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Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to safe levels will require, at least in the longer term, some kind of technological revolution. This, in turn, can only be achieved through investments in the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of carbon-free energy technologies. Innovation under Uncertainty presents original research and insights on the uncertain future of carbon-free energy technologies. The authors, by means of structured interviews with technology experts, portray a probabilistic landscape of future technologies' costs, potentials and limits to diffusion. This book collates the results of interviews with more than a hundred and twenty energy technology experts on a wide range of topics, from the impact of public European RD&D investment on the future cost of different low-carbon energy technologies to issues such as technological and diffusion barriers. The results offer important and concrete insights and recommendations concerning the potential role for public expenditure in innovation to bring clean generation technologies to the market. This unprecedented collection of qualitative and quantitative estimates will be invaluable to academics and policy makers drafting future energy policies, and integrated assessment and energy modelers characterizing the future development of different technological options.
Inspired by F.A. Hayek's Individualism and Economic Order, this book, edited by Yong Yoon, stands in contrast to the themes of that work by emphasizing that collective action operates differently from the way the market works. The chapters comprise papers written by James M. Buchanan, both with and without Yoon's co-authorship, after the publication of his Collected Works. In this book, the authors analyze political disorder that is caused by individualism and self-interest in democracy, focusing specifically on the American political commons. Buchanan and Yoon expertly examine a variety of topics within this theme: the public choice approach to political disorder, rigorous economic models, the dysfunction of American fiscal institutions, the psychological aspects of political rules, and Fukuyama's vetocracy as a case of anti-commons. Readers will gain many new insights from Individualism and Political Disorder, and it will prove invaluable for academics and students in an array of areas, such as economics, politics, public policy and public administration, social psychology, and law and economics.
Paying the Carbon Price analyses the practice of freely allocating permits in Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) and demonstrates how many heavy polluters participating in ETSs are not yet paying the full price of carbon. This innovative book provides a framework to assist policymakers in the design of transitional assistance measures that are both legally robust and will support the effectiveness of the ETSs whilst limiting negative impacts on international trade. Within the realm of international and comparative law, this book closes the gap between the legal frameworks of ETSs in practice, the economic research data and the doctrinal analysis of WTO law. These interesting insights and fresh ideas explore the connection between ETSs, the problems with free allocation of emission permits and the analysis of complex legal instruments. This accessible resource will be invaluable for those researching and teaching climate change law and policy, international trade law and environmental economics. It will also be a useful tool for policymakers, lawyers and economists.
Regulating Shale Gas discusses the regulatory context of shale gas in the European Union and draws conclusions on the EU's broader approach towards the regulation of new technologies. Providing the first dedicated examination of the overall regulatory context of shale gas in the EU, Leonie Reins reveals how the EU's new constitutional setup after the Lisbon Treaty has complicated rather than facilitated the EU's quest for a common energy policy. Shale gas has already transformed the energy outlook in the United States, but despite high expectations, exploration has failed to take off fully in the EU. This book investigates the reasons for this failure, as well as other related developments impacting both energy and environmental law, by highlighting the essential elements of coherent regulation of technologies. It further analyses other cross-cutting issues relating to the environmental and energy supply security challenges and offers insights into the regulation of the different sectors and the most topical developments. The regulation of shale gas is set to become an increasingly important issue, receiving attention of energy and environmental legal scholars, politicians and industry worldwide. This book will also appeal to legal practitioners seeking expertise in the law and policy of shale gas extraction in the EU.
