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Elgar Research Agendas outline the future of research in a given area. Leading scholars are given the space to explore their subject in provocative ways, and map out the potential directions of travel. They are relevant but also visionary. Tourism is integral to local, regional and national development policies; as a major global economic sector, it has the potential to underpin economic growth and wider development. Yet, transformations in both the nature of tourism and the dynamic environment within which it occurs give rise to new questions with regards to its developmental role. This Research Agenda offers a state-of-the-art review of the research into the tourism-development nexus. Bringing together contributors from across the globe, this Research Agenda answers the key questions including: Are growth-focused tourism policies becoming increasingly detrimental to destination development? Can mass forms of tourism in fact generate more benefits than alternative forms of tourism? Does the role of the state in supporting tourism-induced development require reconsideration? How effective is tourism-related philanthropy in contributing to development? Is community-based tourism a realistic development policy? To what extent can tourism contribute to what is still the most pressing development challenge, namely poverty reduction? A Research Agenda for Tourism and Development offers valuable insights for students and researchers of development studies and tourism, as well as for policymakers and practitioners in tourism industries.
This comprehensive and up-to-date book explains the economic rationale behind the production, delivery and exchange of electricity. Creti and Fontini explain why electricity markets exist, outlining the economic principles behind the exchange and supply of power to consumers and firms. They identify the specificities of electricity, as compared to other goods, and furthermore suggest how markets should be optimally designed to produce and deliver electricity effectively and efficiently. The authors also address key issues, including how electricity can be decarbonized. Written in a technical yet accessible style, this book will appeal to readers studying power system economics and the economics of electricity, as well as those more generally interested in energy economics, including engineering and management students looking to gain an understanding of electricity market analysis.
The consequences of twenty-first-century sea level rise on the United States and its nearly 90,000 miles of shoreline will be immense: Miami and New Orleans will disappear; many nuclear and other power plants, hundreds of wastewater plants and toxic waste sites, and oil production facilities will be at risk; port infrastructures will need to be raised; and over ten million Americans fleeing rising seas will become climate refugees. In Sea Level Rise Orrin H. Pilkey and Keith C. Pilkey argue that the only feasible response along much of the U.S. shoreline is an immediate and managed retreat. Among many topics, they examine sea level rise's effects on coastal ecosystems, health, and native Alaskan coastal communities. They also provide guidelines for those living on the coasts or plan on moving to or away from them, as well as the steps local governments should take to prepare for this unstoppable, impending catastrophe.
All organizations must cope with future uncertainties. These uncertainties affect the strategic choices they make. They must commit scarce organizational resources to future outcomes which they have little assurance will come into being. Marcus explores how decision makers in the energy industry made choices in the face of such uncertainties, specifically examining two major uncertainties they confronted in the 2012-18 period - price volatility and climate change. Marcus tells the story of how different companies in the integrated oil and natural gas sector and in the motor vehicle sector responded to these uncertainties. In the face of these challenges, companies in the energy industry hedged their bets by staking out paradoxical or contrasting positions. On the one hand, they focused on capturing as much gain as they could from the world's current dependence on fossil fuels and on the other hand they made preparations for a future in which fossil fuels might not be the world's dominant energy source.
The global energy transition from carbon-intensive to renewable fuels has increasingly demanded a better understanding of the causes and consequences of the rapid development of unconventional oil and gas. Focusing on key countries including the United States, Canada, China, Argentina, the United Kingdom and Australia, this book consists of case studies and in-depth analyses that weigh up the risks and rewards at regional, national and global scales. Explaining how and why unconventional fuels are transforming the global energy landscape, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are explored through a political, economic and governance-based perspective. Emphasis is placed on how to regulate the industry, encompassing local issues, stakeholder engagement and the social licence to operate. The new baseline studies and standards introduced in this book provide a timely insight into the trade-offs across the social, economic and environmental domains, making this ideal for researchers and policymakers in energy fields, and for graduate students.
The violence wrought by climate change, toxic drift, deforestation, oil spills, and the environmental aftermath of war takes place gradually and often invisibly. Using the innovative concept of "slow violence" to describe these threats, Rob Nixon focuses on the inattention we have paid to the attritional lethality of many environmental crises, in contrast with the sensational, spectacle-driven messaging that impels public activism today. Slow violence, because it is so readily ignored by a hard-charging capitalism, exacerbates the vulnerability of ecosystems and of people who are poor, disempowered, and often involuntarily displaced, while fueling social conflicts that arise from desperation as life-sustaining conditions erode. In a book of extraordinary scope, Nixon examines a cluster of writer-activists affiliated with the environmentalism of the poor in the global South. By approaching environmental justice literature from this transnational perspective, he exposes the limitations of the national and local frames that dominate environmental writing. And by skillfully illuminating the strategies these writer-activists deploy to give dramatic visibility to environmental emergencies, Nixon invites his readers to engage with some of the most pressing challenges of our time.
