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This book is a ready reference on recent innovations in dryland agriculture and reinforces the understanding for its utilization to develop environmentally sustainable and profitable food production systems. It covers the basic concepts and history, components and elements, breeding and modelling efforts, and potential benefits, experiences, challenges and innovations relevant to agriculture in dryland areas around world.
This thoroughly revised Handbook provides an assessment of the scope and content of environmental sociology, and sets out the intellectual and practical challenges posed by the urgent need for policy and action to address accelerating environmental change. More than a decade has passed since the first edition of the Handbook was published to considerable acclaim, and environmental sociology has since become firmly established as a critical social science discipline. This second edition is a major interdisciplinary reference work comprising more than 25 original essays authored by leading scholars, many of whom are intimately involved in national, regional or global environmental policy processes. It marks some of the changes and continuities in the field of environmental sociology, and highlights today's substantive concerns and theoretical debates. The Handbook is divided into three parts covering concepts and theories, critical issues and international perspectives, each with an introduction outlining the content of the constituent chapters and cross-referencing some of the more significant themes that link them together. Authoritative and comprehensive, this Handbook will prove to be essential reading for academics, researchers and students across the social sciences who are interested in the environment. It will also be enthusiastically received by sustainable development policy-makers and practitioners.
As our closest primate relatives, chimpanzees offer tantalizing clues about the behavior of early human ancestors. This book provides a rich and detailed portrait of chimpanzee social life in the wild, synthesizing hundreds of thousands of hours of research at seven long-term field sites. Why are the social lives of males and females so different? Why do groups of males sometimes seek out and kill neighboring individuals? Do chimpanzees cooperate when they hunt monkeys? Is their vocal behaviour like human speech? Are there different chimpanzee 'cultures'? Addressing these questions and more, Adam Arcadi presents a fascinating introduction to the chimpanzee social universe and the challenges we face in trying to save this species from extinction. With extensive notes organized by field site and an appendix describing field methods, this book is indispensable for students, researchers, and anyone else interested in the remarkable and complex world of these intelligent apes.
Widespread across open lands and cities of Europe, Africa, and Asia, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is one of the most abundant and studied birds of prey. This book brings together and synthesises the results of research on kestrels for professional ornithologists and scientists that seek to consolidate a vast body of literature. It is also a reference for those readers who may not have the depth of scientific knowledge to navigate new fields of scientific enquiry. It examines many aspects of the species' biology, from the reproductive strategies to the behavioural and demographic adaptations to changes of environmental conditions. It also discusses the roles of physiology and immunology in mediating the adaptability of kestrels to the ongoing environmental changes with a particular focus on contaminants. This volume presents new and exciting avenues of research on the ecology and behaviour of the common kestrel.
This practical guide to animal tracking is a one-of-its-kind manual, based on information developed with the help of southern Africa’s few remaining traditional trackers and their centuries-old wisdom in the field.
It presents the more concrete and obvious wildlife signs for some 160 animals and teams them with a host of seemingly unrelated details to give a comprehensive picture of recent – and not-so-recent – traffic through the bush.
Simple, bulleted text guides readers through the key points and teaches the broad-based observational skills required to detect and interpret messages; multiple photographs, some annotated, along with accurate track drawings for all the animals, offer a clear visual guide too.
Rich in detail, accurate, and with an instructive introduction, this guide to the region’s animal tracks and signs is every tracker’s go-to manual.
The Research Handbook on Emissions Trading examines the origins, implementation challenges and international dimensions of emissions trading. It pursues an interdisciplinary approach drawing upon law, economics and, at times, political science, to present relevant research strands in a clear and multifaceted way. Its comprehensive mix of theoretical analysis and experiences from existing trading systems offers insights that can be applied around the world. The expert contributors bring together views from different disciplinary and geographic perspectives. This multifaceted examination of economic and legal origins, implementation problems and the emerging international aspect of emissions trading identifies key bodies of research for both upcoming and seasoned academics in the field and highlights future research opportunities. Its broad and accessible approach touches on climate law, environmental law and environmental governance. This Research Handbook will appeal strongly to academics and postgraduate students, as well as providing valuable insights for regulators, government officials and practitioners who are involved in emissions trading.
The interaction between climate change and trade has grown in prominence in recent years. This Research Handbook contains authoritative original contributions from leading experts working at the interface between climate change and trade rules. Regional as well as international perspectives are taken into account to inform the complex questions that arise and redirect research efforts towards newly emerging issues The Research Handbook on Climate Change and Trade Law discusses some of the most important challenges regarding conflicting interests at the intersection of trade, climate change and investment. The insightful chapters map from both regional and global perspectives the state of affairs in such diverse areas as: carbon credits and taxes, sustainable standard-setting, and trade in 'green' goods and services. This timely book redefines the interrelationship of trade and climate change for future scholarship and offers specific suggestions for much-needed research in topics such as energy, carbon taxes and credits, food, standardization, and investment. This Research Handbook will be essential reading for researchers and advanced students in international trade and investment law. It will also be an invaluable resource for practitioners and policymakers in this dynamic and highly significant area of law.