If our planet is going to survive the climate crisis, we need to act rapidly. Taking cues from progressive cities around the world, including Los Angeles, New York, Toronto, Oslo, Shenzhen, and Sydney, this book is a summons to every city to make small but significant changes that can drastically reduce our carbon footprint. We cannot wait for national governments to agree on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and manage the average temperature rise to within 1.5 degrees. In Solved, David Miller argues that cities are taking action on climate change because they can - and because they must. Miller makes a clear-eyed and compelling case that, if replicated at pace and scale, the actions of leading global cities point the way to creating a more sustainable planet. Solved: How the World's Great Cities Are Fixing the Climate Crisis demonstrates that the initiatives cities have taken to control the climate crisis can make a real difference in reducing global emissions if implemented worldwide. By chronicling the stories of how cities have taken action to meet and exceed emissions targets laid out in the Paris Agreement, Miller empowers readers to fix the climate crisis. As much a "how to" guide for policymakers as a work for concerned citizens, Solved aims to inspire hope through its clear and factual analysis of what can be done - now, today - to mitigate our harmful emissions and pave the way to a 1.5-degree world.
Lakes are changing rapidly, not because we are separate from nature but because we are so much a part of it. While many of our effects on the natural world today are new, from climate change to nuclear fallout, our connections to it are ancient, as core samples from lake beds reveal. In Still Waters, Curt Stager introduces us to the worlds hidden beneath the surfaces of our most remarkable lakes, leading us on a journey from the wilds of Siberia to the Sea of Galilee. Through decades of first-hand investigations, Stager examines the significance of our impact on some of the world's most iconic inland waters. Along the way he discovers the stories these lakes contain about us. For him, lakes are not only mirrors reflecting our place in the natural world but also windows into our history, culture and the primal connections we share with all life.
In the modern era, zoos and aquariums fight species extinction, educate communities, and advance learning of animal behaviour. This book features first person stories and scientific reviews to explore ground breaking projects run by these institutions. Large-scale conservation initiatives that benefit multiple species are detailed in the first section, including critical habitat protection, evidence-based techniques to grow animal populations and the design of community education projects. The second section documents how zoos use science to improve the health and welfare of animals in captivity and make difficult management decisions. The section on saving species includes personal tales of efforts to preserve wild populations through rehabilitation, captive breeding, reintroduction, and public outreach. The concluding section details scientific discoveries about animals that would have been impossible without the support of zoos and aquariums. The book is for animal scientists, zoo professionals, educators and researchers worldwide, as well as students of zookeeping and conservation.
Published to coincide with the Fourth United Nations Environmental Assembly, the Summary for Policymakers of the sixth Global Environment Outlook provides an evidence-based source of environmental information to help policymakers in government, local authorities and businesses achieve the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Since the first edition in 1997, there have been many examples of environmental improvement, especially where problems have been well identified, manageable, and where regulatory and technological solutions have been readily available. Nevertheless, the overall condition of the global environment has deteriorated and urgent action, involving ambitious and effective policies, is necessary to arrest and reverse this situation. This Summary for Policymakers answers key policy questions by assessing the drivers of environmental change, the scale and effectiveness of policy responses, potential pathways for achieving sustainability goals in an increasingly complex world, and the data and information that can support the decision-making process. Also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
A practical guide to the latest remote and in situ techniques used to measure sediments, quantify seabed characteristics, and understand physical properties of water and sediments and transport mechanisms in estuaries and coastal waters. Covering a broad range of topics from global reference frames and bathymetric surveying methods to the use of remote sensing for determining surface-water variables, enough background is included to explain how each technology functions. The advantages and disadvantages of each technology are explained, and a review of recent fieldwork experiments demonstrates how modern methods apply in real-life estuarine and coastal campaigns. Clear explanations of physical processes show links between different disciplines, making the book ideal for students and researchers in the environmental sciences, marine biology, chemistry and geology, whose work relies on an understanding of the physical environment and the way it is changing as a result of climate change, engineering and other influences.
In this thoughtful and original book, social scientist Olivier Godard considers the ways in which arguments of justice cling to international efforts to address global climate change. Proposals made by governments, experts and NGOs as well as concepts and arguments born of moral and political philosophy are introduced and critically examined. Godard contributes to this important debate by showing why global climate justice is still controversial, despite it being a key issue of our times. Godard first points out the huge differences between the foundations of conflicting proposals, for instance between a cosmopolitan viewpoint and an international one. He then explores controversies over climate justice proposals and provides a rigorous criticism of those based on historical responsibility. Finally, he demonstrates how issues of justice are reconfigured by instrumental regimes of coordination, such as a global carbon market. Inspired by the French school of justification, this book shines an insightful light on the failure of climate change debates to develop a convincing standard moral and political theory. Including elements from systems theory, economics and law, this book will be of interest to scholars and students of moral and political philosophy, economics and social sciences, as well as experts working on climate negotiations and concerned stakeholders.