This book explains clearly how and where groundwater occurs, how it is used and how it is at risk.
Philippe Sands has extensively revised this leading textbook to include all new developments since 1994, including all the international case-law (ICJ, ITLOS, WTO, human rights etc.) and new international legislation (genetically modified organisms, the Kyoto Protocol, oil pollution, chemicals etc.). It is the most comprehensive account of the principles and rules relating to the protection of the environment and the conservation of natural resources. It incorporates all the key material from the 1992 Rio Declaration and subsequent developments. Topics include: the legal and institutional framework; the field's historic development; standards for general application in addition to the protection of the atmosphere, oceans etc.; the techniques available for implementation such as the environmental impact assessment and liability/compensation for environmental damage. It will be used on its own as an academic course text, as well as a reference text for practitioners.
This bold and important new book presents current and emerging thinking on the social dimensions of climate change. Using clear language and powerful examples, it introduces key concepts and frameworks for understanding the multifaceted connections between climate and society. Robin Leichenko and Karen O'Brien frame climate change as a social issue that calls for integrative approaches to research, policy, and action. They explore dominant and relevant discourses on the social drivers, impacts, and responses to climate change, highlighting the important roles that worldviews and beliefs play in shaping interpretations of climate challenges. Situating climate change within the context of a rapidly changing world, the book demonstrates how dynamic political, economic, and environmental contexts amplify risks, yet also present opportunities for transformative responses. Aimed at undergraduates across the social sciences studying this critical challenge of our time, this informative and engaging book empowers readers with a range of possibilities for equitable and sustainable transformations in a changing climate.
The original biodynamic sowing and planting calendar, now in its 57th year. This useful guide shows the optimum days for sowing, pruning and harvesting various plants and crops, as well as working with bees. It includes Thun's unique insights, which go above and beyond the standard information presented in some other lunar calendars. It is presented in colour with clear symbols and explanations. The calendar includes a pullout wallchart that can be pinned up in a barn, shed or greenhouse as a handy quick reference.
In The Edge of Extinction, Jules Pretty explores life and change in a dozen environments and cultures across the world, taking us on a series of remarkable journeys through deserts, coasts, mountains, steppes, snowscapes, marshes, and farms to show that there are many different ways to live in cooperation with nature. From these accounts of people living close to the land and close to the edge emerge a larger story about sustainability and the future of the planet. Pretty addresses not only current threats to natural and cultural diversity but also the unsustainability of modern lifestyles typical of industrialized countries. In a very real sense, Pretty discovers, what we manage to preserve now may well save us later.
Jules Pretty's travels take him among the Maori people along the coasts of the Pacific, into the mountains of China, and across petroglyph-rich deserts of Australia. He treks with nomads over the continent-wide steppes of Tuva in southern Siberia, walks and boats in the wildlife-rich inland swamps of southern Africa, and experiences the Arctic with ice fishermen in Finland. He explores the coasts and inland marshes of eastern England and Northern Ireland and accompanies Innu people across the taiga s snowy forests and the lakes of the Labrador interior. Pretty concludes his global journey immersed in the discrete cultures and landscapes embedded within the American landscape: the small farms of the Amish, the swamps of the Cajuns in the deep South, and the deserts of California.
The diverse people Pretty meets in The Edge of Extinction display deep pride in their relationships with the land and are only willing to join with the modern world on their own terms. By the examples they set, they offer valuable lessons for anyone seeking to find harmony in a world cracking under the pressures of apparently insatiable consumption patterns of the affluent."
In many parts of Africa a 'front line' has developed between humans and wild animals. People are daily and stressfully aware of their vulnerability, whether from predators that eat their stock, or from marauders that trash their crops: elephants, hippos, bushpigs, baboons, cane rats, dense sun-blocking swarms of locusts and quelea finches that can wipe out an entire season's crop and leave a community starving. And a startling number of people in Africa are killed by wildlife each year.
This reality is rarely conveyed to investors in wildlife conservation or to visitors to wildlife sanctuaries. But the battle lines are drawn between communities directly impacted by the remnant wildlife of an increasingly congested Africa, and the paymasters of a first-world population of voyeurs. Can all the players co-exist? This controversial exposť of the conflict between humans and wildlife lifts the lid on the battle for turf: the future of conservation will depend on the relationship established between wildlife authorities and those bearing the brunt along the front line.
