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This book intensively covers a never-before-explored aspect of Southern African nature and is an essential new addition to the library of every nature lover. It was researched and written over the last four and a half years to open a door to a little known micro-world that exists all around us. Invertebrates – which include commonly seen creatures such as butterflies, spiders, beetles, worms and scorpions – are everywhere. The signs of their day-to-day activities are all around us if we know where to look.
The life cycles and behaviours of many animals are discussed, with a special focus on interactions between mammals and invertebrates – a fascinating subject in itself.
While working on this book, Lee Gutteridge spent many hours in the field with expert entomologists and arachnologists, many of whom commented that; even though they had spent a lifetime in the field, this experience, of invertebrate tracking, had changed the way that they see the invertebrate world.
With funding received from the Oppenheimer family, 250 copies will be donated to indigenous trackers, whose knowledge Lee appreciates and respects.
Explore ecology in this accessible introduction to how the natural world works and how we have started to understand the environment, ecosystems, and climate change. Using a bold, graphic-led approach, The Ecology Book explores and explains over 85 of the key ideas, movements, and acts that have defined ecology and ecological thought. The book has a simple chronological structure, with early chapters ranging from the ideas of classical thinkers through to attempts by Enlightenment thinkers to systematically order the natural world. Later chapters trace the evolution of modern thinking, from the ideas of Thomas Malthus, Henry Thoreau, and others, right the way through to the political and scientific developments of the modern era, including the birth of the environmental movement and the Paris Agreement. The ideal introduction to one of the most important subjects of our time.
A remarkable look at the rarest butterflies, how global changes threaten their existence, and how we can bring them back from near-extinction Most of us have heard of such popular butterflies as the Monarch or Painted Lady. But what about the Fender (TM)s Blue? Or the St. Francis (TM) Satyr? Because of their extreme rarity, these butterflies are not well-known, yet they are remarkable species with important lessons to teach us. The Last Butterflies spotlights the rarest of these creatures "some numbering no more than what can be held in one hand. Drawing from his own first-hand experiences, Nick Haddad explores the challenges of tracking these vanishing butterflies, why they are disappearing, and why they are worth saving. He also provides startling insights into the effects of human activity and environmental change on the planet (TM)s biodiversity. Weaving a vivid and personal narrative with ideas from ecology and conservation, Haddad illustrates the race against time to reverse the decline of six butterfly species. Many scientists mistakenly assume we fully understand butterflies (TM) natural histories. Yet, as with the Large Blue in England, we too often know too little and the conservation consequences are dire. Haddad argues that a hands-off approach is not effective and that in many instances, like for the Fender (TM)s Blue and Bay Checkerspot, active and aggressive management is necessary. With deliberate conservation, rare butterflies can coexist with people, inhabit urban fringes, and, in the case of the St. Francis (TM) Satyr, even reside on bomb ranges and military land. Haddad shows that through the efforts to protect and restore butterflies, we might learn how to successfully confront conservation issues for all animals and plants. A moving account of extinction, recovery, and hope, The Last Butterflies demonstrates the great value of these beautiful insects to science, conservation, and people.
The crucial importance of biodiversity law to future human welfare is only now being fully appreciated. This wide-ranging Handbook presents a range of perspectives from leading international experts reflecting up-to-date research thinking on the vital subject of biodiversity and its interaction with law. Through a rigorous examination of the principles, procedures and practices that characterise this area of law, this timely volume effectively highlights its objectives, implementation, achievements, and prospects. More specifically, the work addresses the regulatory challenges posed by the principal contemporary threats to biological diversity, the applicable general principles of international environmental law and the visions, values and voices that are shaping the development of the law. Presenting thematic rather than regime-based coverage, the editors demonstrate the state-of-the-art of current research and identify future research needs and directions. This comprehensive and authoritative Handbook will be an indispensable resource for legal scholars, students and practitioners alike.
The stock of the world's biological diversity and the state of its ecosystems are major determinants of the availability of commodities, both essential and desirable, for human life. This leading-edge study provides an overarching and balanced approach to the economics of biological conservation; considering man made and natural components, and their interdependence. Recognising the deficiencies of many contemporary studies, which focus almost entirely on natural capital, Clement Tisdell utilizes the concept of heritage biological capital, including germplasm, as part of his analysis of changes in the stock of biological capital. This comprehensive synthesis casts doubt upon some propositions and policies for resource conservation recommended by eminent ecologists in areas such as GM crops and livestock husbandry as well as agroecosystems and the concept of sustainable agricultural intensification. The propositions presented are lent strength by the author's decision to relate his analysis to pertinent contemporary institutional developments and scientific advances. The broad scope and rational scepticism with which this book has been compiled make it an ideal read for economists interested in ecological and environmental economics, natural scientists with an interest in biodiversity conservation and higher level policy makers in ecological and environmental fields.