"A literary work with a life all its own, and without
exaggeration, it is a masterpiece. . . . Far from being a simple
narrative, the book discusses the incredible contribution each tree
makes to the planet, where and how to plant them, and what
environment they are most complementary to."
"In prose as rich as the forest itself, Diana Beresford-Kroeger
sees trees for all their attributes---as providers of clean air,
clean water, food, shelter, and beauty---and places them squarely
at the center of a complex web of nature that is crucial to all
species including man."
Nothing on earth compares to the Boreal forest to maintain life on this planet. The vast primeval forest stretches across the northern regions of the world, from northern Canada and Alaska to northern Europe, Russia, China, and Japan. Boreal species can be found in cooler temperate climates everywhere, including Michigan and other cool areas of the United States, and some outliers are even found in the tropics. The circumpolar runoff from the Boreal enriches the seas with nutrients in the spring. The evergreens of the Boreal act as a passive ground coolant. And the needles of the evergreens and the trichomal hairs of the deciduous trees comb the air free of harmful minute particulate pollution.
"Arboretum Borealis" does for the northern forests of the world what Arboretum America did for the forests of North America. Diana Beresford-Kroeger further describes how each Boreal tree group relates to its natural environment and how these specific trees can be used to promote health or to counteract the effects of pollution and global warming.
"Arboretum Borealis" reveals the fascinating history of these trees in Native American culture, including their medicinal uses. Finally, Beresford-Kroeger offers practical design ideas and tips---where to plant these trees, what season they look best in, and what native plants complement them.
Diana Beresford-Kroeger is a botanist; medical and agricultural researcher; lecturer; and self-defined "renegade scientist" in the fields of classical botany, medical biochemistry, organic chemistry, and nuclear chemistry. She is the author of "Arboretum America" and lives in Ontario, Canada.
Cover image by Christian H. Kroeger
From soil degradation and biodiversity loss to the coexistence of malnutrition and obesity, many of the largest challenges facing humanity today are underpinned by food and agriculture systems. In order to alleviate and resolve them, global governance of food and agriculture needs to be reformed. Unravelling the array of international regulatory instruments, this timely book provides the first systematic analysis of the international law surrounding food systems. International Agricultural Law and Policy provides a systems-based analysis of the rules that intersect with the physical elements of agriculture against a framework of commonly held norms. The author conducts a comprehensive examination not only of the rules, but also the implementation and broader socioeconomic, scientific and political context. By, exploring and clarifying the relationship between food security and the right to food and sustainability, Johnson closes the gap between the disparate international rules that govern food and agriculture, while exploring the practical implications of these overlapping regimes. This unique book is an invaluable resource for lawyers and social scientists working within food and agriculture systems and their governance and lays the much-needed groundwork for future research. For policy makers in the food and agricultural space, this book provides a wide-ranging and innovative analysis of the global regulatory landscape that influences law and policy processes.
Philippe Sands has extensively revised this leading textbook to include all new developments since 1994, including all the international case-law (ICJ, ITLOS, WTO, human rights etc.) and new international legislation (genetically modified organisms, the Kyoto Protocol, oil pollution, chemicals etc.). It is the most comprehensive account of the principles and rules relating to the protection of the environment and the conservation of natural resources. It incorporates all the key material from the 1992 Rio Declaration and subsequent developments. Topics include: the legal and institutional framework; the field's historic development; standards for general application in addition to the protection of the atmosphere, oceans etc.; the techniques available for implementation such as the environmental impact assessment and liability/compensation for environmental damage. It will be used on its own as an academic course text, as well as a reference text for practitioners.