Rachel Carson's classic trilogy comprises three volumes - The Sea Around Us (1950), Under the Wind-Sea (1941) and The Edge of the Sea (1955). The Sea Around Us presents an overview of the subject, a natural history of the oceans in which Rachel Carson discusses such matters as their origins, the evolution of life, the creation of volcanic islands
From cocoa farming in Ghana to the orchards of Kent and the desert badlands of Pakistan, taking a practical approach to sustaining the landscape can mean the difference between prosperity and ruin. Working with Nature is the story of a lifetime of work, often in extreme environments, to harvest nature and protect it - in effect, gardening on a global scale. It is also a memoir of encounters with larger-than-life characters such as William Bunting, the gun-toting saviour of Yorkshire's peatlands and the aristocratic gardener Vita Sackville-West, examining their idiosyncratic approaches to conservation.
Jeremy Purseglove explains clearly and convincingly why it's not a good idea to extract as many resources as possible, whether it's the demand for palm oil currently denuding the forests of Borneo, cottonfield irrigation draining the Aral Sea, or monocrops spreading across Britain. The pioneer of engineering projects to preserve nature and landscape, first in Britain and then around the world, he offers fresh insights and solutions at each step.
Substantially updated for the second edition, this engaging and innovative introduction to the environment and society uses key theoretical approaches to explore familiar objects. * Features substantial revisions and updates for the second edition, including new chapters on E waste, mosquitoes and uranium, improved maps and graphics, new exercises, shorter theory chapters, and refocused sections on environmental solutions * Discusses topics such as population and scarcity, commodities, environmental ethics, risks and hazards, and political economy and applies them to objects like bottled water, tuna, and trees * Accessible for students, and accompanied by in-book and online resources including exercises and boxed discussions, an online test bank, notes, suggested reading, and website links for enhanced understanding * Offers additional online support for instructors, including suggested teaching models, PowerPoint slides for each chapter with full-color graphics, and supplementary images and teaching material
Over roughly the past decade, oil and gas production in the United States has surged dramatically--thanks largely to technological advances such as high-volume hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as "fracking." This rapid increase has generated widespread debate, with proponents touting economic and energy-security benefits and opponents highlighting the environmental and social risks of increased oil and gas production. Despite the heated debate, neither side has a monopoly on the facts. In this book, Daniel Raimi gives a balanced and accessible view of oil and gas development, clearly and thoroughly explaining the key issues surrounding the shale revolution. The Fracking Debate directly addresses the most common questions and concerns associated with fracking: What is fracking? Does fracking pollute the water supply? Will fracking make the United States energy independent? Does fracking cause earthquakes? How is fracking regulated? Is fracking good for the economy? Coupling a deep understanding of the scholarly research with lessons from his travels to every major U.S. oil- and gas-producing region, Raimi highlights stories of the people and communities affected by the shale revolution, for better and for worse. The Fracking Debate provides the evidence and context that have so frequently been missing from the national discussion of the future of oil and gas production, offering readers the tools to make sense of this critical issue.
The Africa-wide Great Elephant Census of 2016 produced shocking findings: a decimated elephant population whose numbers were continuing to plummet. Elephants are killed, on average, every 15-20 minutes - a situation that will see the final demise of these intelligent, extraordinary animals in less than three decades. They are a species in crisis. This magnificent book offers chapters written by the most prominent people in the realm of conservation and wildlife, among them researchers, conservationists, filmmakers, criminologists, TV personalities and journalists. Photographs have been selected from among the world's best wildlife photographers, and the passionate Foreword is provided by Prince William. This book has been created to make the world aware of the devastating loss of elephant lives in Africa and stem the tide of poaching and hunting. It is hoped that all loopholes in the ivory trade will be closed and that all countries receiving and using ivory (both legal and poached) will ban its trade - and actively pursue those involved in driving the cruel poaching tsunami. This book is also a tribute to those who work for the welfare of elephants, particularly those who risk their lives for wildlife each day, often for little or no pay - including the field rangers and the anti-poaching teams; and to the many communities around Africa that have elected to work with elephants and not against them. The Last Elephants - is the title prophetic? We hope not.
This trusted best-seller has been comprehensively updated and expanded to feature accounts of over 1,500 species and insect groups. Included are the most common, most economically and ecologically important, interesting and attractive insects in the region.