Agriculture as a social-ecological system embraces many disciplines. This book breaks through the silos of individual disciplines to bring ecologists and economists together to consider agriculture through the lens of resilience. It explores the economic, environmental and social uncertainties that influence the behaviour of agricultural producers and their subsequent farming approach, highlighting the importance of adaptability, innovation and capital reserves in enabling agriculture to persist under climate change and market volatility. The resilience concept and its relation to complexity theory is explained and the characteristics that foster resilience in agricultural systems, including the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are explored. The book discusses modelling tools, metrics and approaches for assessing agricultural resilience, highlighting areas where interdisciplinary thinking can enhance the development of resilience. It is suitable for those researching sustainable agriculture or those engaged in agricultural policy decisions and analysis, as well as students of ecology, agriculture and socioeconomics.
This timely book considers appropriate legal practices to use to promote conservation, protection and sustainable use of biological diversity in forest and marine areas. The breadth of issues explored across these two themes is immense, and the book identifies both key differences, and striking commonalities between them. Law-makers, managers and users often have little understanding of either the complexity or the true value of biological diversity and of what is needed to preserve forest and marine ecosystems, and to keep inter-relationships between species within them healthy. Regulators face significant and practical challenges, requiring the adoption of legal frameworks in the context of scientific uncertainty. This book provides critical and comparative reflections on the role of law in both of these biodiversity contexts. Key issues not previously addressed through the law are considered - for example, the lack of international governance of peat; and the moral problem of labelling certain species as `alien' or `invasive'. Learned contributors draw valuable lessons for those seeking to protect biodiversity and understand its governance, from analysis of experiences gained forging international and national legal frameworks. With a blend of local and global perspectives, across a wide range of countries and policies, the book will appeal to academics and students in law, international, regional and domestic policymakers, lawmakers, NGOs and conservation agencies.
Winner of the 2018 James M. Blaut Award in recognition of innovative scholarship in cultural and political ecology! Enterprising Nature explores the rise of economic rationality in global biodiversity law, policy and science. To view Jessica's animation based on the book's themes please visit http: //www.bioeconomies.org/enterprising-nature/ Examines disciplinary apparatuses, ecological-economic methodologies, computer models, business alliances, and regulatory conditions creating the conditions in which nature can be produced as enterprising Relates lively, firsthand accounts of global processes at work drawn from multi-site research in Nairobi, Kenya; London, England; and Nagoya, Japan Assesses the scientific, technical, geopolitical, economic, and ethical challenges found in attempts to 'enterprise nature' Investigates the implications of this 'will to enterprise' for environmental politics and policy
Himalaya, one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is the abode of a variety of flora and fauna. The Himalayan ecosystems have immense ecological, socioeconomic, and aesthetic significance as they provide a wide range of ecosystem services. The northwest Himalaya (NWH), covering three states of India viz., Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir, starts from the foothills of Shivaliks in the south and extends to the greater Himalaya in the north. This region is also the source of some of the major rivers of India. With the increase in population, the NWH ecosystems have been under threat due to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, expansion of agriculture and settlement, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, mining, construction of roads and large dams, and unplanned tourism. The Himalaya being young and geotectonically active, remains inherently unstable, fragile, and prone to natural disasters. Climate change is also likely to impact the Himalayan cryosphere drastically. Recognizing the importance of the Himalaya, a National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, one of the eight missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) of Govt. of India, to conserve biodiversity, forest cover and other ecological values in the Himalayan region has been taken up. Spaceborne remote sensing with its ability to provide synoptic and repetitive coverage has emerged as a powerful tool for assessment and monitoring of the Himalayan resources and phenomena. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun has taken up a number of studies in the fields of geology, water resources, forestry, agriculture, urban settlement, etc., over the last decade. The book summarises the work carried out in different disciplines, illustrated with tables and figures and a host of relevant references. It is hoped that the book serves as an excellent reference of immense value to the students, researchers, professors, scientists, professionals, and decision makers working in the NWH region.
Ecologists, land managers and policymakers continue to search for the most effective ways to manage biological invasions. An emerging lesson is that proactive management can limit negative impacts, reduce risks and save money. This book explores how to detect and respond to alien plant incursions, summarising the most current literature, providing practical recommendations and reviewing the conditions and processes necessary to achieve prevention, eradication and containment. Chapter topics include assessing invasiveness and the impact of alien plants, how to improve surveillance efforts, how to make timely management decisions, and how legislation and strategic planning can support management. Each chapter includes text boxes written by international experts that discuss topical issues such as spatial predictive modelling, costing invasions, biosecurity, biofuels, and dealing with conflict species.