The book presents the current state and good practices of national forest inventories in monitoring wood resources and demonstrates pathways for harmonisation and improved common reporting. Beyond a general overview over availability and use of wood resources in different countries, it provides a unique collection of original contributions from national forest inventory experts with in-depth descriptions of current NFI methods in assessing wood availability and wood use in European countries, and selected countries from America and Asia.The main topics are national definitions and improvements in common reporting of forests available for wood supply, stem quality and assortments, estimation of change including growth and drain, and tree resources outside forest land. The book is a must-have for everyone who is contributing to national forest inventories either methodologically or operatively, for people who want or need to understand national forest inventory provided data and information on the availability of wood resources. By providing profound knowledge it is a valuable basis for scientists involved in scenario modelling and analysing effects of climate change, as well as individuals in private organisations and public administrations promoting the sustainable use of natural resources and the potential of green economy.
The main focus of this book is to survey the current status of research, development and use of agriculturally important microorganisms in Asian countries and develop a strategy for addressing critical issues various policy constraints due to which bio-pesticides have found limited applications. In this book the editors have tried to develop a consensus on issues of such as quality requirements, quality control, regulatory management, commercialization and marketing of agriculturally important microorganisms in Asian countries. All these issues are discussed at national level by competent authorities of Asian countries including India, China, Malaysia, Iran, Taiwan, Israel, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Philippines.
As the importance of corporate social responsibility grows, especially environmental responsibility, it is imperative to acknowledge the impact of the individual on a company's environmental performance. Given that individuals spend much of their day in the workplace, it is crucial to understand both their behaviours and the potential impact they can have on the company's environmental performance and the environment. Bringing together leading academics from various research fields, this Handbook examines the features and challenges within the area of employee pro-environmental behaviour. The Research Handbook on Employee Pro-Environmental Behaviour brings contributions that consolidate existing research in the field as well as adding new insights from organisational psychology, human resource management and social marketing. Drawing on studies from across the methodological spectrum, this Handbook covers a broad range of topics from the antecedents and consequences of employee pro-environmental behaviour to ways in which employers can encourage pro-environmental behaviour. This Handbook will be an invaluable tool for those engaged in research in employee environmental behaviour and sustainability. It will be especially useful for postgraduate students of environmental employee behaviour as well as environmental consultants and practitioners seeking to gain an understanding of employee behaviour.
The provision of sustainable energy supplies for an expanding and increasingly productive world is one of the major issues facing civilisation today. Renewable Energy examines both the practical and economic potential of the renewable energy sources to meet this challenge. The underlying physical and technological principles behind deriving power from direct solar (solar thermal and photovoltaics), indirect solar (biomass, hydro, wind and wave) and non-solar (tidal and geothermal) energy sources are explained, within the context of their environmental impacts, their economics and their future prospects. Renewable Energy provides both perspective and detail on the relative merits and state of progress of technologies for utilizing the various 'renewables'. The analysis considers emissions, sustainability, cost implications and energy security, as political and economic pressures move society towards a low-carbon future. From an overview of basic energy conversion processes, through a discussion of the individual renewable sources, to a concluding examination of the prospects for their integration into national and international networks and the outlook for renewable energy, this book provides a valuable insight into prospects for the renewables. Online resources Renewable Energy is accompanied by online resources which include: For students: * Auto- marked multiple choice questions to accompany each chapter * Curated links to further information and up-to-date energy statistics. For registered adopters of the book: * Figures from the book: available to download for use in lectures
This book provides detailed yet easily understandable information about sustainable energy alternatives in the context of growing public concern about climate change, the impending fuel crisis and environmental degradation. It deals with the history of energy use and the factors that have led to the current interest in energy alternatives, and assesses the chance of renewable energy replacing fossil fuels in the future. The authors manage to make a highly complex and often intimidating subject not only accessible but also engaging and entertaining. This book unpacks but never simplifies the science of energy, leavening the more technical passages with anecdotes, metaphors, examples and imagery. By also dealing with the history, politics and economics of energy use, it offers both scientific and non-scientific readers a deeper understanding of the most important issue of our age.
This book showcases a compilation of case studies presented by scientists, teachers and academics and covers contemporary technologies for combating climate change, including sustainable agricultural management practices and conservation agriculture. It highlights the situations that future generations in the Indian Himalayas will face, and addresses the major challenges for tomorrow's generations in their efforts to ensure sufficient food production for the global population. It also sheds light on the factors that are routinely ignored in connection with agricultural management practices for sustainable food production and risk assessment. Lastly, it illustrates the need to develop a comprehensive master plan for strategic planning, including conservation agriculture practices that address poverty and food security in the wake of climate change impacts.