• vivid photographs
• easy-to-read text
• detailed accounts covering identifi cation, biology, distribution and related species
• a helpful introduction detailing the signifi cance, life history, collection and photography of insects, and
• quick reference guides on the inside covers to facilitate identifi cation.
Entomologists both amateur and professional, students, gardeners, farmers, tourists and anyone with an interest in the natural world will appreciate this illuminating and invaluable guide.
Destination Anthropocene documents the emergence of new travel imaginaries forged at the intersection of the natural sciences and the tourism industry in a Caribbean archipelago. Known to travelers as a paradise of sun, sand, and sea, The Bahamas is rebranding itself in response to the rising threat of global environmental change, including climate change. In her imaginative new book, Amelia Moore explores an experimental form of tourism developed in the name of sustainability, one that is slowly changing the way both tourists and Bahamians come to know themselves and relate to island worlds.
Fish are one of the most important global food sources, supplying a significant share of the world (TM)s protein consumption. From stocks of wild Alaskan salmon and North Sea cod to entire fish communities with myriad species, fisheries require careful management to ensure that stocks remain productive, and mathematical models are essential tools for doing so. Fish Ecology, Evolution, and Exploitation is an authoritative introduction to the modern size- and trait-based approach to fish populations and communities. Ken Andersen covers the theoretical foundations, mathematical formulations, and real-world applications of this powerful new modeling method, which is grounded in the latest ecological theory and population biology. He begins with fundamental assumptions on the level of individuals and goes on to cover population demography and fisheries impact assessments. He shows how size- and trait-based models shed new light on familiar fisheries concepts such as maximum sustainable yield and fisheries selectivity "insights that classic age-based theory can (TM)t provide "and develops novel evolutionary impacts of fishing. Andersen extends the theory to entire fish communities and uses it to support the ecosystem approach to fisheries management, and forges critical links between trait-based methods and evolutionary ecology. Accessible to ecologists with a basic quantitative background, this incisive book unifies the thinking in ecology and fisheries science and is an indispensable reference for anyone seeking to apply size- and trait-based models to fish demography, fisheries impact assessments, and fish evolutionary ecology.
Conservation behavior assists the investigation of species endangerment associated with managing animals impacted by anthropogenic activities. It employs a theoretical framework that examines the mechanisms, development, function, and phylogeny of behavior variation in order to develop practical tools for preventing biodiversity loss and extinction. Developed from a symposium held at the International Congress on Conservation Biology in 2011, this is the first book to offer an in-depth, logical framework that identifies three vital areas for understanding conservation behavior: anthropogenic threats to wildlife, conservation and management protocols, and indicators of anthropogenic threats. Bridging the gap between behavioral ecology and conservation biology, this volume ascertains key links between the fields, explores the theoretical foundations of these linkages, and connects them to practical wildlife management tools and concise applicable advice. Adopting a clear and structured approach throughout, this book is a vital resource for graduate students, academic researchers, and wildlife managers.
During the Civil War, humans impacted plants and animals on an unprecedented scale as soldiers on both sides waged the most environmentally destructive war ever on American soil. Refugees and armies alike tramped across the landscape foraging for food, shelter, and fuel. Wild plants and animals formed barriers for armies and carried disease, yet also provided medicine and raw materials necessary to implement war, greatly influencing the day-to-day life of soldiers and civilians. Of the thousands of books written about the Civil War, few mention the environment, and none address the topic as a principal theme. In Flora and Fauna of the Civil War, Kelby Ouchley blends traditional and natural history to create a unique text that explores both the impact of the Civil War on the surrounding environment and the reciprocal influence of plants and animals on the war effort.
The war generated an abundance of letters, diaries, and journals in which soldiers and civilians penned descriptions of plants and animals, sometimes as a brief comment in passing and other times as part of a noteworthy event in their lives. Ouchley collects and organizes these first-person accounts of the Civil War environment, adding expert analysis and commentary in order to offer an array of fascinating insights on the natural history of the era.
After discussing the physical setting of the war and exploring humans' attitudes toward nature during the Civil War period, Ouchley presents the flora and fauna by individual species or closely related group in the words of the participants themselves. From ash trees to willows, from alligators to white-tailed deer, the excerpts provide glimpses of personal encounters with the natural world during the war, revealing how soldiers and civilians thought about and interacted with wild flora and fauna in a time of epic historical events.
Collectively, no better sources exist to reveal human attitudes toward the environment in the Civil War era. This one-of-a-kind reference book will spark widespread interest among Civil War scholars, writers, and enthusiasts, as well as environmental historians.
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