What happens when a radically-new fuel or technology transforms the energy system? How does the energy system evolve at different stages of economic development? What are the implications for people's lives and their environment? Building on an award-winning article, in this exciting book Roger Fouquet investigates the impacts of technological innovations and economic development over the last seven hundred years on our ability to provide heat, power, transport and light. Using a unique data set, collected over a decade, the analysis identifies the forces driving revolutions in energy services. It highlights the tendency of markets to produce ever-cheaper energy services, which in turn incite greater energy consumption. It also examines how these revolutions affect people's well-being and the environment. The framework, analysis and insights in this book offer an original perspective on future energy markets, transitions to low-carbon economies and strategies for addressing climate change. Heat, Power and Light is an invaluable and unique contribution to this profoundly important topic. As such it will appeal to a wide audience of energy economists, climate change analysts, policymakers, economic and technology historians and economists more broadly.
In this innovative book, Clement Tisdell adopts a holistic approach, combining economic, social, biophysical and historical considerations to analyse the economic origins of major contemporary environmental problems, especially those associated with climate change. The ability of humankind to respond effectively to these problems is assessed in a unique and lucid fashion. The depth and nature of social embedding is identified as the major (but not the only) barrier to dealing with human-induced environmental change. In a thought-provoking manner, the book provides discussions of: the relationships between the nature of economic development, social and environmental change; the limited policy guidance provided by debates about the desirability of sustainable development; the shortcomings of economic criteria for valuing environmental and social change; and social embedding as the prime impediment to humanity responding adequately to many of its current environmental problems. Given its interdisciplinary nature, this book will appeal to economists, sociologists, geographers, social historians and political scientists alike. Natural scientists who are interested in socio-economic aspects of environmental change will also find this a captivating read.
Bringing together scholars from across the globe, this timely book astutely untangles the climate-food web and critically explores the nexus between climate change, agriculture and law, upon which food security and climate resilient development depends. Focusing through the lens of various domestic and international legal systems, this book addresses conceptual notions such as 'systems thinking' and climate change governance, as well as practical matters such as payments for ecosystem services and government subsidies for biofuels. Concerning itself with the vulnerability and resilience of both people and agro-ecosystems, it shows how climate action can yield high returns for agriculture as the primary source of economic activity for poor populations. Far reaching, this book also explores under-researched areas, including the linkages between invasive species law, climate change and agricultural law and the underlying dynamics of agroecosystem vulnerability. Assessing the strengths and weaknesses in existing agricultural laws and policies, it assesses new and innovative tools for addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation in the agricultural sector, before laying out a future research agenda. Scholars in the fields of climate change law, land use and agricultural law will find this key publication essential reading, as will practitioners desiring a deeper understanding of the agriculture and climate change nexus.
Partnered with summer's Space-themed edition, Issue 6 sees us dive into more terrestrial matters. The magazine's array of poetry, fiction and non-fiction takes us on global adventures, offers recipes to create minerals, and questions the yearning to consume handfuls of soil. The immensity of ecological crisis is set against our perceived futility in the face of it. The surprising life wisdom of old city-building computer games is revealed. A town is plagued by seven days of torrential rain while, elsewhere, we sit witness to the domestic rivalry simmering between two planets. Oh, and we share a Scots tale of the zombie apocalypse, for good measure. Amanda Palmer opens up about the conflict of being an environmentally aware musician. We talk with Salena Godden about what it means to be a poet activist. Karine Polwart describes the importance of land and environment to her art. Meanwhile, Anna McNuff reflects on her attempt to run 100 barefoot marathons.