The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook expands on the first edition to include advances made in the last four decades, bringing the topic completely up to date. The book addresses critical issues such as whether humanity can feed itself, and whether it can do so in environmentally sound and sustainable ways. Written from agronomic, environmental, and ecological standpoints, the textbook employs a multidisciplinary approach, including policymaking and plant genetic improvements, as well as ecosystem services, climate change, biodiversity, sustainability and resilience. New chapters in this second edition focus on organic carbon in soil, soil biology, soils in relation to livestock production and forestry, and agroforestry. The new edition will again be the go-to textbook for courses on tropical soils, and a reference textbook for soil and agricultural scientists and development professionals working in the tropics.
Historical ecology is a research framework which draws upon diverse evidence to trace complex, long-term relationships between humanity and Earth. With roots in anthropology, archaeology, ecology and paleoecology, geography, and landscape and heritage management, historical ecology applies a practical and holistic perspective to the study of change. Furthermore, it plays an important role in both fundamental research and in developing future strategies for integrated, equitable landscape management. The framework presented in this volume covers critical issues, including: practicing transdisciplinarity, the need for understanding interactions between human societies and ecosystem processes, the future of regions and the role of history and memory in a changing world. Including many examples of co-developed research, Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology provides a platform for collaboration across disciplines and aims to equip researchers, policy-makers, funders, and communities to make decisions that can help to construct an inclusive and resilient future for humanity.
This book reports on the objectives, methods used and difficulties faced by the RAVE research projects, and presents the results and their significance for the future use of offshore wind energy in a style that is understandable for everyone. Readers are given a comprehensive overview of the current status of offshore wind energy research and the results of the research activities. Offshore wind energy will play a significant role in our future energy supply, yet this development has really only just begun. A large team of experts from the fields of research, industry, public administration and government therefore set themselves the goal of investigating the current and fundamental issues relating to the use of offshore wind energy. They worked on interdisciplinary research projects with the aim of expanding our knowledge and finding application-oriented solutions. Their work has contributed to establishing offshore wind energy as a reliable, sustainable and economical long term source of energy.
Exam Board: IB Level: Standard level Subject: Environmental Systems & Societies First Teaching: September 2015 First Exam: Summer 2017 Stretch your students to achieve their best grade with these year round course companions; providing clear and concise explanations of all syllabus requirements and topics, and practice questions to support and strengthen learning. - Consolidate revision and support learning with a range of exam practice questions and concise and accessible revision notes - Practise exam technique with tips and trusted guidance from examiners on how to tackle questions - Focus revision with key terms and definitions listed for each topic/sub topic
A naturalist on Montana's academic frontier, passionate conservationist Morton J. Elrod was instrumental in establishing the Department of Biology at the University of Montana, as well as Glacier National Park and the National Bison Range. In Montana's Pioneer Naturalist, the first in-depth assessment of Elrod's career, George M. Dennison reveals how one man helped to shape the scholarly study of nature and its institutionalization in the West at the turn of the century. Elrod moved to Missoula in 1897, just four years after the state university's founding, and participated in virtually every aspect of university life for almost forty years. To reveal the depths of this pioneer scientist's influence on the growth of his university, his state, and the academic fields he worked in, author George M. Dennison delves into state and university archives, including Elrod's personal papers. Although Elrod was an active participant in bison conservation and the growth of the National Park Naturalist Service, much of his work focused on Flathead Lake, where he surveyed local life forms and initiated the university's biological station - one of the first of its kind in the United States. Yet at heart Elrod was an educator who desired to foster in his students a ""love of nature,"" which, he said, ""should give health to any one, and supply knowledge of greatest value, either to the individual or to society, or to both."" In this biography of a prominent scientist now almost forgotten, Dennison - longtime president of the University of Montana - demonstrates how Elrod's scholarship and philosophy regarding science and nature made him one of Montana's most distinguished naturalists, conservationists, and educators.
Water is an essential resource for mankind, yet many countries around the world are currently facing mounting freshwater management challenges, with climate change and new regional imbalances threatening to aggravate this situation further. This timely book offers a unique interdisciplinary inquiry into the issues and challenges water regulation will face in the coming years. The book brings together economists, political scientists, geographers, and legal scholars to offer a number of proposals for the future of water regulation. The contributions in this book are grouped around specific themes. In the Part I, the contributions address the challenges which water poses to public international law. In Part II, the authors explore the most pressing ethical, legal, and social issues. Finally, the discussion in Part III covers the economic drivers shaping the future of water. This discerning book covers all of the primary actors in the water world, including governments, companies, international organizations, and citizens. With an original introduction by the editor and bringing a diverse collection of perspectives into a single collection, the book will be an essential resource for scholars and practitioners in legal and policy fields such as trade and investment, human rights and the environment, as well as in international relations.