How does life work? How does nature produce the right numbers of zebras and lions on the African savanna, or fish in the ocean? How do our bodies produce the right numbers of cells in our organs and bloodstream? In The Serengeti Rules, award-winning biologist and author Sean Carroll tells the stories of the pioneering scientists who sought the answers to such simple yet profoundly important questions, and shows how their discoveries matter for our health and the health of the planet we depend upon. One of the most important revelations about the natural world is that everything is regulated--there are rules that regulate the amount of every molecule in our bodies and rules that govern the numbers of every animal and plant in the wild. And the most surprising revelation about the rules that regulate life at such different scales is that they are remarkably similar--there is a common underlying logic of life. Carroll recounts how our deep knowledge of the rules and logic of the human body has spurred the advent of revolutionary life-saving medicines, and makes the compelling case that it is now time to use the Serengeti Rules to heal our ailing planet. A bold and inspiring synthesis by one of our most accomplished biologists and gifted storytellers, The Serengeti Rules is the first book to illuminate how life works at vastly different scales. Read it and you will never look at the world the same way again.
This second part of Volume 48 of the Flora of Pan-Himalaya is devoted to the single genus, Saussurea of the Asteraceae family, which has wide medicinal applications. This is the largest family in the Pan-Himalaya, with 235 species, 149 of which are endemic to the Pan-Himalaya. Saussurea is a notoriously difficult, largely Asiatic, genus with often indistinct species boundaries. Many new species of Saussurea were described in the course of preparing this account. The nomenclatural novelties in this volume include five changes in status, and 17 new synonyms. 27 lectotypes are newly designated. During the research for this volume, the author and his team described 40 new species of Saussurea, and these, along with numerous new designations and classifications, are recorded here for the first time.
In this rich, wide-ranging, beautifully illustrated volume, Egbert Leigh explores the results of billions of years of evolution at work. Leigh, who has spent five decades on Panama's Barro Colorado Island reflecting on the organization of various amazingly diverse tropical ecosystems, now shows how selection on "selfish genes" gives rise to complex modes of cooperation and interdependence. With the help of such artists as the celebrated nature photographer Christian Ziegler, natural history illustrator Deborah Miriam Kaspari, and Damond Kyllo, Leigh explains basic concepts of evolutionary biology, ranging from life's single-celled beginnings to the complex societies humans have formed today. The book covers a range of topics, including adaptation, competition, mutualism, heredity, natural selection, sexual selection, genetics, and language. Leigh's reflections on evolution, competition, and cooperation show how the natural world becomes even more beautiful when viewed in the light of evolution.
The number of species found at a given point on the planet varies by orders of magnitude, yet large-scale gradients in biodiversity appear to follow some very general patterns. Little mechanistic theory has been formulated to explain the emergence of observed gradients of biodiversity both on land and in the oceans. Based on a comprehensive empirical synthesis of global patterns of species diversity and their drivers, A Theory of Global Biodiversity develops and applies a new theory that can predict such patterns from few underlying processes. The authors show that global patterns of biodiversity fall into four consistent categories, according to where species live: on land or in coastal, pelagic, and deep ocean habitats. The fact that most species groups, from bacteria to whales, appear to follow similar biogeographic patterns of richness within these habitats points toward some underlying structuring principles. Based on empirical analyses of environmental correlates across these habitats, the authors combine aspects of neutral, metabolic, and niche theory into one unifying framework. Applying it to model terrestrial and marine realms, the authors demonstrate that a relatively simple theory that incorporates temperature and community size as driving variables is able to explain divergent patterns of species richness at a global scale. Integrating ecological and evolutionary perspectives, A Theory of Global Biodiversity yields surprising insights into the fundamental mechanisms that shape the distribution of life on our planet.
Centring on South Africa's Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, this book synthesizes a century of insights from the ecology and conservation management of one of Africa's oldest protected wildlife areas. The park provides important lessons for conservation management, as it has maintained conservation values rivalling those of much larger parks sometimes through, and sometimes despite, strong management interventions, including the rescue of the white rhino from extinction. In addition, the book highlights the ecological science produced in the park, much of which has become widely influential, including the megaherbivore concept, new functional approaches to understanding biomes, and new understandings about the role of consumers in shaping ecosystems. The volume is ideal for researchers and policymakers interested in the conservation of relatively small, isolated and protected areas.