Cities are no longer just places to live in. They are significant actors on the global stage, and nowhere is this trend more prominent than in the world of transnational climate change governance (TCCG). Through transnational networks that form links between cities, states, international organizations, corporations, and civil society, cities are developing and implementing norms, practices, and voluntary standards across national boundaries. In introducing cities as transnational lawmakers, Jolene Lin provides an exciting new perspective on climate change law and policy, offering novel insights about the reconfiguration of the state and the nature of international lawmaking as the involvement of cities in TCCG blurs the public/private divide and the traditional strictures of 'domestic' versus 'international'. This illuminating book should be read by anyone interested in understanding how cities - in many cases, more than the countries in which they're located - are addressing the causes and consequences of climate change.
Phoenix, Arizona is one of America's fastest growing metropolitan regions. It is also its least sustainable one, sprawling over a thousand square miles, with a population of four and a half million, minimal rainfall, scorching heat, and an insatiable appetite for unrestrained growth and unrestricted property rights. In Bird on Fire, eminent social and cultural analyst Andrew Ross focuses on the prospects for sustainability in Phoenix-a city in the bull's eye of global warming-and also the obstacles that stand in the way. Most authors writing on sustainable cities look at places like Portland, Seattle, and New York that have excellent public transit systems and relatively high density. But Ross contends that if we can't change the game in fast-growing, low-density cities like Phoenix, the whole movement has a major problem. Drawing on interviews with 200 influential residents-from state legislators, urban planners, developers, and green business advocates to civil rights champions, energy lobbyists, solar entrepreneurs, and community activists-Ross argues that if Phoenix is ever to become sustainable, it will occur more through political and social change than through technological fixes. Ross explains how Arizona's increasingly xenophobic immigration laws, science-denying legislature, and growth-at-all-costs business ethic have perpetuated social injustice and environmental degradation. But he also highlights the positive changes happening in Phoenix, in particular the Gila River Indian Community's successful struggle to win back its water rights, potentially shifting resources away from new housing developments to producing healthy local food for the people of the Phoenix Basin. Ross argues that this victory may serve as a new model for how green democracy can work, redressing the claims of those who have been aggrieved in a way that creates long-term benefits for all. Bird on Fire offers a compelling take on one of the pressing issues of our time-finding pathways to sustainability at a time when governments are dismally failing their responsibility to address climate change.
Ten years after the publication of the first edition of this influential book, the evidence is even stronger that human economies are overwhelming the regenerative capacity of the planet. This book explains why long-term economic growth is infeasible, and why, especially in advanced economies, it is also undesirable. Simulations based on real data show that managing without growth is a better alternative. The book tells how the recent idea of economic growth emerged from the idea of progress, itself only a few hundred years old. Many reasons for questioning growth are given based on an extensive review of the data as well as on conceptual and methodological considerations. The experience of growth in several countries is documented, compared and found wanting. Possibilities for managing without growth in high income economies are simulated with a new, comprehensive systems model with many novel features. Three 50 year scenarios are compared: a base case, an ambitious greenhouse gas reduction scenario, and a sustainable prosperity scenario with broader environmental objectives, reduced income inequality, shorter working hours and the cessation of economic growth. The book closes with a review of policies to make this scenario a reality. This updated book is a valuable resource for a broad academic audience, including students and researchers in economics, environmental studies, environmental science, business studies, and geography, as well as social justice groups and NGOs concerned with the environment, inequality and employment.
Corporate social responsibility now touches upon most aspects of the interaction between business and society. The approaches taken to research in this area are as varied as the topics that are researched; yet this is the first book to address the whole range of methods available. This Handbook identifies the existing methods, evaluates their use and discusses the circumstances in which they might be appropriate. The design of a research project is an essential part of undertaking research, as is choosing appropriate methods for investigation and analysis. In addition, business and management research raises theoretical and practical problems that are not encountered in other fields. The chapters address this challenge over distinct parts. Part I on methodology planning is concerned with various aspects of planning the research project, including secondary data and ethics in the research process. Parts II and III outline quantitative and qualitative methods respectively, covering the vast majority of relevant approaches. Part IV provides forward-thinking guidance from experienced academics on the future directions of research in this area. Aimed specifically at researchers, this comprehensive and in-depth Handbook provides an essential resource for anyone working at the forefront of corporate social responsibility research.
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