Before the drought of the early twenty-first century, the dry benchmark in the American plains was the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. But in this eye-opening work, Kevin Z. Sweeney reveals that the Dust Bowl was only one cycle in a series of droughts on the U.S. southern plains. Reinterpreting our nation's nineteenth-century history through paleoclimatological data and firsthand accounts of four dry periods in the 1800s, Prelude to the Dust Bowl demonstrates the dramatic and little-known role drought played in settlement, migration, and war on the plains. Stephen H. Long's famed military expedition coincided with the drought of the 1820s, which prompted Long to label the southern plains a ""Great American Desert"" - a destination many Anglo-Americans thought ideal for removing Southeastern Indian tribes to in the 1830s. The second dry trend, from 1854 to 1865, drove bison herds northeastward, fomenting tribal warfare, and deprived Civil War armies in Indian Territory of vital commissary. In the late 1880s and mid-1890s, two more periods of drought triggered massive outmigration from the southern plains as well as appeals from farmers and congressmen for federal famine relief, pleas quickly denied by President Grover Cleveland. Sweeney's interpretation of familiar events through the lens of drought lays the groundwork for understanding why the U.S. government's reaction to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s was such a radical departure from previous federal responses. Prelude to the Dust Bowl provides new insights into pivotal moments in the settlement of the southern plains and stands as a timely reminder that drought, as part of a natural climatic cycle, will continue to figure in the unfolding history of this region.
We live in a complex and dynamic world. Understanding how to monitor, manage and conserve species and habitats - the goal of applied ecology - is of ever-increasing importance. Applied Ecology shows students how an understanding of ecological theory can be used to address the most important issues facing ecologists today. Its explicitly problem-solving approach reflects the reality of using ecological tools and approaches in applied contexts, while also highlighting the key ecological theories that underpin those applications to make the link between theory and practice clear. With an emphasis throughout on the realities of applying ecological theory, the book features interviews with a range of leading applied ecologists, and over 30 case studies to give students a clear sense of contemporary applied ecology in action. In addition, over 20 Hot Topic panels capture issues and approaches at the forefront of current practice. Online Resource Centre: The Online Resource Centre to accompany Applied Ecology features: For students: - Twelve bonus case studies to augment those featured in the book - Extended versions of the Interviews with Applied Ecologists that appear in the book For lecturers: - Problem-solving activities for use in a workshop, seminar, or tutorial setting - Figures from the book in digital format, for use in lecture presentations
For introductory-level, undergraduate courses in natural resource conservation, natural resource management, environmental science, and environmental conservation. This comprehensive text describes the ecological principles, policies, and practices required to create a sustainable future. It emphasizes practical, cost-effective, sustainable solutions to these problems that make sense from social, economic, and environmental perspectives.
This book is a comprehensive volume dealing with climate change impacts on agriculture, and which can help guide the redesign of agricultural management and cropping systems. It includes mitigation techniques such as use of bioenergy crops, fertilizer and manure management, conservation tillage, crop rotations, cover crops and cropping intensity, irrigation, erosion control, management of drained wetlands, lime amendments, residue management, biochar and biotechnology. It also includes Management of GHG emissions Crop models as decision support tools QTL analysis Crop water productivity Impacts of drought on cereal crops Silvopastoral systems Changing climate impact on wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia Phosphorous dynamics under changing climate Role of bioinformatics The focus of the book is climate change mitigation to enhance sustainability in agriculture. We present various kinds of mitigation options, ways to minimize GHG emissions and better use of the latest techniques in conservation and environmental-sustainability.
Since the thirteenth century, quay walls of significant retaining height have been built in the Netherlands in urban environments. Over time, structural revisions were often carried out due to excessive deformations or the use of increasingly larger and deeper vessels. These historic quay walls were seldom designed for the current functional requirements they are subjected to. These mostly older quay walls require more maintenance and revisions to secure a certain degree of safety. In some cases they need to be demolished and completely rebuilt. Urban Quay Walls offers safety protocols and a clear approach on how to inspect, design and maintain urban quay walls. The book offers: - an insight on the development of urban quay walls; - a description of the main forms (as used in The Netherlands); - quicksteps for the inspection of existing quay walls. Urban Quay Walls presents a proposal for a uniform and standardised method to verify the actual state of current quay walls in urban environments. This handbook presents an overview of the development of urban quay walls over the course of time and describes the main types in use in the Netherlands. Subsequently, a method is presented for deciding whether or not a historic quay wall needs to be renovated, renewed or maintained.
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