The Burren is one of those rare and magical places where geology, glacial history, botany, zoology and millennia of cultural history have converged to create a unique landscape of extraordinary natural history interest. It is without equal to any other area in Ireland or Britain. To the unsuspecting tourist, much of the landscape of the Burren looks bleak, rocky, and inhospitable for any sort of farming. Yet the Burren is an agricultural landscape that has been continuously farmed since the first settlers began clearing the forest cover in the Neolithic period. Today there are several hundred farms within the Burren area. Most of these families live and work there and the farmers are crucial for the Burren's future as an area of unique landscape and ecological interest. The area attracts any naturalist with an eye for beauty, but it is the intricacies of the species' ecology, their links to the soil or to a particular insect that is really fascinating. It is a veritable paradise for naturalists - not only do plants seem to grow on next to nothing, but all the organisms have survived the comings and goings of woodland, the multiple mouths of grazing animals and the passage of several civilisations over 6,000 years. How they have persisted in such exuberance and diversity is a testament to their past evolution and to the gene complement that they have accumulated over several million years previously, allowing them to adapt to a multitude of different conditions. In this timely addition to the New Naturalist Library, the authors examine the ecology of the Burren, delving into the history of its exploration. One of the overriding concerns is the impact of tourism, which has been accelerated and stimulated by the promotion of the Wild Atlantic Way in recent years. Its impact is currently being addressed by the Geopark LIFE project, along with other tourism-related issues. Any future expansion of the Burren National Park, coupled with more vigilant, but judicious, land management, would have potential to enhance the protection of biodiversity. As `the jewel in the ecological crown of Ireland', the area must be imaginatively protected and managed for our present and future generations.
This Handbook presents state-of-the-art methodological guidance and discussion of international practice related to the integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services in impact assessment, featuring contributions from leading researchers and practitioners the world over. Its multidisciplinary approach covers contributions across five continents to broaden the scope of the field both thematically and geographically. A multifaceted variety of case studies provide examples of the use of information on biodiversity and ecosystem services in different types of impact assessment to improve decisions at all levels, from strategic choices to individual projects. In addition to its discussion of how biodiversity and ecosystem services can improve the salience and effectiveness of impact assessment, this Handbook presents a range of applications and possible solutions to challenges in key policy and planning sectors, including urban development, land use, energy, marine areas, infrastructure, agriculture, forestry, health and tourism. This Handbook's combination of cutting-edge literature and methodological guidance supports researchers, practitioners and students in developing and implementing biodiversity and ecosystem services-inclusive impact assessment processes, which can contribute to better decisions about the use of our lands and waters. As such, it will appeal not only to scholars of impact assessment but of environmental sciences, environmental engineering, natural sciences, planning and economics as well.
This book presents a review of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the interactions between biodiversity and wind energy development, focused on the Portuguese reality. The volume addresses the particularities of the impact assessment procedures in Portugal, contrasting it with the international practices and presenting its main findings by covering the following broader themes: i) evaluation of spatial and temporal dynamics of wildlife affected by wind farms, including birds, bats and terrestrial mammals (in particularly Portuguese wolf population); ii) the methodologies used to assess impacts caused by this type of developments in biodiversity; iii) the best practice methodologies to implement an adaptive management approach to reconcile biodiversity and wind farms. The knowledge presented in this book was gathered through the research and development activities developed by Bioinsight company (former Bio3 company) during the last 13 years and partially funded by a R&D project designated as "Integrated solutions for biodiversity management at wind farms: reduce and compensate bird and bat mortality" (acronym: Wind & Biodiversity), co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), under the Regional Operational Programme of Centre (Mais Centro). This volume fills a void in the literature as a book giving insights on the best practices to install and manage a wind farm from a biodiversity management point of view, while establishing a commitment between economic sustainability and biodiversity conservation.
Where do camels belong? In the Arab world may seem the obvious answer, but they are relative newcomers there. They evolved in North America, retain their greatest diversity in South America, and the only remaining wild dromedaries are in Australia. This is a classic example of the contradictions of 'native' and 'invasive' species, a hot issue right now, as the flip-side of biodiversity. We have all heard the horror stories of invasives, from Japanese knotweed that puts fear into the heart of gardeners to brown tree snakes that have taken over the island of Guam. But do we need to fear invaders? And indeed, can we control them, and do we choose the right targets? Ken Thompson puts forward a fascinating array of narratives to explore what he sees as the crucial question - why only a minority of introduced species succeed, and why so few of them go on to cause trouble. He discusses, too, whether our fears could be getting in the way of conserving biodiversity, and responding to the threat of climate change.
