context of his family and interpersonal attachments, his academic career, and the history of seismology. Among his colleagues Richter was known as intensely private, passionately interested in earthquakes, and iconoclastic. He was an avid nudist, seismologists tell each other with a grin; he dabbled in poetry. He was a publicity hound, some suggest, and more famous than he deserved to be. But even his closest associates were unaware that he struggled to reconcile an intense and abiding need for artistic expression with his scientific interests, or that his apparently strained relationship with his wife was more unconventional but also stronger than they knew. Moreover, they never realized that his well-known foibles might even have been the consequence of a profound neurological disorder. In this biography, Susan Hough artfully interweaves the stories of Richter's life with the history of earthquake exploration and seismology. In doing so, she illuminates the world of earth science for the lay reader, much as Sylvia Nasar brought the world of mathematics alive in A Beautiful Mind.
Seismic amplitudes yield key information on lithology and fluid fill, enabling interpretation of reservoir quality and likelihood of hydrocarbon presence. The modern seismic interpreter must be able to deploy a range of sophisticated geophysical techniques, such as seismic inversion, AVO (amplitude variation with offset), and rock physics modelling, as well as integrating information from other geophysical techniques and well data. This accessible, authoritative book provides a complete framework for seismic amplitude interpretation and analysis in a practical manner that allows easy application - independent of any commercial software products. Deriving from the authors' extensive industry expertise and experience of delivering practical courses on the subject, it guides the interpreter through each step, introducing techniques with practical observations and helping to evaluate interpretation confidence. Seismic Amplitude is an invaluable day-to-day tool for graduate students and industry professionals in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, and all subsurface disciplines making regular use of seismic data.
With the signing in 1996 of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, interest has grown in forensic seismology: the application of seismology to nuclear test ban verification. This book, based on over 50 years of experience in forensic seismology research, charts the development of methods of seismic data analysis. Topics covered include: the estimation of seismic magnitudes, travel-time tables and epicentres; seismic signal processing; and the use of seismometer arrays. Fully illustrated with seismograms from explosions and earthquakes, the book demonstrates methods and problems of visual analysis. Each chapter provides exercises to help the reader familiarise themselves with practical issues in the field of forensic seismology, and figures and solutions to exercises are also available online. The book is a key reference work for academic researchers and specialists in the area of forensic seismology and Earth structure, and will also be valuable to postgraduates in seismology and solid earth geophysics.
This book is an introductory text to a range of numerical methods used today to simulate time-dependent processes in Earth science, physics, engineering, and many other fields. The physical problem of elastic wave propagation in 1D serves as a model system with which the various numerical methods are introduced and compared. The theoretical background is presented with substantial graphical material supporting the concepts. The results can be reproduced with the supplementary electronic material provided as python codes embedded in Jupyter notebooks. The book starts with a primer on the physics of elastic wave propagation, and a chapter on the fundamentals of parallel programming, computational grids, mesh generation, and hardware models. The core of the book is the presentation of numerical solutions of the wave equation with six different methods: 1) the finite-difference method; 2) the pseudospectral method (Fourier and Chebyshev); 3) the linear finite-element method; 4) the spectral-element method; 5) the finite-volume method; and 6) the discontinuous Galerkin method. Each chapter contains comprehension questions, theoretical, and programming exercises. The book closes with a discussion of domains of application and criteria for the choice of a specific numerical method, and the presentation of current challenges.
You may like...
Seismic Exploration of the Deep…
Dirk Gajewski, Wolfgang Rabbel Paperback
The Seismic Analysis Code - A Primer and…
George Helffrich, James Wookey, … Hardcover R1,833 Discovery Miles 18 330
Structural Geology: A Quantitative…
David D. Pollard, Stephen J. Martel Hardcover R1,372 Discovery Miles 13 720
Hydromagmatic Processes and…
Alan Boudreau Hardcover
Imaging the Rupture Processes of…
Hao Zhang Hardcover
Waking the Giant - How a changing…
Bill. McGuire Paperback
An Introduction to Seismology…
Seth Stein, Michael Wysession Paperback
Earthquake Storms - The Fascinating…
John Dvorak Paperback
Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012
Alexander B. Rabinovich, Jose C. Borrero, … Paperback
The Mechanics of Earthquakes and…
Christopher H. Scholz Paperback R1,373 Discovery Miles 13 730