Global Biodiversity Finance sets out the case for scaling up Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) at the international level. The book explores how International Payments for Ecosystem Services (IPES) can help capture the global willingness-to-pay for biodiversity, and how the resulting revenues can be used efficiently to encourage conservation and the sustainable supply of ecosystem services, on which we all depend. This timely volume includes examples of promising initiatives from around the world, supporting an agenda for action to make IPES a reality. Key questions addressed in this volume include: * Which ecosystem services are most likely to attract voluntary international payments? * How can we assess the international demand for particular ecosystem services? * How can potential importers of intangible ecosystem services ensure they receive value for money? * What is needed to become a competitive exporter of ecosystem services? * What kind of brokering and other services are needed to facilitate agreements between importers and exporters of ecosystem services? * What examples exist of international payments for ecosystem services, and what do they tell us about the potential for scaling up IPES? Researchers, teachers, policy makers, civil servants and technical staff of NGOs working at the interface between business and nature should find much useful material in this book.
This book offers a comprehensive account of India's four biodiversity hotspots: the Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. With a focus on tropical rainforests, it includes more than 30 chapters covering different vertebrate fauna e.g. fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, as well as topics such as conservation and management aspects. Written by experts in the field of biodiversity conservation and management, it offers ample new insights into a number of subjects related to the faunal communities of tropical forest ecosystems, providing a valuable resource for conservationists and researchers in the field of flora and fauna diversity.
The capacity of mixed forests to mitigate climate change effects by increasing resilience and lowering risks is pinpointed as an opportunity to highlight the role of tree species rich forests as part of complex socio-ecological systems. This book updates and presents the state-of-the-art of mixed forest performance in terms of regeneration, growth, yield and delivery of ecosystem services. Examples from more than 20 countries in Europe, North Africa and South America provide insights on the interplay between structure and functionining, stability, silviculture and optimization of management of this type of forests. The book also analyses the role of natural mixed forests and mixed plantations in the delivery of ecosystem services and the best modelling strategy to study mixed forest dynamics. The book is intended to serve as a reference tool for students, researchers and professionals concerned about the management of mixed forests in a context of social and environmental change.
This work is a comprehensive information on the indigenous bioresources of North Eastern India with the scope of bioprospecting for discovery and commercialization of new sources and products and long-term ecological balance. The exploration, conservation and sustainable utilization of bioresources of world's Megabiodiversity Hotspots are undeniable. North Eastern India is a recognised biodiversity hot spot where the evolutionary forces are at its optimum, making this region as centre of origin for many species. Although little bit exploratory studies have been conducted in this part of the globe but a scientific exploitation of the bioresources is almost lacking. Unscientific exploitation and overexploitation without proper knowledge of the bioresources may lead to imbalanced ecosystem of this mega diversity region. At the same time, very less exploration and exploitation will hamper biodiversity based development. Today, unscientific dramatic changes are underway in this region. Human activities are changing, degrading and destroying the bioresources in an unplanned manner. Scientific bioprospecting of the bioresources will boost the economy while ensuring conservation. This book offers comprehensive information about various levels of bioprospecting of the gene pool of this Indo-Burma Mega Biodiversity Hot Spot, the North East India, which is endowed with huge biodiversity potential for exploration and exploitation for the benefit of humankind. Also, this book highlights the less and merely explored part of the indigenous biodiversity of North East India with explanation towards their better sustainable exploitation for benefit of the people, economy and environment. The novelty of the book lies in expert coverage of the bioresources of this mega-diverse region including plants, microbes, insects etc. with provisions for their sustainable scientific utilization. This book portrays North East India as a melting pot of bioresources which are little explored and also those resources which are still to be explored. The book mainly highlights the bioprospecting approaches for North East Indian bioresources, and thus, it make itself a unique one in filling the knowledge gap that is there regarding the bioprospecting of the biodiversity of this special region on the earth. The book concludes by the ecotourism potential of this region. The target audiences for this book include biodiversity economists who are working on technology and bioresource management issues, and especially on biotechnology and biodiversity, development economists addressing the issues of bioresources in developing countries. These people may be in academia, in government, in non-governmental organizations and in private companies. The other target audiences group is policy scholars in government/public sectors who are interested in issues of biotechnology, IPRs, and biodiversity. In addition, scholars/experts in both development studies and resource management studies form another group of target audiences. Also, the book will be useful for the interaction between developed and developing nations regarding the issues of biodiversity and bioprospecting, as North Eastern India is the hub of Biodiversity.
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